2,516 results match your criteria isolated parenchymal


Intrathecal activation of CD8 memory T cells in IgG4-related disease of the brain parenchyma.

EMBO Mol Med 2021 Jul 13:e13953. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

DKTK Clinical Cooperation Unit (CCU) Neuroimmunology and Brain Tumor Immunology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory disorder signified by aberrant infiltration of IgG4-restricted plasma cells into a variety of organs. Clinical presentation is heterogeneous, and pathophysiological mechanisms of IgG4-RD remain elusive. There are very few cases of IgG4-RD with isolated central nervous system manifestation. Read More

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Arantius' Ligament Approach to Middle Hepatic Vein in Laparoscopic Extended Medial Segmentectomy (with Video).

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreas Surgery, Department of Surgery, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Under laparoscopy-specific caudal and lateral view, Aranitius' ligament could be the landmark for the root of the venous trunks in the left hepatic lobe.1-3 We performed laparoscopic hepatic extended medial segmentectomy including the middle hepatic vein (MHV) using the Arantius' approach.

Methods: An 86-year-old man was referred to our hospital for hepatocellular carcinoma, 4. Read More

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Diabetes Mellitus and Cognition: A Pathway Analysis in the MEMENTO Cohort.

Neurology 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Univ. Bordeaux, Inserm, UMR 1219, Inserm, CIC1401-EC, F-33000 Bordeaux, France

Objective: To assess the role of biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), neurodegeneration and small vessel disease (SVD) as mediators in the association between diabetes mellitus and cognition.

Methods: The study sample was derived from MEMENTO, a cohort of French adults recruited in memory clinics and screened for either isolated subjective cognitive complaints or mild cognitive impairment. Diabetes was defined based on blood glucose assessment, use of antidiabetic agent or self-report. Read More

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Pathologic and sonographic review of early isolated severe lower urinary tract obstruction and implications for prenatal treatment: a multicenter retrospective study.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

EA FETUS 7328-PACT, Imagine Institute, Paris University, Paris, France.

Objectives: Rationale for prenatal therapy in lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) is debated. The aim of this study was to identify favorable renal histology in early severe LUTO and determine timing and selection criteria for prenatal surgery.

Methods: This multicentric retrospective study included male fetuses with severe LUTO deceased before 24 weeks of gestation (January 2000-December 2018). Read More

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Psychiatric Sequelae and COVID Experiences of Post COVID -19 Recovered Resident Doctors and Interns of a Tertiary General Hospital in Mumbai.

J Assoc Physicians India 2021 04;69(4):22-26

Final Year MBBS Student, Seth GSMC & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra.

Background: The wide and profound psychological impact of the COVID pandemic on people has been demonstrated by several studies. A survey from the Indian Medical Association (IMA) showed that at least 500 doctors have been infected across Maharashtra, with Mumbai doctors making it to the top of the list. The most infected are the resident doctors working in government hospitals. Read More

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The common ABCA3 variant disrupts AT2 cell quality control and increases susceptibility to lung injury and aberrant remodeling.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 06 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Division, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

ATP binding cassette class A3 (ABCA3) is a lipid transporter that plays a critical role in pulmonary surfactant function. The substitution of valine for glutamic acid at codon 292 (E292V) produces a hypomorphic variant that accounts for a significant portion of ABCA3 mutations associated with lung disorders spanning from neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and childhood interstitial lung disease to diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) in adults including pulmonary fibrosis. The mechanisms by which this and similar ABCA3 mutations disrupt alveolar type 2 (AT2) cell homeostasis and cause DPLD are largely unclear. Read More

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A retrospective study on the microbial spectrum and antibiogram of uropathogens in children in a secondary care hospital in Rural Vellore, South India.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Apr 29;10(4):1706-1711. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Community Health, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common among children. Empiric antibiotics have to be started as early as possible or it may lead to an irreversible renal parenchymal damage and renal scarring in children. The objectives were to determine the prevalence and microbial profile of paediatric UTI and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Read More

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Chronic Liver Disease Presenting as Immune Hemolytic Anemia: The Challenges of Diagnosis in the Critically Ill in a Resource-Limited Health Care Setting.

Cureus 2021 May 6;13(5):e14880. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Medicine, Lady Hardinge Medical College, Delhi, IND.

Immune hemolytic anemia is very rarely associated with chronic liver disease. Diagnosis is often complicated in critically ill patients, where an etiological diagnosis can be elusive, especially in routine health care settings. A 48-year-old man presented with jaundice for three months. Read More

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Single-cell RNA sequencing of human liver reveals hepatic stellate cell heterogeneity.

JHEP Rep 2021 Jun 21;3(3):100278. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Laboratory of Pediatric Hepatology and Cell Therapy (PEDI), IREC Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

Background & Aims: The multiple vital functions of the human liver are performed by highly specialised parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells organised in complex collaborative sinusoidal units. Although crucial for homeostasis, the cellular make-up of the human liver remains to be fully elucidated. Here, single-cell RNA-sequencing was used to unravel the heterogeneity of human liver cells, in particular of hepatocytes (HEPs) and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Read More

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Role of CCR2 Myeloid Cells in Inflammation Responses Driven by Expression of a Surfactant Protein-C Mutant in the Alveolar Epithelium.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:665818. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Division, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Acute inflammatory exacerbations (AIE) represent precipitous deteriorations of a number of chronic lung conditions, including pulmonary fibrosis (PF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. AIEs are marked by diffuse and persistent polycellular alveolitis that profoundly accelerate lung function decline and mortality. In particular, excess monocyte mobilization during AIE and their persistence in the lung have been linked to poor disease outcome. Read More

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Brain microstructural and metabolic alterations detected in vivo at onset of the first demyelinating event.

Brain 2021 Jun;144(5):1409-1421

NMR Research Unit, Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Brain Sciences, University College London, London, UK.

In early multiple sclerosis, a clearer understanding of normal-brain tissue microstructural and metabolic abnormalities will provide valuable insights into its pathophysiology. We used multi-parametric quantitative MRI to detect alterations in brain tissues of patients with their first demyelinating episode. We acquired neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging [to investigate morphology of neurites (dendrites and axons)] and 23Na MRI (to estimate total sodium concentration, a reflection of underlying changes in metabolic function). Read More

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Does the dural resection bed need to be irradiated? Patterns of recurrence and implications for postoperative radiotherapy for temporal lobe gliomas.

Neurooncol Pract 2021 Apr 4;8(2):190-198. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, US.

Background: Patterns of recurrence and survival with different surgical and radiotherapy (RT) techniques were evaluated to guide RT target volumes for patients with temporal lobe glioma.

Methods And Materials: This retrospective cohort study included patients with World Health Organization grades II to IV temporal lobe glioma treated with either partial (PTL) or complete temporal lobectomy (CTL) followed by RT covering both the parenchymal and dural resection bed (whole-cavity radiotherapy [WCRT]) or the parenchymal resection bed only (partial-cavity radiotherapy [PCRT]). Patterns of recurrence, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Read More

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Massive non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage after cervical carotid angioplasty and stenting: a case report and review of the literature.

Neurochirurgie 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

CHU Rouen, Department of Neurosurgery, Rouen, F-76000, France.

Introduction: Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) of the cervical segment is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of carotid artery disease. In rare cases, this procedure causes intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), which is described most often as an ipsilateral intra-parenchymal hematoma. This ICH is the result of a cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS). Read More

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Impaired cerebral microcirculation in isolated REM sleep behaviour disorder.

Brain 2021 Jun;144(5):1498-1508

Department of Nuclear Medicine & PET Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

During the prodromal period of Parkinson's disease and other α-synucleinopathy-related parkinsonisms, neurodegeneration is thought to progressively affect deep brain nuclei, such as the locus coeruleus, caudal raphe nucleus, substantia nigra, and the forebrain nucleus basalis of Meynert. Besides their involvement in the regulation of mood, sleep, behaviour, and memory functions, these nuclei also innervate parenchymal arterioles and capillaries throughout the cortex, possibly to ensure that oxygen supplies are adjusted according to the needs of neural activity. The aim of this study was to examine whether patients with isolated REM sleep behaviour disorder, a parasomnia considered to be a prodromal phenotype of α-synucleinopathies, reveal microvascular flow disturbances consistent with disrupted central blood flow control. Read More

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Chronic active T cell-mediated rejection is variably responsive to immunosuppressive therapy.

Kidney Int 2021 Aug 8;100(2):391-400. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Comprehensive Transplant Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Chronic active T cell-mediated rejection (CA TCMR) is a newly described variant of kidney allograft rejection associated with long-term graft loss. Whether this form of rejection is related to under immunosuppression is debated and the benefit of immunosuppressive therapy in CA TCMR is unknown. Here we investigate the amenability of CA TCMR to treatment and examine the impact of clinical, histologic, and molecular parameters on outcomes. Read More

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Initial radiological findings associated with active bleeding control necessity and long term functional outcomes after isolated high grade blunt renal trauma.

Injury 2021 May 21;52(5):1190-1197. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Urology department, Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

Introduction: To assess the predictors for conservative management failure and long term outcomes after isolated blunt high grade renal trauma (HGRT).

Methods:  A retrospective analysis of patients with isolated blunt HGRT (renal trauma grade ≥ IV) was conducted. Patients' demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory and radiological investigations, and different lines of treatment were retrieved. Read More

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20-HETE-promoted cerebral blood flow autoregulation is associated with enhanced pericyte contractility.

Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 2021 Jun 19;154:106548. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, 39216, USA. Electronic address:

We previously reported that deficiency in 20-HETE or CYP4A impaired the myogenic response and autoregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in rats. The present study demonstrated that CYP4A was coexpressed with alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and most pericytes along parenchymal arteries (PAs) isolated from SD rats. Cell contractile capabilities of cerebral VSMCs and pericytes were reduced with a 20-HETE synthesis inhibitor, HET0016, but restored with 20-HETE analog WIT003. Read More

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Extracellular vesicles: Their emerging roles in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases.

Authors:
Mitsuhiro Yamada

Respir Investig 2021 May 19;59(3):302-311. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 9808574, Japan. Electronic address:

Alveoli are the basic structure of the lungs, consisting of various types of parenchymal and bone marrow-derived cells including alveolar macrophages. These various types of cells have several important functions; thus, communication between these cells plays an important role in homeostasis as well as in the pathophysiology of diseases in the lungs. For a better understanding of the pathophysiology of lung diseases, researchers have isolated each type of lung cell to investigate the changes in their gene expressions, including their humoral factor or adhesion molecules, to reveal the intercellular communication among these cells. Read More

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Pericardial metastasis of parotid mucoepidermoid carcinoma diagnosed by pericardial biopsy.

Auris Nasus Larynx 2021 Mar 6. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Tokyo Medical University, 6-7-1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Nishishinjuku 160-0023, Japan.

A 30-year-old man presented with swelling in the lower left ear. Close examination led to a diagnosis of parotid gland cancer, T4N0M0 Stage IVA, so total resection of the left parotid gland and left neck dissection were performed. Pathological examination led to a diagnosis of high-grade malignant-type mucoepidermoid, and chemoradiotherapy was performed as postoperative treatment. Read More

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Isolated tuberculosis of testis: A case report.

Caspian J Intern Med 2021 ;12(1):111-114

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis accounts for only 15% of new cases of tuberculosis. In extrapulmonary tuberculosis, usually affected areas include bone, pleura, lymph nodes, genitourinary system, joints, peritoneum and meninges. Tuberculosis epididymo-orchitis is an uncommon type of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Read More

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January 2021

Comparison of typical and atypical computed tomography patterns regarding reversibility and fibrosis in pulmonary sarcoidosis.

Ann Thorac Med 2021 Jan-Mar;16(1):118-125. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Chest Disease, Chest Disease and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Health Sciences University, Izmir, Turkey.

Purpose: This study aims to investigate whether there is a significant difference between typical and atypical parenchymal patterns in the development of fibrosis, which is the most crucial factor affecting morbidity in pulmonary sarcoidosis.

Methods: In our hospital, 145 cases with Siltzbach Types 2 and 3 sarcoidoses diagnosed by clinical, radiological, and histopathologic were retrospectively investigated. Perilymphatic nodules, accompanying mosaic attenuation, and interlobular septal thickening and central peribronchovascular bunch-like thickening on high-resolution computed tomography were assessed as typical. Read More

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January 2021

Primary Lymphoma of Internal Acoustic Meatus Mimicking Vestibular Schwannoma-A Rare Diagnostic Dilemma.

J Neurol Surg Rep 2021 Jan 23;82(1):e1-e5. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Radiology, Dr. Balabhai Nanavati Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

 A subject presenting with a unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and with vertigo/imbalance and a lesion of internal acoustic meatus (IAM) most often represents a vestibular schwannoma. Several alternative pathologies involving the region, with clinical and neuroradiological similarities, could lead to an error in judgement and management. Rare tumors of the IAM pose unique diagnostic difficulty. Read More

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January 2021

Saddle pulmonary embolism and clot in transit in COVID-19 infection: a case report of catastrophic venous thromboembolism.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2020 Dec 7;4(6):1-6. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Medicine/Cardiology, New York City Health + Hospitals Corporation, Jacobi Medical Center 1400 Pelham Parkway, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.

Background : Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a coagulopathy favouring thrombosis over bleeding that imparts a poor prognosis. Clot in transit (CIT) is considered a rare entity and the most severe form of venous thromboembolism (VTE), carrying a higher mortality than isolated pulmonary embolism (PE). The incidence of this phenomenon in patients with COVID-19 infection is unknown and likely under-recognized. Read More

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December 2020

Developmental Dysfunction of the Central Nervous System Lymphatics Modulates the Adaptive Neuro-Immune Response in the Perilesional Cortex in a Mouse Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.

Front Immunol 2020 27;11:559810. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Neuroscience Center, Helsinki Institute of Life Science (HiLIFE), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Rationale: The recently discovered meningeal lymphatic vessels (mLVs) have been proposed to be the missing link between the immune and the central nervous system. The role of mLVs in modulating the neuro-immune response following a traumatic brain injury (TBI), however, has not been analyzed. Parenchymal T lymphocyte infiltration has been previously reported as part of secondary events after TBI, suggestive of an adaptive neuro-immune response. Read More

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Isolation of PRRX1-positive adult pituitary stem/progenitor cells from the marginal cell layer of the mouse anterior lobe.

Stem Cell Res 2021 04 2;52:102223. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry, Joint Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-minami, Tottori-shi, Tottori 680-8553, Japan. Electronic address:

We recently suggested that paired-related homeobox 1 (PRRX1) and sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) double-positive (PRRX1/SOX2-positive) cells are pituitary stem/progenitor cells. The present study aimed to isolate PRRX1-positive cells located in the pituitary stem/progenitor cell niche. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PRRX1/SOX2-positive cells were located mainly in the marginal cell layer (MCL)-niche of the adult mouse pituitary gland, but were rarely present in the parenchymal-niche. Read More

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β-1, 3-galactosyltransferase 2 ameliorates focal ischemic cerebral injury by maintaining blood-brain barrier integrity.

Neurochem Int 2021 03 29;144:104976. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Neurobiology and Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases of Liaoning Province, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, 121001, Liaoning, China. Electronic address:

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage at the early stage of ischemic stroke is a vital cause of brain parenchymal injury. The mechanism of BBB disruption has been intensively investigated, but still not fully understood. β-1, 3-galactosyltransferase 2 (B3galt2) is expressed in the brain, but its role in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia remains unknown. Read More

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Effects of immunotherapies and clinical outcomes in neurosarcoidosis: a retrospective cohort study.

J Neurol 2021 Jul 30;268(7):2466-2472. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Headley way, Headington, OX3 9DU, UK.

Introduction: Neurosarcoidosis is associated with a significant degree of morbidity and mortality and its treatments are varied and complex. There is a paucity of information in current literature on patterns of treatment and long term outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes and responses to immunosuppressive therapy in a large cohort of neurosarcoidosis patients . Read More

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Prophylactic antibiotics for adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a network meta-analysis.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 01 15;1:CD013198. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York, UK.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic respiratory condition characterised by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation. Acute exacerbations punctuate the natural history of COPD and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality and disease progression. Chronic airflow limitation is caused by a combination of small airways (bronchitis) and parenchymal destruction (emphysema), which can impact day-to-day activities and overall quality of life. Read More

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January 2021

The role of small extracellular vesicles in cerebral and myocardial ischemia-Molecular signals, treatment targets, and future clinical translation.

Stem Cells 2021 04 12;39(4):403-413. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany.

The heart and the brain mutually interact with each other, forming a functional axis that is disturbed under conditions of ischemia. Stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) show great potential for the treatment of ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction. Due to heart-brain interactions, therapeutic actions of EVs in the brain and the heart cannot be regarded in an isolated way. Read More

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Isolated caudate lobectomy using a modified hanging maneuver.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2021 May 7;406(3):927-933. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Surgery, Kurashiki Medical Center, Bakuro-cho, Kurashiki, Okayama, 710-8522, Japan.

Background: The caudate lobe is located deep in the dorsal portion of the liver. Complete resection is an extremely demanding surgery due to the limited surgical field, especially in cases with severe intra-abdominal complications. A major concern of isolated caudate lobectomy is the difficulty associated with securing the contralateral visual field during parenchymal transection. Read More

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