6,876 results match your criteria irr

Do Loneliness and Perceived Social Isolation Reduce Expected Longevity and Increase the Frequency of Dealing With Death and Dying? Longitudinal Findings Based on a Nationally Representative Sample.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Health Economics and Health Services Research, Hamburg Center for Health Economics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Objectives: Loneliness and social isolation are important factors for morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about whether increases in loneliness and perceived social isolation contribute to decreased expectations of longevity and an increased frequency of dealing with death and dying. Consequently, our aim was to clarify these relationships. Read More

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The Epidemiology of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Thailand over 13 years (2005 - 2017): A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

J Peripher Nerv Syst 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Background: There have been no published studies examining the epidemiology of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in large populations in Thailand.

Aims: This study aimed to explore the incidence, patient characteristics, seasonality, treatments, and outcomes of GBS in Thailand.

Methods: The National Health Security Office (NHSO) provided data on in-patient admission between fiscal year 2005 and 2017. Read More

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The hospital admission profile of people presenting to specialist addiction services with problematic use of alcohol or opioids: A national retrospective cohort study in England.

Lancet Reg Health Eur 2021 Apr;3:100036

National Addiction Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London and South London and the Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom.

Background: Over the past decade in England the rate of alcohol and opioid-related hospitalisation has increased alongside a simultaneous reduction in people accessing specialist addiction treatment. We aimed to determine the hospitalisation patterns of people presenting to addiction treatment with problematic use of alcohol or opioids, and estimate how individual sociodemographic characteristics and hospital admission diagnoses are associated with the rate of hospitalisation, death and successful completion of addiction treatment.

Methods: A national record linkage between Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) and the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (NDTMS) captured lifetime hospital admission profiles of people presenting to addiction services in England in 2018/19. Read More

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Evaluation of hepatitis C treatment-as-prevention within Australian prisons (SToP-C): a prospective cohort study.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

The Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Limited empirical evidence exists for the effectiveness of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment-as-prevention. The Surveillance and Treatment of Prisoners with hepatitis C (SToP-C) study aimed to assess the effect of HCV treatment-as-prevention in the prison setting.

Methods: SToP-C was a prospective study, including a before-and-after analysis, within a cohort of people incarcerated in two maximum-security prisons (male) and two medium-security prisons (one male, one female) in New South Wales, Australia. Read More

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Live Observational Objective Assessment of Operative Performance in a Cadaveric Model is Equivalent to Delayed Video-Based Assessment.

Arthroscopy 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, Ulster University; Londonderry, UK Prof; Director of Research and Learning, ORSI Academy. Proefhoevestraat 12 | 9090 Melle, Belgium.

Purpose: The purpose of our study was to compare real time, live observational scoring with delayed retrospective video review of operative performance, and to determine if the evaluation method affected attainment of proficiency benchmarks.

Methods: Sixteen arthroscopy / sports medicine fellows and two senior residents completed training to perform arthroscopic Bankart (ABR) and rotator cuff repairs (ARCR) using a proficiency-based progression curriculum. Each final operative performance for 15 randomly selected ABRs and 13 ARCRs performed on cadavers were scored live (observation during the operative performance) and on delayed video review (6 - 8 weeks) by one of fifteen trained raters using validated metric-based (step and error) assessment tools. Read More

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The effect of age when initiating anti-seizure medication therapy on fragility fracture risk for children with epilepsy.

Bone 2021 May 5;149:115996. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Background: Anti-seizure medication (ASM) is necessary to manage epilepsy and often prescribed to children and adolescents, but can lead to iatrogenic effects, including bone fragility by altering bone metabolism. Disrupting bone metabolism during crucial developmental stages could have a lasting adverse effect on bone health. Therefore, the objective of this propensity score-matched, observational cohort study was to determine if age when initiating ASM therapy across developmental stages (from pre- to post-puberty) for individuals with epilepsy was associated with an increased risk of fragility fracture. Read More

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Comparative international incidence of Ewing Sarcoma 1988-2012.

Int J Cancer 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Ewing Sarcoma (ES) is the second most common primary bone tumor in children and adolescents. There are few known epidemiological or genetic risk factors for ES. Numerous reports describe incidence rates and trends within the United States, but international comparisons are sparse. Read More

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Association of Low-Dose Quetiapine and Diabetes.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e213209. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Public Health, Clinical Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Environmental Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Importance: Quetiapine has been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes when used in medium or high doses for the treatment of severe mental disorders. It is not known whether low doses, commonly used off-label for sedative-hypnotic purposes, are also associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

Objective: To investigate whether there is an association between prescription of low-dose quetiapine and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Read More

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Sex differences in the vascular access of hemodialysis patients: a cohort study.

Clin Kidney J 2021 May 6;14(5):1412-1418. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Libin Cardiovascular Institute, Department of Cardiac Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Background: We describe differences for probability of receiving a fistula attempt, achieving fistula use, remaining catheter-free and the rate of access-related procedures as a function of sex.

Methods: Prospectively collected vascular access data on incident dialysis patients from five Canadian programs using the Dialysis Measurement Analysis and Reporting System to determine differences in fistula-related outcomes between women and men. The probability of receiving a fistula attempt and the probability of fistula use were determined using binary logistic regression. Read More

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Frequent attenders of three outpatient health care schemes in Finland: characteristics and association with long-term sickness absences, 2016-2018.

BMC Public Health 2021 May 6;21(1):870. Epub 2021 May 6.

The Social Insurance Institution of Finland, P.O. Box 450, 00056 KELA, Helsinki, Finland.

Objectives: Frequent attenders (FAs) impose a significant burden on service capacity and public health funding. Although the characteristics of the group and their risk for sickness absences (SA) have been studied, an understanding of FAs in different health care schemes is lacking. The aim of the study was to investigate FAs and their SA risk in the working-age population in public care, occupational health services (OHS) and private care schemes. Read More

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Association Between Vaccination With BNT162b2 and Incidence of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infections Among Health Care Workers.

JAMA 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Importance: Randomized clinical trials have provided estimates of the effectiveness of the BNT162b2 vaccine against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, but its effect on asymptomatic infections remains unclear.

Objective: To estimate the association of vaccination with the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 vaccine with symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections among health care workers.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study conducted at a tertiary medical center in Tel Aviv, Israel. Read More

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The BNT162b2 Vaccine is Associated with Lower New COVID-19 Cases in Nursing Home Residents and Staff.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Center for Health Policy and Evaluation in LTC, American Health Care Association/National Center for Assisted Living (AHCA/NCAL), Washington, DC.

Background/objectives: The effectiveness of the BNT162b2 vaccine on preventing spread of COVID-19 and deaths in nursing homes (NH) is unknown.

Design: We used zero-inflated negative binomial mixed effects regressions to model the associations of time since the vaccine clinic ending the week of December 27, 2020 (cohort 1), January 3, 2021 (cohort 2) or January 10, 2021 (cohort 3) controlling for county rate of COVID-19, bed size, urban location, racial and ethnic census, and level of registered nurses with resident cases and deaths of COVID-19 and staff cases of COVID-19.

Setting & Participants: All 2,501 NHs who held a vaccine clinic from the first 17 states to initiate clinics as part of the Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program. Read More

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Patients with geographic barriers to health care access are prescribed a higher proportion of drugs with pharmacogenetic testing guidelines.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing may be particularly beneficial in medically underserved populations by reducing the number of appointments required to optimize drug therapy and increasing the effectiveness of less expensive off-patent drugs. The objective of this study was to identify patient populations with poor health care access and assess prescribing trends for drugs with published PGx testing guidelines. We used electronic health record data from 67,753 University of Florida Health patients, geographic access scores calculated via the 2-step floating catchment area method, and a composite measure of socioeconomic status. Read More

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A cluster-randomized controlled trial of a combination HIV risk reduction and microfinance intervention for female sex workers who use drugs in Kazakhstan.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 May;24(5):e25682

Global Health Research Center of Central Asia, Columbia University School of Social Work, New York, NY, USA.

Introduction: Female sex workers (FSW) who use drugs are a key population at risk of HIV in Kazakhstan, and face multiple structural barriers to HIV prevention. More research is needed on the role of structural interventions such as microfinance (MF) in reducing HIV risk. This paper describes the results of a cluster-randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a combination HIVRR + MF intervention in reducing biologically confirmed STIs and HIV risk behaviours. Read More

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Atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Jena, Germany. Electronic address:

Objective: New-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) after cardiac surgery is common, with rates up to 60%. POAF has been associated with early and late stroke, but its association with other cardiovascular outcomes is less known. The objective was to perform a meta-analysis of the studies reporting the association of POAF with perioperative and long-term outcomes in patients with cardiac surgery. Read More

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The Sit Up Squat Stand test and Hand Grip Strength: What is the role of tests of muscle power in risk assessment in Anorexia Nervosa?

Eur Eat Disord Rev 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Medicine, University College London (UCL), London, UK.

Objectives: To investigate the validity and reliability of two variants of the Sit Up Squat Stand Test (SUSS) and Hand Grip Strength (HGS) in predicting BMI and BMI risk level in hospitalised patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN).

Methods: 25 inpatients with AN were tested roughly weekly for up to 16 weeks. Muscle power was assessed by two independent researchers. Read More

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Influence of malocclusion on oral health-related quality of life in children: a seven-year cohort study.

Dental Press J Orthod 2021 30;26(2):e2119244. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Departamento de Estomatologia, Faculdade de Odontologia (Santa Maria/RS, Brazil).

Objective: To assess the influence of early childhood malocclusion on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL).

Methods: 7-year cohort study involving 639 preschoolers (1 to 5 years) who had been evaluated initially with a survey conduced in 2010. Children completed the Brazilian version of the Child Perception Questionnaire (CPQ8-10) to assess OHRQoL during the follow-up period. Read More

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Influence of Opioid Prescription Policy on Overdoses and Related Adverse Effects in a Primary Care Population.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Medicine, Maine Medical Center, Portland, Maine, 04102, USA.

Background: In response to the opioid epidemic, many states have enacted policies limiting opioid prescriptions. There is a paucity of evidence of the impact of opioid prescribing interventions in primary care populations, including whether unintended consequences arise from limiting the availability of prescribed opioids.

Objective: Our aim was to compare changes in opioid overdose and related adverse effects rate among primary care patients following the implementation of state-level prescribing policies. Read More

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Factors influencing thrombectomy decision making for primary medium vessel occlusion stroke.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Diagnostic Imaging, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Background: We aimed to explore the preference of stroke physicians to treat patients with primary medium vessel occlusion (MeVO) stroke with immediate endovascular treatment (EVT) in an international cross-sectional survey, as there is no clear guideline recommendation for EVT in these patients.

Methods: In the survey MeVO-Finding Rationales and Objectifying New Targets for IntervEntional Revascularization in Stroke (MeVO-FRONTIERS), participants were shown four cases of primary MeVOs (six scenarios per case) and asked whether they would treat those patients with EVT. Multivariable logistic regression with clustering by respondent was performed to assess factors influencing the decision to treat. Read More

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Factors associated with the length of stay at health facilities after childbirth among mothers and newborns in Dhading, Nepal: a cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2021 May 4;11(5):e042058. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Community and Global Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: To measure the length of stay at a health facility after childbirth, identify factors associated with the length of stay and measure the gap between the timings of the last check-up and discharge.

Design: A cross-sectional study.

Setting: Five public health facilities in Dhading, Nepal. Read More

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Analysis of Pneumonia Occurrence in Relation to Climate Change in Tanga, Tanzania.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 29;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Center for Space and Remote Sensing Research, National Central University, Taoyuan City 320, Taiwan.

In 2018, 70% of global fatalities due to pneumonia occurred in about fifteen countries, with Tanzania being among the top eight countries contributing to these deaths. Environmental and individual factors contributing to these deaths may be multifaceted, but they have not yet been explored in Tanzania. Therefore, in this study, we explore the association between climate change and the occurrence of pneumonia in the Tanga Region, Tanzania. Read More

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Frequency and Characteristics of Injuries and Rehabilitation Procedures in Rugby Players in Poland and France.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 30;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Emergency Medicine and Disaster Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, 92-213 Lodz, Poland.

: Rugby is sport with a high risk of injury. Repeated changes in exercise intensity and the high training intensity may cause to overuse injuries and long-term disability. The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of injuries during trainings and forms of rehabilitation procedures performed after their occurrence among elite and sub-elite rugby players. Read More

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Economic Analysis of the Use of VCS2000 for Pork Carcass Meat Yield Grading in Korea.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, College of Agricultural and Life Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseoung-gu, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Currently, the pork industry is incorporating in-line automation with the aim of increasing the slaughtered pork carcass throughput while monitoring quality and safety. In Korea, 21 parameters (such as back-fat thickness and carcass weight) are used for quality grading of pork carcasses. Recently, the VCS2000 system-an automatic meat yield grading machine system-was introduced to enhance grading efficiency and therefore increase pork carcass production. Read More

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Impact of coronary stenting on top of medical therapy and of inclusion of periprocedural infarctions on hard composite endpoints in patients with chronic coronary syndromes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Minerva Cardiol Angiol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Italian IRCCS Cardiovascular Network, Genoa, Italy -

Background: Composite endpoints are pivotal when assessing rare outcomes over relatively short follow-ups. Most randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation to optimal medical therapy (OMT) in chronic coronary syndromes (CCS) patients included both hard and soft outcomes in their primary endpoint, with periprocedural myocardial infarctions (MIs) systematically allocated to the PCI arm. We metaanalysed the above RCTs for composite hard endpoints, with and without periprocedural MIs. Read More

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Temporal trends in annual incidence rates for psychiatric disorders and self-harm among children and adolescents in the UK, 2003-2018.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 05 3;21(1):229. Epub 2021 May 3.

Centre for Mental Health & Safety, Division of Psychology & Mental Health, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine, and Health, The University of Manchester and Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.

Background: There has been growing concern in the UK over recent years that a perceived mental health crisis is affecting children and adolescents, although published epidemiological evidence is limited.

Methods: Two population-based UK primary care cohorts were delineated in the Aurum and GOLD datasets of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). We included data from 9,133,246 individuals aged 1-20 who contributed 117,682,651 person-years of observation time. Read More

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Proton pump inhibitor use is associated with increased rates of post-TIPS hepatic encephalopathy: Replication in an independent patient cohort.

Clin Imaging 2021 Apr 29;77:187-192. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Division of Vascular & Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, DUMC 3808, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use is a potential risk factor for hepatic encephalopathy (HE), but few studies have examined the effect on post-TIPS HE. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PPIs are associated with increased rates of post-TIPS HE in an independent patient cohort.

Materials And Methods: This single-institution retrospective study analyzed 86 patients (54 male, mean age 58. Read More

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Effects of home-based physical exercise on days at home, healthcare utilization and functional independence among patients with hip fractures: a randomized controlled trial.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Rehabilitation, South Karelia Social and Health Care District (Eksote), Valto Käkelän katu 3, FI-53130 Lappeenranta, Finland.

Objective: To evaluate the effects of a physical exercise program on days lived at home, the use and costs of healthcare and social services mortality and functional independence among patients with hip fractures.

Design: Randomized controlled trial with parallel two-group design, consisting of a 12-month intervention and 12-month registry follow-up.

Setting: Home-based intervention. Read More

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Dynamic risk allows us to adequately select patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who do not require radioiodine treatment.

Arch Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Division of Endocrinology, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina,

Objective: The treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) was modified in the last decade towards a more individualized approach according to the risk of recurrence (RR). We compared the outcomes of patients with low and intermediate RR (LRR and IRR) who received or did not receive radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) after assessing the dynamic risk.

Methods: We included 307 DTC patients with LRR and IRR submitted to total thyroidectomy. Read More

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Assessing Differences in Concussion Symptom Knowledge and Sources of Information Among Black and White Collegiate-Athletes.

J Head Trauma Rehabil 2021 May-Jun 01;36(3):139-148

Department of Health Science, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Department of Athletic Training, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Dr Beidler); Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Drs Kerr and Register-Mihalik); and Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing (Mss Hibbler and Anderson).

Objective: Basic concussion symptom knowledge is fundamental to concussion identification; however, racial disparities in concussion knowledge exist in high school and youth sports. It is unknown whether similar differences exist in collegiate-athletes. Identifying racial disparities in concussion knowledge and sources of concussion information is essential to inform equitable approaches to knowledge translation and educational interventions. Read More

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J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center University of Washington Department of Surgery University of Washington University of Washington University of Washington Medical College of Wisconsin Gundersen Health System Mercy Health, Muskegon, MI St. Vincent Indianapolis Hospital University of Utah University of Utah Oregon Health and Science University Oregon Health and Science University Mission Trauma Services, Asheville, NC Loma Linda University Loma Linda University Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center University of Washington University of Washington University of Washington.

Background: Single center data demonstrates that regional analgesia (RA) techniques are associated with reduced risk of delirium in older patients with multiple rib fractures. We hypothesized that a similar effect between RA and delirium would be identified in a larger cohort of patients from multiple Level I trauma centers.

Methods: Retrospective data from seven Level-I trauma centers were collected for ICU patients ≥65 years old with ≥3 rib fractures from 1/2012-12/2016. Read More

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