34,132 results match your criteria islet function

The greater omentum as a site for pancreatic islet transplantation.

CellR4 Repair Replace Regen Reprogram 2017 20;5(3). Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Diabetes Research Institute and Cell Transplant Center, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

The greater omentum is a highly vascularized anatomical structure in the peritoneal cavity. Its main components are connective, adipose and vascular cells, along with specialized immune cells. The omentum functions as a site for fat accumulation, it has adhesive properties to control traumatized and inflamed tissues, and a function in local hemostasis, immune responses, and revascularization. Read More

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Physiology of pancreatic β-cells: Ion channels and molecular mechanisms implicated in stimulus-secretion coupling.

Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 2021 8;359:287-323. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Departamento de Fisiología, Genética y Microbiología, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain; Instituto de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación en Biotecnología Sanitaria de Elche (IDiBE), Universidad Miguel Hernández, Elche, Spain. Electronic address:

The human and mouse islet of Langerhans is an endocrine organ composed of five different cells types; insulin-secreting β-cells, glucagon-producing α-cells, somatostatin-producing δ-cells, pancreatic polypeptide-secreting PP cells and ɛ-cells that secretes ghrelin. The most important cells are the pancreatic β-cells that comprise around 45-50% of human islets and 75-80% in the mouse. Pancreatic β-cells secrete insulin at high glucose concentration, thereby finely regulating glycaemia by the hypoglycaemic effects of this hormone. Read More

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Associations of breastfeeding with childhood autoimmunity, allergies, and overweight: The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Munich-Neuherberg, Germany; and Forschergruppe Diabetes, Technical University Munich, at Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich, and Forschergruppe Diabetes eV, Neuherberg, Germany.

Background: Breastfeeding has beneficial effects on numerous health outcomes.

Objectives: We investigated whether breastfeeding duration is associated with the development of early childhood autoimmunity, allergies, or obesity in a multinational prospective birth cohort.

Methods: Infants with genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes (n = 8676) were followed for the development of autoantibodies to islet autoantigens or transglutaminase, allergies, and for anthropometric measurements to a median age of 8. Read More

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vascularization and islet function in a microwell device for pancreatic islet transplantation.

Biomed Mater 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Faculty of Science and Technology (TNW), University of Twente, Biomaterials Science and Technology, P O Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS, Enschede, 7500AE, NETHERLANDS.

Islet encapsulation in membrane-based devices could allow for transplantation of donor islet tissue in the absence of immunosuppression. To achieve long-term survival of islets, the device should allow rapid exchange of essential nutrients and be vascularized to guarantee continued support of islet function. Recently, we have proposed a membrane-based macroencapsulation device consisting of a microwell membrane for islet separation covered by a micropatterned membrane lid. Read More

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Maternal nutrient restriction in late pregnancy programs postnatal metabolism and pituitary development in beef heifers.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249924. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America.

Maternal undernutrition during pregnancy followed by ad libitum access to nutrients during postnatal life induces postnatal metabolic disruptions in multiple species. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate postnatal growth, metabolism, and development of beef heifers exposed to late gestation maternal nutrient restriction. Pregnancies were generated via transfer of in vitro embryos produced using X-bearing sperm from a single Angus sire. Read More

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Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Model Islet Defects in Diabetes.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 22;12:642152. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose and is ultimately caused by insufficient insulin production from pancreatic beta cells. Different research models have been utilized to unravel the molecular mechanisms leading to the onset of diabetes. The generation of pancreatic endocrine cells from human pluripotent stem cells constitutes an approach to study genetic defects leading to impaired beta cell development and function. Read More

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Human pluripotent stem cell-derived insulin-producing cells: A regenerative medicine perspective.

Cell Metab 2021 Apr;33(4):721-731

Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Department of Anatomy, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Diabetes Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address:

Tremendous progress has been made over the last two decades in the field of pancreatic beta cell replacement therapy as a curative measure for diabetes. Transplantation studies have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy, and cGMP-grade cell products are currently being deployed for the first time in human clinical trials. In this perspective, we discuss current challenges surrounding the generation, delivery, and engraftment of stem cell-derived islet-like cells, along with strategies to induce durable tolerance to grafted cells, with an eye toward a functional cellular-based therapy enabling insulin independence for patients with diabetes. Read More

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In pancreatic β-cells myosin 1b regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by modulating an early step in insulin granule trafficking from the Golgi.

Mol Biol Cell 2021 Apr 7:mbcE21030094. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118-2518.

Pancreatic β-cells secrete insulin, which controls blood glucose levels, and defects in insulin secretion are responsible for diabetes mellitus. The actin cytoskeleton and some myosins support insulin granule trafficking and release, although a role for the class I myosin Myo1b, an actin- and membrane-associated load-sensitive motor, in insulin biology is unknown. We found by immunohistochemistry that Myo1b is expressed in islet cells of rat pancreas. Read More

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Coordinated interactions between endothelial cells and macrophages in the islet microenvironment promote β cell regeneration.

NPJ Regen Med 2021 Apr 6;6(1):22. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Endogenous β cell regeneration could alleviate diabetes, but proliferative stimuli within the islet microenvironment are incompletely understood. We previously found that β cell recovery following hypervascularization-induced β cell loss involves interactions with endothelial cells (ECs) and macrophages (MΦs). Here we show that proliferative ECs modulate MΦ infiltration and phenotype during β cell loss, and recruited MΦs are essential for β cell recovery. Read More

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In vitro expansion of pancreatic islet clusters facilitated by hormones and chemicals.

Cell Discov 2020 Apr 7;6(1):20. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Key Laboratory Experimental Teratology of the Ministry of Education and Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shandong University, 250012, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Tissue regeneration, such as pancreatic islet tissue propagation in vitro, could serve as a promising strategy for diabetes therapy and personalised drug testing. However, such a strategy has not been realised yet. Propagation could be divided into two steps, in vitro expansion and repeated passaging. Read More

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Temporal metabolic and transcriptomic characteristics crossing islets and liver reveal dynamic pathophysiology in diet-induced diabetes.

iScience 2021 Apr 5;24(4):102265. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, China.

To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying islet dysfunction and insulin resistance in diet-induced diabetes, we conducted temporal RNA sequencing of tissues responsible for insulin secretion (islets) and action (liver) every 4 weeks in mice on high-fat (HFD) or chow diet for 24 weeks, linking to longitudinal profile of metabolic characteristics. The diverse responses of α, β, and δ cells to glucose and palmitate indicated HFD-induced dynamic deterioration of islet function from dysregulation to failure. Insulin resistance developed with variable time course in different tissues. Read More

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Insulin Resistance Is a Risk Factor for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Elderly Adults with T2DM.

Open Life Sci 2019 Jan 10;14:255-261. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Department of Endocrinology, The People's Hospital of Shaoxing City, Shaoxing Zhejiang, 312000 PR China.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effects of insulin resistance (IR) in the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: Seventy-eight patients with T2DM were recruited and divided into MCI group (<26, n=48) and normal group (≥26, n=30) according to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score. The fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, and fasting plasma C-peptide (FPC) were examined and compared between the two groups. Read More

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January 2019

The pancreatic islet: a micro-organ in control.

CellR4 Repair Replace Regen Reprogram 2021 19;9. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Surgery, Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

The islets of Langerhans constitute the endocrine pancreas which regulates blood glucose homeostasis and their dysfunction results in diabetes. Each of the pancreatic islets constitutes an entire micro-organ with intricate cell to cell interactions and that is well vascularized and innervated. An important therapeutic advantage in islet transplant is that pancreatic islets maintain their organ integrity when isolated and transplanted to patients with severe diabetes. Read More

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Emerging Therapeutic Strategies to Restore Regulatory T Cell Control of Islet Autoimmunity in Type 1 Diabetes.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:635767. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Arthritis and Autoimmune Diseases Research Center, Rheumatology Section, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States.

Despite many decades of investigation uncovering the autoimmune mechanisms underlying Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), translating these findings into effective therapeutics has proven extremely challenging. T1D is caused by autoreactive T cells that become inappropriately activated and kill the β cells in the pancreas, resulting in insulin insufficiency and hyperglycemia. A large body of evidence supports the idea that the unchecked activation and expansion of autoreactive T cells in T1D is due to defects in immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs) that are critical for maintaining peripheral tolerance to islet autoantigens. Read More

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Adaptive and maladaptive roles for ChREBP in the liver and pancreatic islets.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 1:100623. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA; Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA. Electronic address:

Excessive sugar consumption is a contributor to the worldwide epidemic of cardiometabolic disease. Understanding mechanisms by which sugar is sensed and regulates metabolic processes may provide new opportunities to prevent and treat these epidemics. Carbohydrate Responsive-Element Binding Protein (ChREBP) is a sugar sensing transcription factor that mediates genomic responses to changes in carbohydrate abundance in key metabolic tissues. Read More

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Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes (CFRD): Overview of Associated Genetic Factors.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Mar 22;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples "Federico II", 80131 Naples, Italy.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive disease in the Caucasian population and is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator () gene that encodes for a chloride/bicarbonate channel expressed on the membrane of epithelial cells of the airways and of the intestine, as well as in cells with exocrine and endocrine functions. A common nonpulmonary complication of CF is cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD), a distinct form of diabetes due to insulin insufficiency or malfunction secondary to destruction/derangement of pancreatic betacells, as well as to other factors that affect their function. The prevalence of CFRD increases with age, and 40-50% of CF adults develop the disease. Read More

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Direct Stimulatory Effects of the CB Ligand JTE 907 in Human and Mouse Islets.

Cells 2021 Mar 22;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Diabetes, School of Life Course Sciences, King's College London, Guy's Campus, London SE1 1UL, UK.

Aims: The endocannabinoid system is a complex cell-signaling network through which endogenous cannabinoid ligands regulate cell function by interaction with CB and CB cannabinoid receptors, and with the novel cannabinoid receptor GPR55. CB, CB, and GPR55 are expressed by islet β-cells where they modulate insulin secretion. We have previously shown that administration of the putative CB antagonist/inverse agonist JTE 907 to human islets did not affect the insulinotropic actions of CB agonists and it unexpectedly stimulated insulin secretion on its own. Read More

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Inherent Beta Cell Dysfunction Contributes to Autoimmune Susceptibility.

Biomolecules 2021 Mar 30;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, University of Colorado Denver Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

The pancreatic beta cell is a highly specialized cell type whose primary function is to secrete insulin in response to nutrients to maintain glucose homeostasis in the body. As such, the beta cell has developed unique metabolic characteristics to achieve functionality; in healthy beta cells, the majority of glucose-derived carbons are oxidized and enter the mitochondria in the form of pyruvate. The pyruvate is subsequently metabolized to induce mitochondrial ATP and trigger the downstream insulin secretion response. Read More

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Maternal Vitamin C and Iron Intake during Pregnancy and the Risk of Islet Autoimmunity and Type 1 Diabetes in Children: A Birth Cohort Study.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 13;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Unit of Health Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Tampere University, FI-33014 Tampere, Finland.

Our aim was to study the associations between maternal vitamin C and iron intake during pregnancy and the offspring's risk of developing islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. The study was a part of the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) prospective birth cohort including children genetically at risk of type 1 diabetes born between 1997-2004. The diets of 4879 mothers in late pregnancy were assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Read More

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Mechanisms of Transthyretin Inhibition of IAPP Amyloid Formation.

Biomolecules 2021 Mar 10;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden.

Amyloid-formation by the islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), produced by the β-cells in the human pancreas, has been associated with the development of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The human plasma-protein transthyretin (TTR), a well-known amyloid-inhibiting protein, is interestingly also expressed within the IAPP producing β-cells. In the present study, we have characterized the ability of TTR to interfere with IAPP amyloid-formation, both in terms of its intrinsic stability as well as with regard to the effect of TTR-stabilizing drugs. Read More

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Combination of human tau and islet amyloid polypeptide exacerbates metabolic dysfunction in transgenic mice.

J Pathol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Tanz Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau are important contributors to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau also impacts pancreatic beta cell function and glucose homeostasis. Amyloid deposits composed of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) are a pathological feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Read More

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Single-cell chromatin accessibility identifies pancreatic islet cell type- and state-specific regulatory programs of diabetes risk.

Nat Genet 2021 Apr 1;53(4):455-466. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Diabetes Research Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Single-nucleus assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (snATAC-seq) creates new opportunities to dissect cell type-specific mechanisms of complex diseases. Since pancreatic islets are central to type 2 diabetes (T2D), we profiled 15,298 islet cells by using combinatorial barcoding snATAC-seq and identified 12 clusters, including multiple alpha, beta and delta cell states. We cataloged 228,873 accessible chromatin sites and identified transcription factors underlying lineage- and state-specific regulation. Read More

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Transcriptional networks in at-risk individuals identify signatures of type 1 diabetes progression.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Mar;13(587)

Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology and Infectious Disease, Jeffrey Cheah Biomedical Centre, Cambridge CB2 0AW, UK.

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a disease of insulin deficiency that results from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islet β cells. The exact cause of T1D remains unknown, although asymptomatic islet autoimmunity lasting from weeks to years before diagnosis raises the possibility of intervention before the onset of clinical disease. The number, type, and titer of islet autoantibodies are associated with long-term disease risk but do not cause disease, and robust early predictors of individual progression to T1D onset remain elusive. Read More

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Why pancreatic islets should be regarded and regulated like organs.

CellR4 Repair Replace Regen Reprogram 2021 16;9. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Section on Islet Cell and Regenerative Biology, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

There are strong reasons to say that pancreatic islets are organs before they are isolated and that they should be considered to be organs once transplanted. Thus, taking into account how much we have learned about the structure and function of islet micro-organs, it seems highly illogical to on one hand consider autologous islets be regulated as organ transplants and alloislets to be regulated with the very restrictive rules used for cell transplantation. It is particularly problematic that this policy has led to restrictions that have made it next to impossible for transplants of alloislets to be carried out in the US, which is a very sad situation for the country that made so many of the advances that brought islet transplantation to the clinic. Read More

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Perilipin2 down-regulation in β cells impairs insulin secretion under nutritional stress and damages mitochondria.

JCI Insight 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, United States of America.

Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) is the lipid droplet (LD) protein in β cells that increases under nutritional stress. Down-regulation of PLIN2 is often sufficient to reduce LD accumulation. To determine whether PLIN2 positively or negatively affects β cell function under nutritional stress, PLIN2 was down-regulated in mouse β cells, INS1 cells, and human islet cells. Read More

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Maternal food consumption during late pregnancy and offspring risk of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes.

Diabetologia 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO, USA.

Aims/hypothesis: We aimed to investigate the association between maternal consumption of gluten-containing foods and other selected foods during late pregnancy and offspring risk of islet autoimmunity (IA) and type 1 diabetes in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study.

Methods: The TEDDY study recruited children at high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes at birth, and prospectively follows them for the development of IA and type 1 diabetes (n = 8556). A questionnaire on the mother's diet in late pregnancy was completed by 3-4 months postpartum. Read More

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Effects of Islet Transplantation on Microvascular and Macrovascular Complications in Type 1 Diabetes.

Diabet Med 2021 Mar 29:e14570. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

BHF Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Type 1 diabetes is associated with high morbidity and mortality from microvascular and macrovascular disease with considerable economic cost to society. Islet cell transplantation (ICT) is a treatment option recommended by NICE for people with debilitating hypoglycaemia due to Type 1 diabetes, including those with renal failure where kidney transplantation may also be indicated. The primary aim of ICT is to improve glycaemic control, reduce severe hypoglycaemia, stabilise glycaemic variability and restore awareness of hypoglycaemia where this is compromised. Read More

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Lessons from Human Islet Transplantation Inform Stem Cell-Based Approaches in the Treatment of Diabetes.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 11;12:636824. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by the body's inability to control blood glucose levels within a physiological range due to loss and/or dysfunction of insulin producing beta cells. Progressive beta cell loss leads to hyperglycemia and if untreated can lead to severe complications and/or death. Treatments at this time are limited to pharmacologic therapies, including exogenous insulin or oral/injectable agents that improve insulin sensitivity or augment endogenous insulin secretion. Read More

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Excitatory Impact of Dental Occlusion on Dorsal Motor Nucleus of Vagus.

Front Neural Circuits 2021 12;15:638000. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi International Joint Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Oral Anatomy and Physiology, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Neurons in the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vme) have axons that branch peripherally to innervate the orofacial region and project centrally to several motor nuclei in brainstem. The dorsal motor nucleus of vagus nerve (DMV) resides in the brainstem and takes a role in visceral motor function such as pancreatic exocrine secretion. The present study aimed to demonstrate the presence of Vme-DMV circuit, activation of which would elicit a trigeminal neuroendocrine response. Read More

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A new hypothetical model for pancreatic development based on change in the cell division orientation.

Gene 2021 Mar 26;785:145607. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Science & Technology, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jerib Ave., Azadi Sq., Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

Although lifelong renewal and additional compensatory growth in response to demand are undeniable facts, so far, no specific stem cells have been found for pancreatic cells. According to the consensus model, the development of pancreas results from the hierarchical differentiation of pluripotent stem cells towards the appearance of the first endocrine and exocrine cells at approximately 7.5 to 8th gestation week (GW) of human embryo. Read More

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