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Gradient activation of speech categories facilitates listeners' recovery from lexical garden paths, but not perception of speech-in-noise.

J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 2021 Apr;47(4):578-595

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences.

Listeners activate speech-sound categories in a gradient way, and this information is maintained and affects activation of items at higher levels of processing (McMurray et al., 2002; Toscano et al., 2010). Read More

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Twofold advantages of face processing with or without visual awareness.

J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Key Laboratory of Brain, Cognition and Education Sciences.

The advantages of face processing over processing items in other object categories have been found in conditions both with and without visual awareness. This study examined the possible mechanisms underlying the advantages of processing visible and invisible faces. Specifically, contributions from face-like configurations and face-specific local attributes were evaluated by comparing perceptual processes of three image types: genuine faces, face-like objects, and non-face-like objects. Read More

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Short-term functional outcome after fast-track primary total knee arthroplasty: analysis of 623 patients.

Acta Orthop 2021 May 12:1-6. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Orthopaedics, Reinier Haga Orthopedisch Centrum, Zoetermeer, the Netherlands.

Background and purpose - Early functional outcome after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been described before, but without focus on the presence of certain functional recovery patterns. We investigated patterns of functional recovery during the first 3 months after TKA and determined characteristics for non-responders in functional outcome.Patients and methods - All primary TKA in a fast-track setting with complete patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) preoperatively, at 6 weeks, and 3 months postoperatively were included. Read More

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Irrelevant features of distractors in intervening visual search tasks cause active visual working memory interference - the more difficult the search task, the more interference it causes.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, 61820, USA.

Visual working memory (VWM) content disrupts visual search performance when there is a singleton in the search array that is similar to the content in VWM, even when this singleton is task irrelevant. Typically, the memory-similar singleton captures attention, which results in slower search performance for memory-similar conditions compared to conditions where memory-similar content is absent. Recently, it has also been shown that VWM content may be affected when memory-similar stimuli are processed. Read More

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Associations between visual hallucinations and impaired visuo-spatial abilities in dementia with Lewy bodies.

Neuropsychology 2021 Mar;35(3):276-284

Cognitive Neurology Unit, Neurological Institute, Tel Aviv Medical Center.

In dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) recurrent visual hallucinations (VH) often coexist or occur consecutively to impaired visual perception. Since in-depth neuropsychological testing is time-consuming, and therefore, not routinely performed in clinical settings, we aimed to explore whether standard cognitive screening tests may be helpful to alert a clinician to the presence of VH in DLB by exploring association between visuo-spatial dysfunction and VH. The clock drawing, cube, and pentagons copying items from Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Mini-Mental State Exam and nonmotor Hooper visual organization test (HVOT) have been scored in DLB patients with and without VH using traditional and extended scoring methods. Read More

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The Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Improving Pain and Function for Lateral Epicondylitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis with Risk-of-Bias Assessment.

Arthroscopy 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of PRP for lateral epicondylitis and evaluate its impact on pain and functional outcomes.

Methods: This study followed Preferred Reporting Items and Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in September 2019 and repeated in April 2020 using electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library. Read More

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Investigations of plastic contamination of seawater, marine and coastal sediments in the Russian seas: a review.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Sevastopol, 299011, Russia.

Twelve seas with an integral coastline length of about 38,000 km wash upon the Russian coasts. They belong to the basins of the Atlantic, the Arctic, and the Pacific Oceans and stretch over temperate, subpolar, and polar climate zones. This review of 32 studies published between 2015 and August 2020 analyses the available peer-reviewed scientific publications related to the topic of plastic contamination. Read More

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Educational Value of Endoscopic Versus Microscopic Ear Surgery.

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2021 May 6:34894211012600. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons and Columbia University Irving Medical Center/NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

Objective: To compare the educational value of endoscopic ear surgery versus microscopic ear surgery among medical students.

Methods: Medical students anonymously completed a cross-sectional survey immediately after observing endoscopic or microscopic ear surgery. A Likert scale (1 = worst, 5 = best) was used to analyze variables across 3 domains including: (1) area of interest visibility, (2) optical quality, (3) education and understanding. Read More

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The Predation Game: Does dividing attention affect patterns of human foraging?

Cogn Res Princ Implic 2021 May 6;6(1):35. Epub 2021 May 6.

Faculty of Psychology, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Oddi v. Sturlugötu, 101, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Attention is known to play an important role in shaping the behaviour of both human and animal foragers. Here, in three experiments, we built on previous interactive tasks to create an online foraging game for studying divided attention in human participants exposed to the (simulated) risk of predation. Participants used a "sheep" icon to collect items from different target categories randomly distributed across the display. Read More

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Environmental features contributing to falls in persons with vision impairment: The role of home lighting and home hazards.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, 600 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21287; Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Glaucoma Division, 243 Charles Street, Boston, MA 02114.

Purpose: To evaluate whether home hazards and lighting levels are associated with higher fall rates in adults with varying degrees of visual field (VF) damage from glaucoma.

Methods: Participants with diagnosed or suspected glaucoma provided three years of prospective falls data via monthly falls diaries. Fall locations were determined via post-fall phone questionnaire. Read More

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Comprehension and Recall of Information about Factors Associated to Peri-Implantitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Periodontol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERSP), Madrid, Spain; Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública, Granada, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, Granada, Spain.

Aim: To evaluate the effect of different communication strategies on comprehension and recall of information about factors associated to peri-implantitis.

Material And Methods: A prospective, randomized controlled trial was conducted in consecutive patients diagnosed with peri-implantitis. The sample was divided into three groups according to the communication strategy used: Test group - Written communication via leaflet with visual aids (L-VA); Test group - Written communication via leaflet with no visual aids (L-NVA); and control group - only verbal communication with no leaflet (NL). Read More

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The Effectiveness of Acupuncture on Headache Intensity and Frequency in Patients With Tension-Type Headache: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Cureus 2021 Apr 1;13(4):e14237. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Physical Therapy, University Hospital, University of West Attica, Athens, GRC.

Introduction Headache disorders are one of the most common health problems. Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most prevalent type of primary headache in adults. Several conservative treatments have been used for the management of TTH, such as analgesics, acupuncture, manual therapy, spinal mobilization. Read More

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Multisensory visuo-tactile context learning enhances the guidance of unisensory visual search.

Sci Rep 2021 May 3;11(1):9439. Epub 2021 May 3.

Allgemeine Und Experimentelle Psychologie, Department Psychologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Leopoldstr. 13, 80802, München, Germany.

Does multisensory distractor-target context learning enhance visual search over and above unisensory learning? To address this, we had participants perform a visual search task under both uni- and multisensory conditions. Search arrays consisted of one Gabor target that differed from three homogeneous distractors in orientation; participants had to discriminate the target's orientation. In the multisensory session, additional tactile (vibration-pattern) stimulation was delivered to two fingers of each hand, with the odd-one-out tactile target and the distractors co-located with the corresponding visual items in half the trials; the other half presented the visual array only. Read More

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Attentional blink in preverbal infants.

Cognition 2021 Apr 30;214:104749. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Psychology, Hokkaido University, N10 W7, Kita, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810, Japan.

Primary cognitive processes, such as spatial attention, are essential to our higher cognitive abilities and develop dramatically in the first year of life. The spatial aspect of infants' working memory is equivalent to that of adults. However, it is unclear whether this is true for the temporal domain. Read More

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Agreement between the newly developed OCT glaucoma staging system and the standardized visual field glaucoma staging system 2.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 May 2:11206721211014378. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Ophthalmology, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt.

Purpose: The purpose of this research was to assess the agreement between the new optical coherence tomography (OCT) glaucoma staging system (GSS) and the visual field (VF) GSS 2 (GSS2).

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 161 eyes of 110 patients with controlled primary openangle glaucoma (POAG). All eyes were subjected to VF examination using standard automated perimetry and Humphrey field analyzer II 750. Read More

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A rapid and non-destructive ATR-FTIR spectroscopy method supported by chemometrics for discriminating between facial creams and the classification into herbal and non-herbal brands.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Apr 17;258:119803. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Institute of Forensic Science & Criminology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India. Electronic address:

Facial creams are considered to be essential beauty items and are used by both females and males on an everyday basis. These can be encountered as an evidentiary material in criminal investigations, particularly in cases related to sexual and physical assaults against women. These are found in trace amounts and therefore their analysis is difficult and also, it must be through non-destructive methods. Read More

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Do our eyes mirror our thought patterns? A study on the influence of convergent and divergent thinking on eye movement.

Psychol Res 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Psychology, Sikkim University, 6th Miles, Samadur, Gangtok, Sikkim, India.

Research indicates that deliberate thinking and eye movements are related. However, how various thought processes influence eye movements is not explored well. The present research examined the role of convergent and divergent thinking in eye movement. Read More

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Screening for distress, related problems and perceived need for psycho-oncological support in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients: a retrospective cohort study.

BMC Cancer 2021 Apr 30;21(1):478. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: In different cancer entities, several studies have shown the adverse effects of cancer on mental health, psychological well-being and the increased risk of high emotional distress in cancer patients. This study aims to analyze psychosocial distress levels and their relationship between sociodemographic parameters and selected items on the Distress Thermometer (DT) Problem List in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients.

Patients And Methods: We assessed a total of 120 HNSCC patients using the Distress Thermometer (DT) Problem List. Read More

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Current Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice among Health Care Providers in OSCC Awareness: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 23;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Oral Medicine Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy.

OSCC remain a global health problem. Lack of awareness leads to inadequate watchfulness regarding early signs/symptoms despite the ease of visual oral inspection. What clinicians know and feel, and how they behave on OSCC is crucial to understand the feasibility and effectiveness of screening programs. Read More

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Association between Dietary Fibre Intake and Colorectal Adenoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 15;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Medicine, University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, 20132 Milan, Italy.

PubMed/Medline, Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE) and Scopus were searched in January 2021 in order to retrieve evidence assessing the association between dietary fibre intake and the risk of colorectal adenoma in adults. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used for the reporting of results. Only primary observational studies were included. Read More

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A cross-sectional study of the upper limb non-neurogenic physical findings in computer operators and their relation to pain and neurological findings.

Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Hospital South West Jutland, Esbjerg, Denmark (Department of Occupational Medicine).

Objectives: The character of upper limb disorders in computer operators is subject to debate. While nerve involvement is suggested by the presence of pain, paresthesia and subjective weakness, these symptoms are mainly interpreted as related to pathologies outside the nervous system. Findings in a previous study involving computer operators indicated peripheral nerve afflictions with specific locations in symptomatic subjects. Read More

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Clinical efficacy and acceptability of panretinal photocoagulation combined with conbercept for patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(17):e25611

Department of Ophthalmology, Qingdao Aier Eye Hospital, Shandong, China.

Background: Although conbercept has been used for other diseases associated with new vascular formation, the effect of single-dose conbercept in combination with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) have not been established. We thus conducted this protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and acceptability of panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) associated with intravitreal conbercept injections versus PRP alone in the treatment of patients with PDR.

Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols reporting guidelines and the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration were followed to conduct this study. Read More

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Stability analysis of clustering of Norris' visual analogue scale: Applying the consensus clustering approach.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(17):e25363

Centre for Human Drug Research.

Abstract: Visual analogue scales are widely used to measure subjective responses. Norris' 16 visual analogue scales (N_VAS) measure subjective feelings of alertness and mood. Up to now, different scientists have clustered items of N_VAS into different ways and Bond and Lader's way has been the most frequently used in clinical research. Read More

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Free-recall benefit, inhomogeneity and between-item interference in working memory.

Cognition 2021 Apr 23;214:104739. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Center for Brain and Mental Well-being, Department of Psychology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; Peng Cheng Laboratory, Shenzhen, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Brain Functional Genomics, Shanghai Changning-ECNU Mental Health Center, School of Psychology and Cognitive Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China; NYU-ECNU Institute of Brain and Cognitive Science, NYU Shanghai and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

We investigated visual working memory (VWM) with a whole-report task, where participants were asked to sequentially recall all the items in an order either chosen by themselves (free recall) or randomly chosen by the computer (forced recall). Comparisons between free and forced recalls helped us understand important but largely neglected aspects of VWM, such as inhomogeneity (different levels of precision) and between-item interference. One unique part of our task was the introduction of a separate item-selection stage before each recall, during which participants located the next item to recall. Read More

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The presence of semantic content in a visual recognition memory task reduces the severity of neglect.

Neuropsychologia 2021 Apr 24;157:107860. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Neurobiology Department, The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 91904, Israel; The Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 91904, Israel.

Patients with right hemisphere damage often show a lateral bias when asked to report the left side of mental images held in visual working memory (i.e. representational neglect). Read More

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Diet and trophic position of two mackerel species in the archipelago of Madeira, Portugal.

J Fish Biol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

entre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Lisboa, Portugal.

The Atlantic chub mackerel Scomber colias and the Blue jack mackerel Trachurus picturatus are two abundant species in the Macaronesia region which include the archipelago of Madeira, Portugal. Both are key species in the trophic web, being important prey for several local top predators, such as seabirds and marine mammals. However, little is known about their feeding ecology in oceanic environments. Read More

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Platelet-Rich Plasma Versus Corticosteroid Injection for Lumbar Spondylosis and Sacroiliac Arthropathy: A Systematic Review of Comparative Studies.

Cureus 2021 Mar 23;13(3):e14062. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, USA.

This systematic review compares clinical outcomes between platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and corticosteroid injections for the treatment of lumbar spondylosis and sacroiliac arthropathy. A systematic review was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) and performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines using the Pubmed, SCOPUS, and Ovid MEDLINE databases. All level I-III evidence comparative studies published in the English language investigating the clinical outcomes between PRP and corticosteroid injections for the treatment of lumbar spondylosis and sacroiliac arthropathy were included. Read More

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Translation, cultural adaptation, and evaluation of the psychometric properties of an Arabic diabetes distress scale: A cross sectional study from Saudi Arabia.

Saudi Med J 2021 May;42(5):509-516

From the Department of Family and Community Medicine (Batais); From the Department of Psychiatry (Alosaimi); and from the College of Medicine (AlYahya, Aloofi, Almashouq, Alshehri, Alfraiji), King Saud University Medical City, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: To translate, validate, and adapt the diabetes distress scale (DDS)-17 to a Saudi Arabian (SA) DDS (SADDS-17). Also, to evaluate the psychometric properties of the newly adapted SADDS-17.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study evaluating the psychometric properties of the DDS. Read More

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Using change scores on the vestibular ocular motor screening (VOMS) tool to identify concussion in adolescents.

Appl Neuropsychol Child 2021 Apr 24:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, UPMC Sports Medicine Concussion Program, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objective: To develop clinical cutoffs using change scores for the VOMS individual items and an overall VOMS change score that identified concussion in adolescent athletes.

Methods: Change score clinical cutoffs were calculated from a sample of adolescents (13-18 years) with SRC (147) and a sample of uninjured adolescents CONTROL (147). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, with area under the curve (AUC), based on Youden's statistic were used to identify optimal cutoffs for identifying SRC from CONTROLS using VOMS individual item change scores, an overall VOMS change scores, and NPC distance (cm). Read More

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Core knowledge of geometry can develop independently of visual experience.

Cognition 2021 Apr 23;212:104716. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Medical Neurobiology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Hadassah Ein-Kerem, Jerusalem, Israel; The Baruch Ivcher Institute For Brain, Cognition & Technology, The Baruch Ivcher School of Psychology, Interdisciplinary Center (IDC), Herzeliya, Israel; The Cognitive Science Program, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Geometrical intuitions spontaneously drive visuo-spatial reasoning in human adults, children and animals. Is their emergence intrinsically linked to visual experience, or does it reflect a core property of cognition shared across sensory modalities? To address this question, we tested the sensitivity of blind-from-birth adults to geometrical-invariants using a haptic deviant-figure detection task. Blind participants spontaneously used many geometric concepts such as parallelism, right angles and geometrical shapes to detect intruders in haptic displays, but experienced difficulties with symmetry and complex spatial transformations. Read More

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