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Effectiveness of first-line abiraterone versus enzalutamide among patients ≥80 years of age with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: A retrospective propensity score-weighted comparative cohort study.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jun 11;152:215-222. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Medicine, Medical Oncology Division, BC Cancer, Vancouver Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) disproportionately affects the elderly. There is limited data assessing the efficacy and tolerability of abiraterone acetate (AA) versus enzalutamide in this population.

Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy and tolerability of AA versus enzalutamide in patients ≥ 80 years with mCRPC. Read More

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Promoting inclusive metrics of success and impact to dismantle a discriminatory reward system in science.

PLoS Biol 2021 Jun 15;19(6):e3001282. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, New Foundland, Canada.

Success and impact metrics in science are based on a system that perpetuates sexist and racist "rewards" by prioritizing citations and impact factors. These metrics are flawed and biased against already marginalized groups and fail to accurately capture the breadth of individuals' meaningful scientific impacts. We advocate shifting this outdated value system to advance science through principles of justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion. Read More

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Describing the Mental Health State of Nurses in British Columbia: A Province-Wide Survey Study.

Healthc Policy 2021 May;16(4):31-45

Case and Contact Management, Pandemic Response, Island Health; Former Consultant, Former Executive Councillor of Occupational Health and Safety, British Columbia Nurses' Union, Burnaby, BC.

A cross-sectional province-wide survey study of 3,978 British Columbia (BC) nurses was conducted to explore the mental health state of the nursing workforce in BC. About one third of nurses reported depression and anxiety; about half reported symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and at least one third reported high levels of one or more dimensions of burnout. Mental health problems were about 1. Read More

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Cardiac surgeons' concerns, perceptions, and responses during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Card Surg 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California, USA.

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on health care and cardiac surgery. We report cardiac surgeons' concerns, perceptions, and responses during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: A detailed survey was sent to recruit participating adult cardiac surgery centers in North America. Read More

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The largest moss carpet transplant in Antarctica and its bryosphere cryptic biodiversity.

Extremophiles 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

As part of the reconstruction of the Brazilian Antarctic Station on King George Island, three areas of moss carpet were transplanted to minimize the impact of the new facilities on the local biodiversity. A total of 650 m of moss carpet was transplanted to neighboring but previously uncolonized locations and has subsequently survived for the last 3 years. Antarctic moss carpets typically comprise low moss species diversity and are often monospecific. Read More

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Ice-shelf retreat drives recent Pine Island Glacier speedup.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 11;7(24). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK.

Speedup of Pine Island Glacier over the past several decades has made it Antarctica's largest contributor to sea-level rise. The past speedup is largely due to grounding-line retreat in response to ocean-induced thinning that reduced ice-shelf buttressing. While speeds remained fairly steady from 2009 to late 2017, our Copernicus Sentinel 1A/B-derived velocity data show a >12% speedup over the past 3 years, coincident with a 19-km retreat of the ice shelf. Read More

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[Basic life support].

Notf Rett Med 2021 Jun 2:1-20. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Warwick Clinical Trials Unit, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL Coventry, Großbritannien.

The European Resuscitation Council has produced these basic life support guidelines, which are based on the 2020 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Science with Treatment Recommendations. The topics covered include cardiac arrest recognition, alerting emergency services, chest compressions, rescue breaths, automated external defibrillation (AED), cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality measurement, new technologies, safety, and foreign body airway obstruction. Read More

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[Executive summary].

Notf Rett Med 2021 Jun 2:1-72. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Warwick Clinical Trials Unit, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL Coventry, Großbritannien.

Informed by a series of systematic reviews, scoping reviews and evidence updates from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, the 2021 European Resuscitation Council Guidelines present the most up to date evidence-based guidelines for the practice of resuscitation across Europe. The guidelines cover the epidemiology of cardiac arrest; the role that systems play in saving lives, adult basic life support, adult advanced life support, resuscitation in special circumstances, post resuscitation care, first aid, neonatal life support, paediatric life support, ethics and education. Read More

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Randomized Phase III Postoperative Trial of Platinum-Based Chemotherapy Versus Capecitabine in Patients With Residual Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: ECOG-ACRIN EA1131.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 6:JCO2100976. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Comprehensive Cancer Center, Indianapolis, IN.

Purpose: Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and residual invasive disease (RD) after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) have a high-risk for recurrence, which is reduced by adjuvant capecitabine. Preclinical models support the use of platinum agents in the TNBC basal subtype. The EA1131 trial hypothesized that invasive disease-free survival (iDFS) would not be inferior but improved in patients with basal subtype TNBC treated with adjuvant platinum compared with capecitabine. Read More

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Natural climate solutions for Canada.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 4;7(23). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada, Victoria, BC, Canada.

Alongside the steep reductions needed in fossil fuel emissions, natural climate solutions (NCS) represent readily deployable options that can contribute to Canada's goals for emission reductions. We estimate the mitigation potential of 24 NCS related to the protection, management, and restoration of natural systems that can also deliver numerous co-benefits, such as enhanced soil productivity, clean air and water, and biodiversity conservation. NCS can provide up to 78. Read More

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Evolution of castration-resistant prostate cancer in ctDNA during sequential androgen receptor pathway inhibition.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Vancouver Prostate Centre, Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia

Purpose: Cross-resistance renders multiple lines of androgen receptor (AR) signaling inhibitors increasingly futile in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We sought to determine acquired genomic contributors to cross-resistance.

Experimental Design: We collected 458 serial plasma cell-free DNA samples at baseline and progression timepoints from 202 mCRPC patients receiving sequential AR signaling inhibitors (abiraterone and enzalutamide) in a randomized phase II clinical trial (NCT02125357). Read More

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Advance Requests for Medical Assistance in Dying in Dementia: a Survey Study of Dementia Care Specialists.

Can Geriatr J 2021 Jun 1;24(2):82-95. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.

Background: Current Canadian Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD) legislation requires individuals to have the mental capacity to consent at the time of the procedure. Advance requests for MAiD (ARs for MAiD) could allow individuals to document conditions where MAiD would be desired in the setting of progressive dementia.

Methods: Greater Vancouver area dementia care clinicians from family practice, geriatric medicine, geriatric psychiatry, and palliative care were approached to participate in an online survey to assess attitudes around the appropriateness of ARs for MAiD. Read More

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In Pursuit of Healthy Aging: Effects of Nutrition on Brain Function.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 10;22(9). Epub 2021 May 10.

Neuroscience Graduate Program, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88040-900, SC, Brazil.

Consuming a balanced, nutritious diet is important for maintaining health, especially as individuals age. Several studies suggest that consuming a diet rich in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory components such as those found in fruits, nuts, vegetables, and fish may reduce age-related cognitive decline and the risk of developing various neurodegenerative diseases. Numerous studies have been published over the last decade focusing on nutrition and how this impacts health. Read More

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Controversies and lessons from the history of smallpox: the case of massive vaccination in British Corfu (1852).

Infez Med 2021 Jun;29(2):284-291

Department of Microbiology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.

The study presents an anti-vaccination action in the 19th century involving both scientific and political motivation. The research is based on an unpublished archive, namely the registries of the British Executive Police during the massive vaccination campaign in Corfu, the capital of the British possession in the Ionian Islands-Greece (1815-1864), after the smallpox outbreak of 1852. The archival material provides information about the number of vaccinated people, namely their sex, age, nationality, the year of the previous vaccination, along with the last year when a citizen "had smallpox". Read More

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Redescription of (Dana, 1853) (Crustacea, Isopoda, Sphaeromatidae), designation of neotype, and 16S-rDNA molecular phylogeny of the north-eastern Pacific species.

Zookeys 2021 13;1037:23-56. Epub 2021 May 13.

Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Australia Queensland Museum Brisbane Australia.

(Dana, 1852) is revised, a male neotype is designated, photographed, and illustrated; the species occurs from Vancouver British Columbia to the central California coast. 16S-rDNA sequences (~650 bp) for all available ethanol preserved species of were used to hypothesize their relationships. Our analyses revealed a sister taxon relationship between the fully marine and the brackish to freshwater species, . Read More

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Hemispheric asymmetry in ocean change and the productivity of ecosystem sentinels.

Science 2021 05;372(6545):980-983

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, AK, USA.

Climate change and other human activities are causing profound effects on marine ecosystem productivity. We show that the breeding success of seabirds is tracking hemispheric differences in ocean warming and human impacts, with the strongest effects on fish-eating, surface-foraging species in the north. Hemispheric asymmetry suggests the need for ocean management at hemispheric scales. Read More

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Body-mass index, blood pressure, diabetes and cardiovascular mortality in Cuba: prospective study of 146,556 participants.

BMC Public Health 2021 05 27;21(1):963. Epub 2021 May 27.

Nuffield Department of Population Health (NDPH), University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Cardiovascular disease accounts for about one-third of all premature deaths (ie, age < 70) in Cuba. Yet, the relevance of major risk factors, including systolic blood pressure (SBP), diabetes, and body-mass index (BMI), to cardiovascular mortality in this population remains unclear.

Methods: In 1996-2002, 146,556 adults were recruited from the general population in five areas of Cuba. Read More

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Biotechnological interventions and genetic diversity assessment in Swertia sp.: a myriad source of valuable secondary metabolites.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jun 26;105(11):4427-4451. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Life Sciences, Presidency University, 86/1 College Street, Kolkata, 700073, India.

The genus Swertia (Family: Gentianaceae) has cosmopolitan distribution which is present in almost all the continents except South America and Australia. Swertia genus has been renowned as one of the potent herbal drugs in the British, American, and Chinese Pharmacopeias as well as well-documented in the Indian traditional medicinal systems, viz. Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani. Read More

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High Prevalence and Incidence of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Among Women Across Pregnancy and the Postpartum.

J Clin Psychiatry 2021 Mar 23;82(2). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

During the perinatal period, women are at an increased risk for the onset/exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and may experience perinatal-specific obsessions and/or compulsions. Past research has provided preliminary findings regarding the prevalence of OCD in the perinatal period but has often reported limited metrics and ignored perinatal specific symptoms. This research aimed to assess the prevalence and incidence of maternal OCD between the third trimester in pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. Read More

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Neonatal and Adolescent Adipocytokines as Predictors of Adiposity and Cardiometabolic Risk in Adolescence.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2021 06;29(6):1036-1045

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

Objective: This study aimed to examine associations of changes in leptin and adiponectin concentrations from birth to age 12 years with adolescent adiposity and cardiometabolic risk in the Health Outcomes and Measures of Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective birth cohort (Cincinnati, Ohio; N = 166).

Methods: Adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed at age 12 years using anthropometry, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and fasting serum biomarkers. Cardiometabolic risk scores were calculated by summing age- and sex- standardized z scores for individual cardiometabolic risk factors. Read More

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COVID-19 Epidemic in Malaysia: Epidemic Progression, Challenges, and Response.

Front Public Health 2021 7;9:560592. Epub 2021 May 7.

Provenue Corporation Sdn Bhd, Subang Jaya, Malaysia.

COVID-19 pandemic is the greatest communicable disease outbreak to have hit Malaysia since the 1918 Spanish Flu which killed 34,644 people or 1% of the population of the then British Malaya. In 1999, the Nipah virus outbreak killed 105 Malaysians, while the SARS outbreak of 2003 claimed only 2 lives. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has so far claimed over 100 Malaysian lives. Read More

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[The autopsy of Napoleon Bonaparte: Anatomo-pathological development for the bicentenary of the death of Napoleon I on the island of Saint Helena in 1821].

Ann Pathol 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Sorbonne université, AP-HP, hôpital Saint-Antoine, service d'anatomie et cytologie pathologiques, Paris, France.

Napoleon Bonaparte died on 5 May 1821 on the island of St Helena after almost six years of exile. The next day, Dr Francesco Antommarchi, a Corsican doctor chosen by the Bonaparte family to treat the exiled emperor, performed the autopsy in the presence of sixteen people, including seven British doctors. Two hundred years after the event of 6 May 1821, the cause of Napoleon's death is still a mystery. Read More

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Use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among urban Canadian gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men: a cross-sectional analysis of the Engage cohort study.

CMAJ Open 2021 Apr-Jun;9(2):E529-E538. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health (Cox, Moodie, Maheu-Giroux), McGill University; Direction régionale de santé publique, Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux Centre-Sud-de-l'Ile-de-Montréal (Cox, Apelian, Messier-Peet, Lambert); Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (Apelian, Messier-Peet), Montréal, Que.; Department of Psychology (Hart, Skakoon-Sparling, Rodrigues, Noor), Ryerson University; Dalla Lana School of Public Health (Grace), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.; British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS (Moore, Armstrong, Olarewaju); Faculty of Medicine (Moore), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC; School of Public Health & Social Policy (Lachowsky), Faculty of Human & Social Development, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC; Department of Psychology (Armstrong), University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; Community-Based Research Centre (Jollimore), Vancouver, BC; Division of Infectious Diseases (Tan), St. Michael's Hospital; Department of Medicine (Tan), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.; Department of Family Medicine (Lebouché), Faculty of Medicine, McGill University; Centre for Outcomes Research and Evaluation (Lebouché), Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre; Centre de recherche du centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (Tremblay); Institut national de santé publique du Québec (Lambert), Montréal, Que.

Background: In Canada, gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) are disproportionately affected by HIV. Our objective was to describe access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and identify factors associated with not using PrEP among self-reported HIV-negative or HIV-unknown GBM.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis of the Engage study cohort. Read More

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VALUE study: a protocol for a qualitative semi-structured interview study of IVF add-ons use by patients, clinicians and embryologists in the UK and Australia.

BMJ Open 2021 05 21;11(5):e047307. Epub 2021 May 21.

Oncology and Metabolism, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Introduction: For couples undergoing assisted reproduction, a plethora of adjuncts are available; these are known as 'add-ons'. Most add-ons are not supported by good quality randomised trial evidence of efficacy, with some proven to be ineffective. However, estimates suggest that over 70% of fertility clinics provide at least one add-on, often at extra cost to the patient. Read More

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Congenital Diseases in Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina richardsii) from the Salish Sea.

J Wildl Dis 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

The SeaDoc Society, UC Davis Karen C. Drayer Wildlife Health Center-Orcas Island Office, 942 Deer Harbor Road, Eastsound, Washington 98245, USA.

Postmortem data for harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsii) in the Salish Sea were analyzed for epidemiologic trends in congenital diseases. Cleft palate, cleft lips, or both (n=8) and cardiac defects (n=5) were the most common congenital abnormalities, followed by cases with multiple defects (n=4). No temporal trends or spatial clusters of cases were seen from 2003 to 2019, during which time monitoring effort was consistent. Read More

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LRWD1 expression is regulated through DNA methylation in human testicular embryonal carcinoma cells.

Basic Clin Androl 2021 May 20;31(1):12. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Biological Sciences and Technology, National University of Tainan, No.33, Sec. 2, Shulin St., West Central District, Tainan City, 700, Taiwan.

Background: Sperm growth and maturation are correlated with the expression levels of Leucine-rich repeat and WD repeat-containing protein 1 (LRWD1), a widely expressed protein in the human testicles. The decrease in LRWD1 cellular level was linked to the reduction in cell growth and mitosis and the rise in cell microtubule atrophy rates. Since DNA methylation has a major regulatory role in gene expression, this study aimed at exploring the effect of the modulation of DNA methylation on LRWD1 expression levels. Read More

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Mindfulness-based stress reduction for medical students: a narrative review.

Can Med Educ J 2021 Apr 30;12(2):e74-e80. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Island Medical Program, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

Background: Medical students are at high risk of depression, distress and burnout, which may adversely affect patient safety. There has been growing interest in mindfulness in medical education to improve medical student well-being. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a commonly used, standardized format for teaching mindfulness skills. Read More

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Submarine landslide megablocks show half of Anak Krakatau island failed on December 22nd, 2018.

Nat Commun 2021 05 14;12(1):2827. Epub 2021 May 14.

Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi, PTRRB-TPSA, DKI Jakarta, Java, Jakarta, Indonesia.

As demonstrated at Anak Krakatau on December 22, 2018, tsunamis generated by volcanic flank collapse are incompletely understood and can be devastating. Here, we present the first high-resolution characterisation of both subaerial and submarine components of the collapse. Combined Synthetic Aperture Radar data and aerial photographs reveal an extensive subaerial failure that bounds pre-event deformation and volcanic products. Read More

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