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Modeling myelin: A toolkit for exploring myelin's mysteries in vitro.

Dev Cell 2021 May;56(9):1215-1217

Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:

In the myelin field, there is a lack of reliable in vitro tools to study myelination, especially using human cells. In this issue of Developmental Cell, James et al. present a guide to generating human iPSC-derived "myelinoids"-3D models of myelination that reliably achieve mature myelin formation. Read More

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Activation of TOR signaling by diverse nitrogen signals in plants.

Dev Cell 2021 May;56(9):1213-1214

Department of Plant Biology, Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Growth control in eukaryotes depends on the TOR kinase, which integrates energy and nutrient signals. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Liu et al. demonstrate that, in plants, inorganic nitrogen and amino acids activate TOR via the GTPase ROP2 to promote cell proliferation and leaf growth in the shoot. Read More

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Epigenetic states in the human placenta: A singular epigenome for an exceptional tissue.

Bluma J Lesch

Dev Cell 2021 May;56(9):1211-1212

Department of Genetics and Yale Cancer Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Electronic address:

The placenta is a dynamic, short-lived organ, and many features of its epigenome are unique among human tissues. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Zhang et al. define new aspects of epigenetic regulation in normal and disease-associated placental cells and relate them to the specialized biological requirements of this organ. Read More

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Novel Lignin-Capped Silver Nanoparticles against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Faculty of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada.

The emergence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics and the resulting infections are increasingly becoming a public health issue. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are responsible for infections leading to increased morbidity and mortality in hospitals, prolonged time of hospitalization, and additional burden to financial costs. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel antibacterial agents that will both treat MDR infections and outsmart the bacterial evolutionary mechanisms, preventing further resistance development. Read More

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COVID-19-related coagulopathy: a review of pathophysiology and pharmaceutical management.

Cell Biol Int 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Hematology and Blood Banking, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

December 2019 will never be forgotten in the history of medicine when an outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China sooner or later prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to issue a public health warning emergency. This is not the first nor will it be the last time that a member of β-coronaviruses (CoVs) is waging a full-scale war against human health. Notwithstanding the fact that pneumonia is the primary symptom of the novel coronavirus (2019nCoV; designated as SARS-CoV-2), the emergence of severe disease mainly due to the injury of non-pulmonary organs at the shadow of coagulopathy leaves no choice, in some cases, rather than a dreadful death. Read More

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Reversing Imatinib's Immunosuppressive Effects by Modulating Type I IFN Signaling.

Cancer Immunol Res 2021 May;9(5):489

Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Signal pathway inhibition is a well-validated approach for treating cancers driven by activated kinases such as KIT. However, kinase inhibitors may make tumor cells less responsive to tumor immune surveillance and less sensitive to immunotherapies. In this issue, Liu and colleagues report that, in a mouse model, inhibition of oncogenic KIT in gastrointestinal stromal tumors reduces type I interferon (IFN) production and signaling, and the effectiveness of the immune system in controlling tumor growth. Read More

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Identification of hot regions in hub protein-protein interactions by clustering and PPRA optimization.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2021 May 3;21(Suppl 1):143. Epub 2021 May 3.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Intelligent Information Processing and Real-Time Industrial System, School of Computer Science and Technology, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, People's Republic of China.

Background: Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are the core of protein function, which provide an effective means to understand the function at cell level. Identification of PPIs is the crucial foundation of predicting drug-target interactions. Although traditional biological experiments of identifying PPIs are becoming available, these experiments remain to be extremely time-consuming and expensive. Read More

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Ribotoxin-like proteins from Boletus edulis: structural properties, cytotoxicity and in vitro digestibility.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 23;359:129931. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (DiSTABiF), University of Campania 'Luigi Vanvitelli', Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta, Italy. Electronic address:

Porcini are edible mushrooms widely used in cooking due to their extraordinary taste. Despite this, cases of food poisoning have been reported in the recent literature also for ingestion of porcini. Here, we report the isolation from Boletus edulis fruiting bodies of two novel ribotoxin-like proteins (RL-Ps), enzymes already studied in other organisms for their toxicity. Read More

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l-citrulline: A preclinical safety biomarker for the small intestine in rats and dogs in repeat dose toxicity studies.

J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2021 Apr 30:107068. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Merck KGaA, Chemical and Preclinical Safety, Darmstadt, Germany.

Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is still an issue within drug development, especially for novel oncology drugs. The identification of GI mucosal damage at an early stage with high sensitivity and specificity across preclinical species and humans remains difficult. To date, in preclinical studies, no qualified mechanistic, diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers exist for GI mucosal toxicity. Read More

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MMFGRN: a multi-source multi-model fusion method for gene regulatory network reconstruction.

Brief Bioinform 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

College of Intelligence and Computing, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.

Lots of biological processes are controlled by gene regulatory networks (GRNs), such as growth and differentiation of cells, occurrence and development of the diseases. Therefore, it is important to persistently concentrate on the research of GRN. The determination of the gene-gene relationships from gene expression data is a complex issue. Read More

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COVID-19 and the pituitary.

Pituitary 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Sciences, San Raffaele Vita-Salute University and IRCC Hospital, Via Olgettina 60, 20132, Milan, Italy.

Background: Despite COVID-19 being identified as severe respiratory viral infection, progressively many relevant endocrine manifestations have been reported greatly contributing to the severity of the clinical presentation. Systemic involvement in COVID-19 is due to the ubiquitous expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, responsible for the entry in the cells of SARS-CoV-2, Several reports in humans and animal models showed a significant ACE2 mRNA expression in hypothalamus and pituitary cells. Moreover, higher mortality and poorer outcomes have been widely described in COVID-19 patients with obesity, diabetes and vertebral fractures, which are all highly prevalent in subjects with pituitary dysfunctions. Read More

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Process Window for Seeded Growth of Arrays of Quasi-Spherical Substrate-Supported Au Nanoparticles.

Langmuir 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Solar Cell Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Uppsala University, Box 35, 751 03 Uppsala, Sweden.

The controlled growth of surface-supported metal nanoparticles (NPs) is essential to a broad range of applications. To this end, we explore the seeded growth of highly ordered arrays of substrate-supported Au NPs through a fully orthogonal design of experiment (DoE) scheme applied to a reaction system consisting of HAuCl, citrate, and hydrogen peroxide. Scanning electron microscopy in combination with digital image analysis (DIA) is used to quantitatively characterize the resultant NP populations in terms of both particle and array features. Read More

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Stable Lithium Metal Anodes with a GaO Artificial Solid Electrolyte Interphase in Damp Air.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

School of Advanced Materials, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055, China.

As a promising high energy density electrode material for rechargeable batteries, lithium (Li) metal is still suffering from air/water instability due to its highly reactive nature. In addition, the Li dendrite issue in Li metal batteries needs to be resolved to ensure the safety of batteries and for wide applications. Herein, we demonstrate that a simple compact GaO layer formed using liquid metal (LM) can act as an artificial solid electrolyte interphase to block moisture and oxygen in the air from corroding the lithium metal. Read More

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Ub and Dub of RNF43/ZNRF3 in the WNT signalling pathway.

EMBO Rep 2021 May 3;22(5):e52970. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (IMBA), Vienna Biocenter (VBC), Vienna, Austria.

The E3 ubiquitin ligases RING finger protein 43 (RNF43) and zinc and RING finger 3 (ZNRF3) have received great attention for their critical role in regulating WNT signalling during adult stem cell homeostasis. By promoting the turnover of WNT receptors, Frizzled and LRP5/6, RNF43 and ZNRF3 ensure that proper levels of WNT activity are maintained in stem cells. The molecular mechanism of RNF43/ZNRF3 activity is beginning to emerge from several recent studies, yet little is known about the regulation of RNF43/ZNRF3 at the post-translational level. Read More

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B cells join T cell clusters in the host response to recurrent herpes simplex virus 2 infection.

J Clin Invest 2021 May;131(9)

Department of Dermatology and.

Recurrent genital herpes lesions are infiltrated by various leukocytes, yet the role of B cell subsets in this process is unknown. In this issue of the JCI, Ford et al. describe the presence and antibody-secreting role of local B cell populations in herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) recurrent lesions. Read More

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Detection of autoreactive CD4+ T cells by MHC class II multimers in HLA-linked human autoimmune diseases.

J Clin Invest 2021 May;131(9)

Recognition of self-peptides in association with distinct HLA class II alleles by autoreactive CD4+ T cells is central for loss of immunological tolerance leading to autoimmune disease. However, identifying immunodominant self-peptides and characterizing autoreactive T cells is challenging. In this issue of the JCI, Falta et al. Read More

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Diabetes and zinc dyshomeostasis: Can zinc supplementation mitigate diabetic complications?

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 Oct 14:1-16. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Biochemistry, CSIR - Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India.

Zinc present in the islet cells of the pancreas is crucial for the synthesis, storage, and secretion of insulin. The excretion of large amounts of zinc from the body is reported in diabetic situations. Zinc depletion and increased oxidative stress have a major impact on the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Read More

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October 2020

Atypical food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome in children: Is IgE sensitisation an issue longitudinally?

Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2021 1;49(3):73-82. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Allergology and Pulmonology, Penteli's Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Background: Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES) is a clinically well-characterised, non-Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy syndrome, yet its rare atypical presentation remains poorly understood.

Objective: Aim of this study was to present the 10-year experience of a referral centre highlighting the atypical FPIES cases and their long-term outcome.

Methods: FPIES cases were prospectively evaluated longitudinally in respect of food outgrowth and developing other allergic diseases with or without concomitant IgE sensitisation. Read More

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Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty after cytomegalovirus corneal endotheliitis and immunosuppression for Mooren's ulcer.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2021 Jun 14;22:101088. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: The aim of this report was to describe a case of cataract surgery and Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) after cytomegalovirus (CMV) corneal endotheliitis and bullous keratopathy (BK) following immunosuppressive treatment for Mooren's ulcer.

Observations: A 64-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of peripheral ulcerative keratitis in his left eye. He had a history of trabeculectomy for open angle glaucoma in his left eye. Read More

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Factorial Analysis of the Cardiometabolic Risk Influence on Redox Status Components in Adult Population.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 27;2021:6661940. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department for Medical Biochemistry, University of Belgrade-Faculty of Pharmacy, Belgrade, Serbia.

Different byproducts of oxidative stress do not always lead to the same conclusion regarding its relationship with cardiometabolic risk, since controversial results are reported so far. The aim of the current study was to examine prooxidant determinant ((prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB)) and the marker of antioxidant defence capacity (total sulphydryl groups (tSHG)), as well as their ratio (PAB/tSHG) in relation to different cardiometabolic risk factors in the cohort of adult population. Additionally, we aimed to examine the joint effect of various cardiometabolic parameters on these markers, since to our knowledge, there are no studies that investigated that issue. Read More

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January 2021

Exogenous transforming growth factor-β1 prevents the inflow of fluoride to ameleoblasts through regulation of voltage-gated chloride channels 5 and 7.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 14;21(6):615. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Stomatology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250021, P.R. China.

Dental fluorosis is a global issue. Although there are multiple causes of dental fluorosis, the precise mechanism remains controversial. Previous studies have demonstrated that extracellular fluoride may promote an accumulation of fluoride ions in ameloblasts, which may induce oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stresses, leading to dental fluorosis. Read More

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Molecular Basis of GABA Hypofunction in Adolescent Schizophrenia-Like Animals.

Neural Plast 2021 15;2021:9983438. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction appears centrally involved. Schizophrenia typically emerges in adolescence or early adulthood. Electrophysiological and several neurochemical changes have linked the GABA deficits to abnormal behaviors induced by NMDAR hypofunction. Read More

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Central Nervous System Barriers Impact Distribution and Expression of iNOS and Arginase-1 in Infiltrating Macrophages During Neuroinflammation.

Front Immunol 2021 15;12:666961. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Theodor Kocher Institute, University Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

In multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neuroinflammatory diseases, monocyte-derived cells (MoCs) traffic through distinct central nervous system (CNS) barriers and gain access to the organ parenchyma exerting detrimental or beneficial functions. How and where these MoCs acquire their different functional commitments during CNS invasion remains however unclear, thus hindering the design of MS treatments specifically blocking detrimental MoC actions. To clarify this issue, we investigated the distribution of iNOS pro-inflammatory and arginase-1 anti-inflammatory MoCs at the distinct border regions of the CNS in a mouse model of MS. Read More

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Immunological Consequences of Exposure to Foreign Antigens.

Jeng-Chang Chen

Front Immunol 2021 15;12:638435. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Surgery, Chang Gung Children's Hospital, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Immunologic tolerance refers to a state of immune nonreactivity specific to particular antigens as an important issue in the field of transplantation and the management of autoimmune diseases. Tolerance conceptually originated from Owen's observation of blood cell sharing in twin calves. Owen's conceptual framework subsequently constituted the backbone of Medawar's "actively acquired tolerance" as the major tenet of modern immunology. Read More

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AFM-based indentation method for measuring the relaxation property of living cells.

J Biomech 2021 Apr 19;122:110444. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Biomechanics and Medical Engineering, AML, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China. Electronic address:

Probing the mechanical properties of cells is critical for understanding their deformation behaviors and biological functions. Although some methods have been proposed to characterize the elastic properties of cells, it is still difficult to measure their time-dependent properties. This paper investigates the use of atomic force microscope (AFM) to determine the reduced relaxation modulus of cells. Read More

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Coupling hemodynamics with mechanobiology in patient-specific computational models of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Apr 15;205:106107. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Mines Saint-Étienne, Univ Lyon, Univ Jean Monnet, INSERM, U1059 Sainbiose, Saint-Étienne F - 42023 France. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: The prevention of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAAs), which affect thousands of persons every year worldwide, remains a major issue. ATAAs may be caused by anything that weakens the aortic wall. Altered hemodynamics, which concerns a majority of patients with bicuspid aortic valves, has been shown to be related to such weakening and to contribute to ATAA development and progression. Read More

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Injectable Hydrogels Based on Oxidized Alginate-Gelatin Reinforced by Carbon Nitride Quantum Dots for Tissue Engineering.

Int J Pharm 2021 Apr 29:120660. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box11155-9161, Azadi Avenue, Tehran 14588, Iran.

Stem cell treatment is promising in the various disorders treatment, but its effect is confined by the adverse conditions in the damaged tissues. The utilization of hydrogels has been suggested as a procedure to defeat this issue by developing the engraftment and survival of injected stem cells. Specifically, injectable hydrogels have drawn much attention due to their shape adaptability, ease of use, and the capability to reach body parts that are hard to access. Read More

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Basophil and mast cell activation tests by flow cytometry in immediate drug hypersensitivity: Diagnosis and beyond.

J Immunol Methods 2021 Apr 29:113050. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Immunology, Allergology, Rheumatology and the Infla-Med Centre of Excellence, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium) and Immunology, Allergology, Rheumatology, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Immunology, AZ Jan Palfijn Hospital Gent, Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:

Immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions (IDHRs) constitute a significant health issue with serious consequences of diagnostic error. The primary diagnostics to document IDHRs usually consists of quantification of drug-specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies and skin tests. Unfortunately, the positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of these tests are not absolutely, which leaves room for new tests. Read More

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Intestinal guard: human CXCL17 modulates protective response against mycotoxins and CXCL17-mimetic peptides development.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Apr 28:114586. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Function and Regulation in Agricultural Organisms, College of Life Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642, China; Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642, China. Electronic address:

Mycotoxin contamination is an ongoing and growing issue that can create health risks and even cause death. Unfortunately, there is currently a lack of specific therapy against mycotoxins with few side effects. On the other hand, the strategic expression of CXCL17 in mucosal tissues suggests that it may be involved in immune response when exposed to mycotoxins, but the exact role of CXCL17 remains largely unknown. Read More

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Cellular metabolism and diseases.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 May;178(10):2031-2033

Centre for Immunobiology, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Linked Articles: This article is part of a themed issue on Cellular metabolism and diseases. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley. Read More

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