4,275 results match your criteria juvenile mice


Altered temporal sequence of transcriptional regulators in the generation of human cerebellar granule cells.

Elife 2021 Nov 29;10. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, Rockefeller University, New York, United States.

Brain development is regulated by conserved transcriptional programs across species, but little is known about divergent mechanisms that create species-specific characteristics. Among brain regions, human cerebellar histogenesis differs in complexity compared with non-human primates and rodents, making it important to develop methods to generate human cerebellar neurons that closely resemble those in the developing human cerebellum. We report a rapid protocol for the derivation of the human ATOH1 lineage, the precursor of excitatory cerebellar neurons, from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC). Read More

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November 2021

Gfi1 Loss Protects against Two Models of Induced Diabetes.

Cells 2021 Oct 20;10(11). Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Faculté des Sciences, Université Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Inserm, iBV, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice, France.

Although several approaches have revealed much about individual factors that regulate pancreatic development, we have yet to fully understand their complicated interplay during pancreas morphogenesis. Gfi1 is transcription factor specifically expressed in pancreatic acinar cells, whose role in pancreas cells fate identity and specification is still elusive. In order to gain further insight into the function of this factor in the pancreas, we generated animals deficient for specifically in the pancreas. Read More

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October 2021

Fine Particulate Matter Induces Childhood Asthma Attacks via Extracellular Vesicle-Packaged Let-7i-5p-Mediated Modulation of the MAPK Signaling Pathway.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Nov 23:e2102460. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of Genetic Toxicology, The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, Center for Global Health, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 211166, China.

Fine particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM ) is a major risk factor for acute asthma attacks in children. However, the biological mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. Read More

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November 2021

Developmental decrease of entorhinal-hippocampal communication in immune-challenged DISC1 knockdown mice.

Nat Commun 2021 Nov 23;12(1):6810. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Institute of Developmental Neurophysiology, Center for Molecular Neurobiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20251, Hamburg, Germany.

The prefrontal-hippocampal dysfunction that underlies cognitive deficits in mental disorders emerges during early development. The lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) is tightly interconnected with both prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HP), yet its contribution to the early dysfunction is fully unknown. Here we show that mice that mimic the dual genetic (G) -environmental (E) etiology (GE mice) of psychiatric risk have poor LEC-dependent recognition memory at pre-juvenile age and abnormal communication within LEC-HP-PFC networks throughout development. Read More

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November 2021

Altered dorsal functional connectivity after post-weaning social isolation and resocialization in mice.

Neuroimage 2021 Nov 19;245:118740. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yang Bun Soon, Yuseong, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea; KAIST Institute for Health Science and Technology, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Social isolation (SI) leads to various mental health disorders. Despite abundant studies on behavioral and neurobiological changes induced by post-weaning SI, the characterization of its imaging correlates, such as resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC), is critically lacking. In addition, the effects of resocialization after isolation remain unclear. Read More

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November 2021

Impact of Prebiotic β-glucan Treatment at Juvenile Age on the Gut Microbiota Composition and the Eventual Type 1 Diabetes Onset in Non-obese Diabetic Mice.

Front Nutr 2021 3;8:769341. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States.

Complex dietary polysaccharides such as β-glucans are widely used for their anti-inflammatory properties. We reported before that oral administration of Yeast β-glucan (YBG) in adult mice can help delay type 1 diabetes (T1D) onset and suppress gut inflammation through modulation of the structure and function of gut microbiota. Since juvenile age is characterized by profoundly changing immature gut microbiota, we examined the impact of oral treatment with YBG in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice at this age. Read More

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November 2021

Age and intraocular pressure in murine experimental glaucoma.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2021 Nov 18:101021. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Retina and Optic Nerve Research Laboratory, Canada; Department of Medical Neuroscience, Canada; Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Canada; Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Canada. Electronic address:

Age and intraocular pressure (IOP) are the two most important risk factors for the development and progression of open-angle glaucoma. While IOP is commonly considered in models of experimental glaucoma (EG), most studies use juvenile or adult animals and seldom older animals which are representative of the human disease. This paper provides a concise review of how retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, the hallmark of glaucoma, can be evaluated in EG with a special emphasis on serial in vivo imaging, a parallel approach used in clinical practice. Read More

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November 2021

Immune and hormonal regulation of the Boa constrictor (Serpentes; Boidae) in response to feeding.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 Nov 16;264:111119. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Instituto de Ciências Ambientais, Químicas e Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Campus Diadema, CEP 09972-270, Diadema, SP, Brazil.

Feeding upregulates immune function and the systemic and local (gastrointestinal tract) concentrations of some immunoregulatory hormones, as corticosterone (CORT) and melatonin (MEL), in mammals and anurans. However, little is known about the immune and hormonal regulation in response to feeding in other ectothermic vertebrates, especially snakes, in which the postprandial metabolic changes are pronounced. Here, we investigated the effects feeding have on hormonal and innate immune responses in the snake, Boa constrictor. Read More

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November 2021

Deficiency of autism risk factor ASH1L in prefrontal cortex induces epigenetic aberrations and seizures.

Nat Commun 2021 11 15;12(1):6589. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, NY, 14203, USA.

ASH1L, a histone methyltransferase, is identified as a top-ranking risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), however, little is known about the biological mechanisms underlying the link of ASH1L haploinsufficiency to ASD. Here we show that ASH1L expression and H3K4me3 level are significantly decreased in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of postmortem tissues from ASD patients. Knockdown of Ash1L in PFC of juvenile mice induces the downregulation of risk genes associated with ASD, intellectual disability (ID) and epilepsy. Read More

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November 2021

Metformin treatment of juvenile mice alters aging-related developmental and metabolic phenotypes.

Mech Ageing Dev 2021 Nov 12;201:111597. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 801 N. Rutledge, P. O. Box 19628, Springfield, IL, 62794-9628, USA. Electronic address:

Accumulating evidence suggests that the influence on developmental traits might have long-term effects on aging and health later in life. Metformin is a widely used drug for treating type 2 diabetes and is also used for delaying sexual maturation in girls with precocious puberty. The current report focuses on investigating the effects of metformin on development and metabolic traits. Read More

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November 2021

SORLA is required for insulin-induced expansion of the adipocyte precursor pool in visceral fat.

J Cell Biol 2021 Dec 15;220(12). Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany.

Visceral adipose tissue shows remarkable plasticity, constantly replacing mature adipocytes from an inherent pool of adipocyte precursors. The number of precursors is set in the juvenile organism and remains constant in adult life. Which signals drive precursor pool expansion in juveniles and why they operate in visceral but not in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) are unclear. Read More

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December 2021

Age Impairs Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase Function in Mouse Mesenteric Arteries.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Oct 22;22(21). Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Institute of Vegetative Physiology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany.

Endothelial dysfunction (ED) comes with age, even without overt vessel damage such as that which occurs in atherosclerosis and diabetic vasculopathy. We hypothesized that aging would affect the downstream signalling of the endothelial nitric oxide (NO) system in the vascular smooth muscle (VSM). With this in mind, resistance mesenteric arteries were isolated from 13-week (juvenile) and 40-week-old (aged) mice and tested under isometric conditions using wire myography. Read More

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October 2021

Exercise attenuates juvenile irradiation-induced skeletal muscle decline by improving calcium handling and decreasing mitochondrial stress.

J Gen Physiol 2022 Sep 12;154(9). Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY.

Proper skeletal muscle development, maintenance, and function is necessary for movement. Decline in muscle function with age and disease is directly associated with a diminished quality of life. Radiation therapy is commonly used to treat certain forms of childhood cancer based on the cytotoxic effects of radiation on cancerous tissue. Read More

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September 2022

Spontaneous pulmonary emphysema in mice lacking all three nitric oxide synthase isoforms.

Sci Rep 2021 Nov 11;11(1):22088. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, Kitakyushu, Japan.

The roles of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) derived from the entire NO synthases (NOSs) system have yet to be fully elucidated. We addressed this issue in mice in which all three NOS isoforms were deleted. Under basal conditions, the triple n/i/eNOSs mice displayed significantly longer mean alveolar linear intercept length, increased alveolar destructive index, reduced lung elastic fiber content, lower lung field computed tomographic value, and greater end-expiratory lung volume as compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Read More

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November 2021

Altered synaptic connectivity and brain function in mice lacking microglial adapter protein Iba1.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Nov;118(46)

Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461

Growing evidence indicates that microglia impact brain function by regulating synaptic pruning and formation as well as synaptic transmission and plasticity. Iba1 (ionized Ca-binding adapter protein 1), encoded by the () gene, is an actin-interacting protein in microglia. Although Iba1 has long been used as a cellular marker for microglia, its functional role remains unknown. Read More

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November 2021

Effects of chronic exposure to bisphenol A in adult female mice on social behavior, vasopressin system, and estrogen membrane receptor (GPER1).

Eur J Histochem 2021 Nov 10;65(s1). Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Neuroscience Institute Cavalieri Ottolenghi (NICO), Orbassano (TO).

Bisphenol A (BPA), an organic synthetic compound found in some plastics and epoxy resins, is classified as an endocrine disrupting chemical. Exposure to BPA is especially dangerous if it occurs during specific "critical periods" of life, when organisms are more sensitive to hormonal changes (i.e. Read More

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November 2021

An Enriched Environment Alters DNA Repair and Inflammatory Responses After Radiation Exposure.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:760322. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Department of Biological Science, College of Sciences, Ibaraki University, Mito, Japan.

After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, there is growing concern about radiation-induced carcinogenesis. In addition, living in a long-term shelter or temporary housing due to disasters might cause unpleasant stress, which adversely affects physical and mental health. It's been experimentally demonstrated that "eustress", which is rich and comfortable, has beneficial effects for health using mouse models. Read More

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October 2021

Sex differences in long-term behavioral alterations, especially anxiety, following prenatal fluoxetine exposure in C57BL/6 mice.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2021 Oct 29;211:173293. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Biology, Emmanuel College, Boston, MA 02115, United States of America.

Evidence demonstrates that psychiatric disorders during pregnancy are detrimental to the offspring. Many disorders are treated with SSRIs and increasing numbers of pregnant women now receive these drugs during gestation. The long-term neurobehavioral consequences of prenatal SSRI exposure require further evaluation. Read More

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October 2021

Restoration of FMRP expression in adult V1 neurons rescues visual deficits in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

Protein Cell 2021 Oct 29. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, PKU-IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China.

Many people affected by fragile X syndrome (FXS) and autism spectrum disorders have sensory processing deficits, such as hypersensitivity to auditory, tactile, and visual stimuli. Like FXS in humans, loss of Fmr1 in rodents also cause sensory, behavioral, and cognitive deficits. However, the neural mechanisms underlying sensory impairment, especially vision impairment, remain unclear. Read More

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October 2021

Brd4 is required for chondrocyte differentiation and endochondral ossification.

Bone 2021 Oct 23;154:116234. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Differentiation of multi-potent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is directed by the activities of lineage-specific transcription factors and co-factors. A subset of these proteins controls the accessibility of chromatin by recruiting histone acetyl transferases or deacetylases that regulate acetylation of the N-termini of H3 and H4 histone proteins. Bromodomain (BRD) proteins recognize these acetylation marks and recruit the RNA pol II containing transcriptional machinery. Read More

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October 2021

Activity of Cerebellar Nuclei Neurons Correlates with ZebrinII Identity of Their Purkinje Cell Afferents.

Cells 2021 10 7;10(10). Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015 AA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Purkinje cells (PCs) in the cerebellar cortex can be divided into at least two main subpopulations: one subpopulation that prominently expresses ZebrinII (Z+), and shows a relatively low simple spike firing rate, and another that hardly expresses ZebrinII (Z-) and shows higher baseline firing rates. Likewise, the complex spike responses of PCs, which are evoked by climbing fiber inputs and thus reflect the activity of the inferior olive (IO), show the same dichotomy. However, it is not known whether the target neurons of PCs in the cerebellar nuclei (CN) maintain this bimodal distribution. Read More

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October 2021

High fat diet causes inferior vertebral structure and function without disc degeneration in RAGE-KO mice.

J Orthop Res 2021 Oct 21. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Leni & Peter W. May Department of Orthopaedics, Mount Sinai Health System, New York, New York, USA.

Back pain and spinal pathologies are associated with obesity in juveniles and adults, yet studies identifying causal relationships are lacking and none investigate sex differences. This study determined if high fat (HF) diet causes structural and functional changes to vertebrae and intervertebral discs (IVDs); if these changes are modulated in mice with systematic ablation for the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE-KO); and if these changes are sex-dependent. Wild-type (WT) and RAGE-KO mice were fed a low fat (LF) or HF diet for 12 weeks starting at 6 weeks, representing the juvenile population. Read More

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October 2021

Tolerance induction by liposomes targeting a single CD8 epitope IGRP in a model of type 1 diabetes is impeded by co-targeting a CD4 islet epitope.

Immunol Cell Biol 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, QLD, Australia.

The autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes is predominantly mediated by CD8 cytotoxic T-cell destruction of islet beta cells, of which islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP) is a dominant target antigen specificity. Previously, we found that a liposome-based antigen-specific immunotherapy encapsulating the CD4 T-cell islet epitope 2.5 together with the nuclear factor-κB inhibitor calcitriol induced regulatory T cells and protected from diabetes in NOD mice. Read More

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October 2021

Functional Restoration following Global Cerebral Ischemia in Juvenile Mice following Inhibition of Transient Receptor Potential M2 (TRPM2) Ion Channels.

Neural Plast 2021 6;2021:8774663. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Hippocampal cell death and cognitive dysfunction are common following global cerebral ischemia across all ages, including children. Most research has focused on preventing neuronal death. Restoration of neuronal function after cell death is an alternative approach (neurorestoration). Read More

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October 2021

mGluR5 Negative Modulators for Fragile X: Treatment Resistance and Persistence.

Front Psychiatry 2021 29;12:718953. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States.

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by silencing of the human gene and is the leading monogenic cause of intellectual disability and autism. Abundant preclinical data indicated that negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) might be efficacious in treating FXS in humans. Initial attempts to translate these findings in clinical trials have failed, but these failures provide the opportunity for new discoveries that will improve future trials. Read More

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September 2021

Prenatal Evaluations: A Prologue to Postnatal Pathology Interpretations.

Authors:
Susan A Elmore

Toxicol Pathol 2021 Dec 15;49(8):1425-1436. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

National Toxicology Program, 6857NIEHS, Comparative and Molecular Pathogenesis Branch, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Animal models are commonly used to investigate the developmental basis of human birth defects. Such models may be used for safety assessment studies designed to reveal xenobiotic-related alterations in juvenile animals, or to investigate gene function or generate models of human disease, as with transgenics. Therefore, the evaluation of rodent embryos and placentas can be used to provide insight into various postnatal abnormalities such as structural or cellular abnormalities and early death. Read More

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December 2021

Occurrence of juvenile Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in three regions in Poland: the final evidence of the conquest.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Oct 14;14(1):536. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Eco-Epidemiology of Parasitic Diseases, Institute of Developmental Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Miecznikowa 1, 02-096, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: Two populations of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (Western and Eastern) in Poland are among the most dynamic tick populations in Central Europe. Expansion and settlement of ticks in new localizations depend on the presence of suitable hosts, for both adult and juvenile ticks.

Methods: The current study was planned to complement our previous studies on questing adult ticks and was focused on a collection of juvenile D. Read More

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October 2021

Bacillus Calmette-Guerin 's beneficial impact on glucose metabolism: evidence for broad based applications.

iScience 2021 Oct 21;24(10):103150. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Immunobiology Laboratories, Boston, MA 02129, USA.

Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccinations improve glycemic control in juvenile-onset Type I diabetes (T1D), an effect driven by restored sugar transport through aerobic glycolysis. In a pilot clinical trial, T1D, but not latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA), exhibited lower blood sugars after multidose BCG. Using a glucose transport assay, monocytes from T1D subjects showed a large stimulation index with BCG exposures; LADA subjects showed minimal BCG-induced sugar responsiveness. Read More

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October 2021

Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Gain-of-Function mPCSK9 Expression in the Mouse Induces Hypercholesterolemia, Monocytosis, Neutrophilia, and a Hypercoagulative State.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 22;8:718741. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Hypercholesterolemia has previously been induced in the mouse by a single intravenous injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vector harboring gain-of-function pro-protein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. Despite the recent emergence of the PCSK9-AAV model, the profile of hematological and coagulation parameters associated with it has yet to be characterized. We injected 1. Read More

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September 2021

A TRPV6 expression atlas for the mouse.

Cell Calcium 2021 Oct 1;100:102481. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Center for Molecular Signaling (PZMS), Saarland University School of Medicine, Homburg, Germany. Electronic address:

The transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (TRPV6) channel is highly Ca-selective and has been implicated in mediating transcellular Ca transport and thus maintaining the Ca balance in the body. To characterize its physiological function(s), a detailed expression profile of the TRPV6 channel throughout the body is essential. Capitalizing on a recently established murine Trpv6-reporter strain, we identified primary TRPV6 channel-expressing cells in an organism-wide manner. Read More

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October 2021