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Two Novel Mutations Associated with Polymyxin-B Resistance in a Pandemic Lineage of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli of the Sequence Type 69.

Chemotherapy 2021 Jul 29:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are frequent pathogens worldwide, impacting on the morbidity and economic costs associated with antimicrobial treatment.

Objectives: We report two novel mutations associated with polymyxin-B resistance in an UPEC isolate collected in 2019.

Methods: Isolate was submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing including broth microdilution for polymyxin B. Read More

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Rapid personalized AMR diagnostics using two-dimensional antibiotic resistance profiling strategy employing a thermometric NDM-1 biosensor.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Jul 21;193:113526. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Lund University, SE, 22100, Lund, Sweden. Electronic address:

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threatens global public health and modern surgical medicine. Expression of β-lactamase genes is the major mechanism by which pathogens become antibiotic resistant. Pathogens expressing extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenemases (CP) are especially difficult to treat and are associated with increased hospitalization and mortality rates. Read More

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Detection and genomic characterization of mcr-9 in Enterobacter hormaechei recovered from a pediatric patient in Lebanon.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Jul 26:105014. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Natural Sciences, Lebanese American University, P.O. Box 36, Byblos, Lebanon. Electronic address:

Background: The emergence and spread of mobilized colistin resistance (mcr) genes are a global health concern.

Objectives: In this study, we report the detection and genomic characterization of mcr-9 in a colistin-susceptible Enterobacter hormaechei (EH23) recovered from a pediatric patient in Lebanon.

Results: EH23 was susceptible to colistin with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0. Read More

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Optimised methods for detecting Salmonella Typhi in the environment using validated field sampling, culture, and confirmatory molecular approaches.

J Appl Microbiol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

National Infection Service, Public Health England, UK.

Aims: This study evaluated detection methods for Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) in the environment, to establish a novel pathway from field sampling to isolation of viable organisms and molecular confirmation from complex environmental samples, thus enabling environmental surveillance of typhoid.

Methods And Results: Multiple media were assessed using clinical isolates from the Public Health England's (PHE) Culture collection. Read More

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Characterization and evaluation of probiotic potential in vitro and in situ of Lacticaseibacillus paracasei isolated from tenate cheese.

J Food Prot 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo Professor Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, Ciudad del Conocimiento, Universidad Autón Carboneras MEXICO Mineral de la Reforma, Hidalgo, México Hidalgo 42184.

The objectives of this investigation were a) to isolate bacteria from different foods (dairy products, fruits, and vegetables) and evaluate their probiotic potential and b) to select, identify, and characterize the strain with the highest probiotic potential. From 14 food samples, a total of 117 strains were isolated; however, only 42 (T1 to T42) showed the morphology (gram-positive, coco, and bacillar form) and were catalase- and oxidase-negative to be considered as a presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The antagonistic activity of the 42 strains was evaluated on Escherichia coli (O157:H7E09), Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 19115), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (ATCC 14028). Read More

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Effects of serine palmitoyltransferase inhibition by myriocin in ad libitum-fed and nutrient-restricted ewes.

J Anim Sci 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.

The fungal isolate myriocin inhibits serine palmitoyltransferase and de novo ceramide synthesis in rodents; however, the effects of myriocin on ceramide concentrations and metabolism have not been previously investigated in ruminants. In our study, twelve non-lactating crossbred ewes received an intravenous bolus of myriocin (0, 0.1, 0. Read More

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Actinoplanes aureus sp. nov., a novel protease-producing actinobacterium isolated from soil.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast Agricultural University, No. 59 Mucai Street, Xiangfang District, Harbin, 150030, People's Republic of China.

A novel protease-producing actinobacterium, designated strain NEAU-A11, was isolated from soil collected from Aohan banner, Chifeng, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, and characterised using a polyphasic approach. The hydrolytic enzymes, such as proteases, played critical roles in destruction of fungi by degrading the protein linkages to disrupt integrity in the cell wall. This suggested that the isolate could be a good biocontrol candidate against pathogens to control fungal diseases. Read More

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gen. nov., sp. nov., represented by a marine strain of the family .

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Jul;71(7)

Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hainan Academy of Tropical Agricultural Resources, CATAS, Haikou 571101, PR China.

A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, facultatively anaerobic, short rod-shaped bacterium, designated HB171799, was isolated from seacoast sandy soil collected at Qishui Bay, Hainan, PR China. The chemotaxonomic analysis revealed that the respiratory quinones were Q-8 and Q-7, and the major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (comprising C c and/or C c), C and C. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified phospholipid and an unidentified lipid. Read More

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Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter jejuni Strain G1, Isolated from a Patient with Guillain-Barré Syndrome.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2021 Jul 29;10(30):e0050521. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

School of Life Sciences, Pharmacy and Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing, Kingston University London, Kingston upon Thames, United Kingdom.

Here, I report the complete genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni strain G1, belonging to Penner serotype HS1. One remarkable feature of the genome of this isolate is the presence of four copies of Mu-like prophages, of which none are present in some other strains, including the reference strain NCTC11168. Read More

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Draft Genome Sequence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Harboring Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Type IX, Isolated from a Fatal Bacteremic Pneumonia Case.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2021 Jul 29;10(30):e0061621. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Faculty of Public Health, Kasetsart University, Chalermphrakiat Sakon Nakhon Province Campus, Sakon Nakhon, Thailand.

Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain harboring staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) type IX, isolated from a fatal bacteremic pneumonia case. Genomic analysis revealed that the isolate was sequence type 9 and type t3446, carrying multiple antimicrobial resistance genes comprising , , , , , (E), , (M), , and (B). Read More

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Draft Genome Sequence of a -Carrying Citrobacter braakii Isolate from Pediatric Hospital Wastewater in Peru.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2021 Jul 29;10(30):e0056921. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Laboratorio de Genómica Microbiana, Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.

Here, we report a draft genome sequence of a -carrying Citrobacter braakii isolate from pediatric hospital effluent. Genome CF248 represents a multidrug-resistant isolate derived from a clinical environment in Peru. Read More

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Draft Genome Sequence of Serratia rubidaea, a Potential Opportunistic Pathogen Isolated from Food in Italy.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2021 Jul 29;10(30):e0070721. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Hygiene in Food Technology and Animal Feeds, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise "G. Caporale," Teramo, Italy.

Serratia rubidaea has emerged in recent years as an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of an isolate derived from an industrial meat food product purchased in a large-scale retail store that revealed fluoroquinolone, β-lactam, and aminoglycoside resistance genes and two different host-unspecific prophages. Read More

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Chromatographic Approach to Isolate Exfoliated Graphene.

Langmuir 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269, United States.

A chromatographic approach for separating exfoliated graphene from natural flake graphite is presented. Graphene is an extremely strong, electrically and thermally conductive two-dimensional hexagonal array of carbon atoms with the potential to transform applications such as supercapacitors, composites, biosensors, ultra-thin touchscreens, and solar cells. However, many of these applications require the use of exfoliated graphene, and the current cost of this material can be prohibitive. Read More

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Locking out the virus: management of a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in an Italian prison.

Int J Prison Health 2021 May;ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)

Department of Mental Health and Substane Abuse, AUSL Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Purpose: In this paper, the authors present insights and findings drawn from the authors' experiences of containing a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in a large prison in northern Italy.Within penitentiaries, close-quarter living is ripe terrain for outbreaks of disease among detainees and staff. If left unchecked, these outbreaks can easily spill over the prison walls to threaten the general public. Read More

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Molecular characterization of African Swine fever viruses in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Senegal 1989-2016: Genetic diversity of ASFV in West Africa.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Molecular Genetics (LABIOGENE) UFR/SVT, University Joseph KI-ZERBO, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

African swine fever (ASF) has been endemic in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1960s. Following its introduction in Senegal, in 1957, ASF steadily progressed through West Africa, reaching Burkina Faso in 2003, and later Mali in 2016. Despite the heavy burden of disease on pig production, little information is available on the genetic diversity of Africa swine fever virus (ASFV) in Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal. Read More

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Arc1 and the microbiota together modulate growth and metabolic traits in Drosophila.

Development 2021 Aug 29;148(15). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Biological Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

Perturbations to animal-associated microbial communities (the microbiota) have deleterious effects on various aspects of host fitness, but the molecular processes underlying these impacts are poorly understood. Here, we identify a connection between the microbiota and the neuronal factor Arc1 that affects growth and metabolism in Drosophila. We find that Arc1 exhibits tissue-specific microbiota-dependent expression changes, and that germ-free flies bearing a null mutation of Arc1 exhibit delayed and stunted larval growth, along with a variety of molecular, cellular and organismal traits indicative of metabolic dysregulation. Read More

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The myth of pre-operative isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Sci Prog 2021 Jul-Sep;104(3):368504211026155

Princess Royal University Hospital, Orpington, UK.

The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic called for the restructuring of National Health Service (NHS) surgical departments across the country. Initial guidance advised that patients undergoing elective surgery isolate for 14 days prior to their operation. As we learnt more about COVID-19 and its incubation period, at the Princess Royal University Hospital this guidance has been decreased to 72 h. Read More

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Screening and Isolation of a Novel Polyene-Producing Strain Inhibiting Phytopathogenic Fungi in the Soil Environment.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 12;9:692340. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Biological Sciences and Bioengineering, Inha University, Incheon, South Korea.

Microbial-based eco-friendly biological substances are needed to protect crops from phytopathogenic fungi and replace toxic chemical fungicides that cause serious environmental issues. This study screened for soil antifungal strains, which produce rich, diverse, and valuable bioactive metabolites in the soil environment. Bioassay-based antifungal screening of approximately 2,400 strains led to the isolation of 149 strains as tentative antifungal producers. Read More

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Isolation of lymphocytes from the human gastric mucosa.

World J Methodol 2021 Jul 20;11(4):199-207. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558, Japan.

Flow cytometry is widely used for lymphocyte immunophenotyping in clinical settings. However, few studies have applied it for analyzing lymphocytes of the gastric mucosa. This review offers an overview of methodologies for isolating lymphocytes from the human stomach. Read More

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Molecular evaluation of five different isolation methods for extracellular vesicles reveals different clinical applicability and subcellular origin.

J Extracell Vesicles 2021 Jul 22;10(9):e12128. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine and Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine Solna Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet Stockholm Sweden.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are increasingly tested as therapeutic vehicles and biomarkers, but still EV subtypes are not fully characterised. To isolate EVs with few co-isolated entities, a combination of methods is needed. However, this is time-consuming and requires large sample volumes, often not feasible in most clinical studies or in studies where small sample volumes are available. Read More

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Cyclotides Isolated From Violet Plants of Cameroon Are Inhibitors of Human Prolyl Oligopeptidase.

Front Pharmacol 2021 12;12:707596. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Traditional medicine and the use of herbal remedies are well established in the African health care system. For instance, Violaceae plants are used for antimicrobial or anti-inflammatory applications in folk medicine. This study describes the phytochemical analysis and bioactivity screening of four species of the violet Allexis found in Cameroon. Read More

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Genomic characterization of sporadic isolates of the dominant clone of Mycobacterium abscessus subspecies massiliense.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 28;11(1):15336. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Tyler, TX, USA.

Recent studies have characterized a dominant clone (Clone 1) of Mycobacterium abscessus subspecies massiliense (M. massiliense) associated with high prevalence in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, pulmonary outbreaks in the United States (US) and United Kingdom (UK), and a Brazilian epidemic of skin infections. The prevalence of Clone 1 in non-CF patients in the US and the relationship of sporadic US isolates to outbreak clones are not known. Read More

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Comparative Genome Analysis Reveals Differences in Biocontrol Efficacy According to Each Individual Isolate Belonging to Rhizospheric Fluorescent Pseudomonads.

Microbes Environ 2021 ;36(3)

Department of Innovation Systems Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Utsunomiya University.

Biocontrol fluorescent pseudomonads produce a number of antibiotic organic compounds, including 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyoluteorin, pyrrolnitrin, and phenazine. We previously classified rhizospheric fluorescent pseudomonads harboring antibiotic biosynthetic gene clusters into 10 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). In the present study, we report the complete genome sequences of selected strains from these OTUs. Read More

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January 2021

Direct identification of neoantigen-specific TCRs from tumor specimens by high-throughput single-cell sequencing.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Jul;9(7)

Surgery Branch, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Background: Recognition of neoantigens by T cells plays a major role in cancer immunotherapy. Identification of neoantigen-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) has become a critical research tool for studying T cell-mediated responses after immunotherapy. In addition, neoantigen-specific TCRs can be used to modify the specificity of T cells for T cell-based therapies targeting tumor-specific mutations. Read More

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An implementation science approach to evaluating pathogen whole genome sequencing in public health.

Genome Med 2021 Jul 28;13(1):121. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Microbiological Diagnostic Unit Public Health Laboratory, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne at The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background: Pathogen whole genome sequencing (WGS) is being incorporated into public health surveillance and disease control systems worldwide and has the potential to make significant contributions to infectious disease surveillance, outbreak investigation and infection prevention and control. However, to date, there are limited data regarding (i) the optimal models for integration of genomic data into epidemiological investigations and (ii) how to quantify and evaluate public health impacts resulting from genomic epidemiological investigations.

Methods: We developed the Pathogen Genomics in Public HeAlth Surveillance Evaluation (PG-PHASE) Framework to guide examination of the use of WGS in public health surveillance and disease control. Read More

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Molecular epidemiology of aspergillosis in Magellanic penguins and susceptibility patterns of clinical isolates.

Med Mycol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Microbiology and Parasitology Post-Graduate Program, Institute of Biology, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Aspergillus section Fumigati is reported in up to 99% of aspergillosis cases in penguins. So far, no data regarding molecular epidemiology and azole resistance are available for A. fumigatus isolates collected from Magellanic penguins. Read More

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Assessment of zinc solubilization potential of zinc-resistant Pseudomonas oleovorans strain ZSB13 isolated from contaminated soil.

Braz J Biol 2021 26;83:e240015. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Government College University, Department of, Zoology, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is required for optimum plant growth. It is present in soil in insoluble forms. Bacterial solubilization of soil unavailable form of Zn into available form, is an emerging approach to alleviate the Zn deficiency for plants and human beings. Read More

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Inertial focusing of circulating tumor cells in whole blood at high flow rates using the microfluidic CTCKey™ device for CTC enrichment.

Lab Chip 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2800 Plymouth Rd., Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are extremely rare cells shed from tumors into the blood stream. These cells can provide valuable information about their tumor of origin and direct treatment decisions to improve patient outcomes. Current technologies isolate CTCs from a limited blood volume and often require pre-processing that leads to CTC loss, making it difficult to isolate enough CTCs to perform in-depth tumor analysis. Read More

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Effect of sanitation improvements on soil-transmitted helminth eggs in courtyard soil from rural Bangladesh: Evidence from a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jul 28;15(7):e0008815. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America.

Improved sanitation has been hypothesized to reduce soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections by reducing the prevalence and concentration of STH eggs/larvae in soil. We evaluated the effect of a randomized sanitation program (providing households with an improved dual-pit latrine, tools for child/animal feces management, and behavioral messaging) on reducing the prevalence and concentration of STH eggs in soil from household courtyards. We collected soil samples from 1405 households enrolled in the sanitation intervention (n = 419) and control (n = 914) groups of a cluster-randomized controlled trial (WASH Benefits) in rural Bangladesh approximately 2 years after the initiation of the interventions. Read More

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Plasmid analysis of NDM metallo-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales isolated in Vietnam.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(7):e0231119. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

AMR Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) represent a serious threat to public health due to the lack of treatment and high mortality. The rate of antimicrobial resistance of Enterobacterales isolates to major antimicrobials, including carbapenems, is much higher in Vietnam than in Western countries, but the reasons remain unknown due to the lack of genomic epidemiology research. A previous study suggested that carbapenem resistance genes, such as the carbapenemase gene blaNDM, spread via plasmids among Enterobacterales in Vietnam. Read More

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