14,044 results match your criteria ketone body


Comparative analysis of ketone body metabolism in BALB/c mice infected with Trypanosoma evansi and Toxoplasma gondii.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Dec 20;143:134-141. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Key Laboratory of Livestock Infectious Diseases, Ministry of Education, China; College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China. Electronic address:

KBs (ketone bodies), i.e., acetoacetate, acetone, and (R)-3-Hydroxybutanoate, constitute the intermediate products of the incomplete oxidative degradation of fatty acids. Read More

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December 2021

The effect of a low carbohydrate ketogenic diet with or without exercise on postpartum weight retention, metabolic profile and physical activity performance in postpartum mice.

J Nutr Biochem 2022 Jan 8:108941. Epub 2022 Jan 8.

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Kainan University, Taoyuan 33857, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Objective: the present study examined the effect of the isocaloric low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD) with or without exercise training for 6 weeks on postpartum weight retention (PPWR), body composition, metabolic profile and physical activity performance in postpartum mice.

Methods: postpartum mice were assigned to 4 groups (n=8/group) as follows: (1) those on a control diet without aerobic exercise (CN); (2) those on a control diet with aerobic exercise (CN+EX), (3); those on a LCKD without aerobic exercise (LCKD); (4) those on a LCKD with aerobic exercise (LCKD+EX). CN+EX and LCKD+EX mice performed 6 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill. Read More

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January 2022

Integration of Small RNA and Degradome Sequencing Reveals the Regulatory Network of Al-Induced Programmed Cell Death in Peanut.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Dec 27;23(1). Epub 2021 Dec 27.

National Demonstration Center for Experimental Plant Science Education, College of Agriculture, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China.

Peanut is one of the most important oil crops in the world. In China, the peanut is highly produced in its southern part, in which the arable land is dominated by acid soil. At present, miRNAs have been identified in stress response, but their roles and mechanisms are not clear, and no miRNA studies have been found related to aluminum (Al)-induced programmed cell death (PCD). Read More

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December 2021

Heterologous expression, characterization and evolution prediction of a diaphorase from Geobacillus sp. Y4.1MC1.

Biotechnol Lett 2022 Jan 10. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin, 300457, China.

β-hydroxybutyric acid is the most sensitive indicator in ketoacidosis detection, and accounts for nearly 78% of the ketone bodies. Diaphorase is commonly used to detect the β-hydroxybutyric acid in clinical diagnosis. However, the extraction of diaphorase from animal myocardium is complex and low-yield, which is not convenient for large-scale production. Read More

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January 2022

Epigenetic inactivation of ACAT1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Genes Genomics 2022 Jan 5. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of High-Incidence-Tumor Prevention and Treatment (Guangxi Medical University), Nanning, China.

Background: Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) is a key enzyme catalyzing the production of mitochondrial ketone bodies. We have shown that ACAT1 is down-regulated in kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) previously.

Objective: To investigate the reasons for downregulation of ACAT1 in KIRC and explore the underlying mechanisms involved in metastatic inhibition regulated by ACAT1. Read More

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January 2022

Continuous-flow reactor setup for operando x-ray absorption spectroscopy of high pressure heterogeneous liquid-solid catalytic processes.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Dec;92(12):124101

Institute for Micro Process Engineering, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 76344, Germany.

A continuous-flow reactor and a continuous-flow setup compatible with operando x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) were designed for safely studying liquid-phase reactions on solid high atomic number transition metal catalysts (e.g., Au, Pd, and Pt) under pressures up to 100 bars with temperatures up to 100 °C. Read More

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December 2021

The role of SLC transporters for brain health and disease.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 Dec 31;79(1):20. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117596, Singapore.

The brain exchanges nutrients and small molecules with blood via the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Approximately 20% energy intake for the body is consumed by the brain. Glucose is known for its critical roles for energy production and provides substrates for biogenesis in neurons. Read More

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December 2021

The Effect of Ketogenic Diet on Inflammatory Arthritis and Cardiovascular Health in Rheumatic Conditions: A Mini Review.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 14;8:792846. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Medicine and Rheumatology Unit, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy.

The principle of ketogenic diet (KD) is restriction of carbohydrates to a maximum of 5-10% of the total daily caloric intake, aiming at shifting body metabolism toward ketone bodies. Different studies suggested promising results of KD to help patients to lose weight, to reduce insulin requirements in diabetes, to supplement cancer protocols, to treat neurological conditions and to optimize control of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, literature about the anti-inflammatory properties of KD in rheumatic diseases is still limited. Read More

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December 2021

Ketone Bodies Impact on Hypoxic CO Retention Protocol During Exercise.

Front Physiol 2021 13;12:780755. Epub 2021 Dec 13.

Human Healthspan, Resilience, and Performance, Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, Pensacola, FL, United States.

Exogenous ketone esters have demonstrated the capacity to increase oxygen availability during acute hypoxic exposure leading to the potential application of their use to mitigate performance declines at high altitudes. Voluntary hypoventilation (VH) with exercise reliably reduces oxygen availability and increases carbon dioxide retention without alterations to ambient pressure or gas content. Utilizing a double-blind randomized crossover design, fifteen recreational male distance runners performed submaximal exercise (4 × 5 min; 70% VO Max) with VH. Read More

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December 2021

Timing of Meals and Exercise Affects Hormonal Control of Glucoregulation, Insulin Resistance, Substrate Metabolism, and Gastrointestinal Hormones, but Has Little Effect on Appetite in Postmenopausal Women.

Nutrients 2021 Dec 1;13(12). Epub 2021 Dec 1.

School of Kinesiology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

The current prevalence of obesity in the US is strongly associated with excessive food intake and insufficient physical activity. This study examined whether changing the timing of exercise before or after two daily meals could alter human appetite for food. Fifty-four healthy postmenopausal women were matched by body weight and assigned to two groups: (1) two bouts of 2-h moderate-intensity exercise ending one hour before each weight-maintenance meal (XM, = 23), (2) two-hour moderate-intensity exercise starting 1 h after each weight-maintenance meal (MX, = 23), and one sedentary control (SED) arm ( = 8). Read More

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December 2021

Integrated Wearable Sensors for Sensing Physiological Pressure Signals and β-Hydroxybutyrate in Physiological Fluids.

Anal Chem 2021 Dec 27. Epub 2021 Dec 27.

State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022, P. R. China.

Flexible and wearable sensors have attracted much attention for their applications in health monitoring and the human-machine interaction. The most studied wearable sensors have been demonstrated for sensing a limited range of metabolites such as ions, glucose, uric acid, lactate, etc. Both sweat and urine contain numerous other physiologically relevant metabolites indicative of health and wellness. Read More

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December 2021

Role of ketone bodies in diabetes-induced dementia: sirtuins, insulin resistance, synaptic plasticity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neurotransmitter.

Nutr Rev 2021 Dec 27. Epub 2021 Dec 27.

Department of Anatomy, Chonnam National University Medical School, Hwasun, Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea.

Patients with type 2 diabetes can have several neuropathologies, such as memory deficits. Recent studies have focused on the association between metabolic imbalance and neuropathological problems, and the associated molecular pathology. Diabetes triggers neuroinflammation, impaired synaptic plasticity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insulin resistance in the brain. Read More

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December 2021

Effect of Continuous Subcutaneous Injection of Insulin Analogues in Pregnant Women with Diabetes Mellitus Complicated with Ketoacidosis.

J Healthc Eng 2021 15;2021:8670474. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Endocrinology Department, Huzhou Central Hospital, Affiliated Central Hospital Huzhou University, Huzhou, China.

Objective: To investigate the clinical effect of continuous subcutaneous injection of insulin analogues in pregnant women with diabetes mellitus complicated with ketoacidosis.

Methods: A total of 92 pregnant patients with diabetes mellitus complicated with ketoacidosis from June 2014 to January 2021 were selected. All patients were randomly divided into an observation group and control group according to the method of random number. Read More

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December 2021

Acetoacetate is a trigger of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2021 Dec 17;244:110370. Epub 2021 Dec 17.

Department of Animal Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0034, Japan. Electronic address:

Repeat breeding, which is non-pregnancy following three or more breeding attempts, is a serious reproductive disorder in cattle. In the present study, metabolomic profiling was used to identify metabolites in the blood plasma of repeat breeder cows (RBCs) and non-RBCs. Metabolomic analysis showed that acetoacetate (AcAc), a ketone body, was detected in RBCs, but not in non-RBCs. Read More

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December 2021

Ketone Body Metabolism in the Ischemic Heart.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 7;8:789458. Epub 2021 Dec 7.

Heart and Muscle Metabolism Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Physiology, Ursinus College, Collegeville, PA, United States.

Ketone bodies have been identified as an important, alternative fuel source in heart failure. In addition, the use of ketone bodies as a fuel source has been suggested to be a potential ergogenic aid for endurance exercise performance. These findings have certainly renewed interest in the use of ketogenic diets and exogenous supplementation in an effort to improve overall health and disease. Read More

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December 2021

Metabolite G-Protein Coupled Receptors in Cardio-Metabolic Diseases.

Cells 2021 11 29;10(12). Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Medicine Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Research Laboratory, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO 80204, USA.

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have originally been described as a family of receptors activated by hormones, neurotransmitters, and other mediators. However, in recent years GPCRs have shown to bind endogenous metabolites, which serve functions other than as signaling mediators. These receptors respond to fatty acids, mono- and disaccharides, amino acids, or various intermediates and products of metabolism, including ketone bodies, lactate, succinate, or bile acids. Read More

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November 2021

A Pilot Study on the H-NMR Serum Metabolic Profile of Takotsubo Patients Reveals Systemic Response to Oxidative Stress.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Dec 13;10(12). Epub 2021 Dec 13.

Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", 00133 Rome, Italy.

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) presents as an acute coronary syndrome characterized by severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and non-obstructive coronary artery disease that typically shows spontaneous recovery within days or weeks. The mechanisms behind TTS are mainly related to beta-adrenergic overstimulation and acute endogenous catecholamine surge, both of which could increase oxidative status that may induce further deterioration of cardiac function. Although several studies reported evidence of inflammation and oxidative stress overload in myocardial tissue of TTS models, systemic biochemical evidence of augmented oxidant activity in patients with TTS is lacking. Read More

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December 2021

Cardiac Metabolism and Contractile Function in Mice with Reduced Trans-Endothelial Fatty Acid Transport.

Metabolites 2021 Dec 19;11(12). Epub 2021 Dec 19.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-Machi, Maebashi 371-8511, Gunma, Japan.

The heart is a metabolic omnivore that combusts a considerable amount of energy substrates, mainly long-chain fatty acids (FAs) and others such as glucose, lactate, ketone bodies, and amino acids. There is emerging evidence that muscle-type continuous capillaries comprise the rate-limiting barrier that regulates FA uptake into cardiomyocytes. The transport of FAs across the capillary endothelium is composed of three major steps-the lipolysis of triglyceride on the luminal side of the endothelium, FA uptake by the plasma membrane, and intracellular FA transport by cytosolic proteins. Read More

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December 2021

Therapeutic Ketosis Decreases Methacholine Hyperresponsiveness in Mouse Models of Inherent Obese Asthma.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 Dec 22. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Disease and Critical Care, University of Vermont, and The Vermont Lung Center, Burlington, VT, United States.

Obese asthmatics tend to have severe, poorly controlled disease and exhibit methacholine hyperresponsiveness manifesting in proximal airway narrowing and distal lung tissue collapsibility. Substantial weight loss in obese asthmatics or in mouse models of the condition decreases methacholine hyperresponsiveness. Ketone bodies are rapidly elevated during weight loss, coinciding with or preceding relief from asthma-related comorbidities. Read More

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December 2021

Comparative transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis reveals pectoralis highland adaptation across altitudinal songbirds.

Integr Zool 2021 Dec 21. Epub 2021 Dec 21.

Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Pectoralis phenotypic variation plays a fundamental role in locomotion and thermogenesis in highland birds. However, its regulatory and metabolic mechanisms remain enigmatic to date. Here, we integrated phenomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic approaches to determine muscle variation and its underpinning mechanisms across altitudinal songbirds. Read More

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December 2021

Maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5, presenting as diabetic ketoacidosis with alkalemia: A report of a case.

J Diabetes Investig 2021 Dec 20. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medical Sciences and Medical School, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Japan.

A 34-year-old man visited our Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan, because of dry mouth and weight loss. His plasma glucose level was 32.8 mmol/L and serum levels of ketone bodies were increased, but with metabolic alkalemia. Read More

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December 2021

A tale of two systems: Lessons learned from female mid-life aging with implications for Alzheimer's prevention & treatment.

Ageing Res Rev 2022 Feb 17;74:101542. Epub 2021 Dec 17.

Center for Innovation in Brain Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA. Electronic address:

Neurological aging is frequently viewed as a linear process of decline, whereas in reality, it is a dynamic non-linear process. The dynamic nature of neurological aging is exemplified during midlife in the female brain. To investigate fundamental mechanisms of midlife aging that underlie risk for development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in late life, we investigated the brain at greatest risk for the disease, the aging female brain. Read More

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February 2022

A ketogenic diet attenuates acute and chronic ischemic kidney injury and reduces markers of oxidative stress and inflammation.

Life Sci 2022 Jan 16;289:120227. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Departamento de Fisiopatología Cardio-Renal, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Ciudad de México 14080, Mexico. Electronic address:

Background: Ischemic kidney injury is a common clinical condition resulting from transient interruption of the kidney's normal blood flow, leading to oxidative stress, inflammation, and kidney dysfunction. The ketogenic diet (KD), a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet that stimulates endogenous ketone body production, has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in distinct tissues and might thus protect the kidney against ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury.

Main Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed a KD or a control diet (CD) for three days before analyzing metabolic parameters or testing nephroprotection. Read More

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January 2022

Examining the Efficacy of a Very-Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet on Cardiovascular Health in Adults with Mildly Elevated Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in an Open-Label Pilot Study.

Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2021 Dec 16. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

KGK Science, Inc., London, Ontario, Canada.

The objective of this open-label pilot study was to investigate the efficacy of a very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (VLCKD), known as Nic's Ketogenic Diet, for 140 days on cardiometabolic markers in healthy adults with mildly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Study assessments were conducted at Day 0, 28, 56, 70, 84, 112, and 140, and weight and blood pressure (BP) were measured and fasting blood was collected for analysis of plasma lipids. A DEXA scan was performed and body mass index recorded on Day 0, 70, and 140. Read More

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December 2021

Nutritional Ketosis as a Potential Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorder.

Front Psychiatry 2021 30;12:781668. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic, relapsing brain disorder, characterized by compulsive alcohol seeking and disrupted brain function. In individuals with AUD, abstinence from alcohol often precipitates withdrawal symptoms than can be life threatening. Here, we review evidence for nutritional ketosis as a potential means to reduce withdrawal and alcohol craving. Read More

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November 2021

Identification of Gm15441, a Txnip antisense lncRNA, as a critical regulator in liver metabolic homeostasis.

Cell Biosci 2021 Dec 14;11(1):208. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Department of Medical Genetics and Molecular Biochemistry, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 19140, USA.

Background: The majority of mammalian genome is composed of non-coding regions, where numerous long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcribed. Although lncRNAs have been identified to regulate fundamental biological processes, most of their functions remain unknown, especially in metabolic homeostasis. Analysis of our recent genome-wide screen reveals that Gm15441, a thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) antisense lncRNA, is the most robustly induced lncRNA in the fasting mouse liver. Read More

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December 2021

Regulating Polyamine Metabolism by miRNAs in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy.

Curr Diab Rep 2021 Dec 13;21(12):52. Epub 2021 Dec 13.

Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Insulin is at the heart of diabetes mellitus (DM). DM alters cardiac metabolism causing cardiomyopathy, ultimately leading to heart failure. Polyamines, organic compounds synthesized by cardiomyocytes, have an insulin-like activity and effect on glucose metabolism, making them metabolites of interest in the DM heart. Read More

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December 2021

The potential pharmacological mechanisms of β-hydroxybutyrate for improving cognitive functions.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2021 Dec 7;62:15-22. Epub 2021 Dec 7.

Department of Neurology, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences and Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610072, China. Electronic address:

β-Hydroxybutyl acid (βOHB), the most prevalent type of ketone in the human body, is involved in the pathogenesis of cognitive disorders, especially Alzheimer's dementia (AD), through a variety of mechanisms, such as enhancing mitochondrial metabolism, regulating signaling molecule, increasing histone acetylation, affecting the metabolism of Aβ and Tau proteins, inhibiting inflammation and lipid metabolism, and regulating intestinal microbes. Based on the above findings, clinical drug development in AD has begun to focus on βOHB. Read More

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December 2021

Neuroprotection by the Ketogenic Diet: Evidence and Controversies.

Front Nutr 2021 23;8:782657. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.

The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet that has been used for decades as a non-pharmacologic approach to treat metabolic disorders and refractory pediatric epilepsy. In recent years, enthusiasm for the KD has increased in the scientific community due to evidence that the diet reduces pathology and improves various outcome measures in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders, including multiple sclerosis, stroke, glaucoma, spinal cord injury, retinal degenerations, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Clinical trials also suggest that the KD improved quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Read More

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November 2021