368 results match your criteria involvement overdose


Fatal opioid overdoses in the U.S. declined more than reported between 2017 and 2018.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2021 Jun 9:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.

: In U.S. death records, many drug overdoses do not have classified drug involvement, which challenges surveillance of opioid overdoses across time and space. Read More

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Strategies to improve implementation of medications for opioid use disorder reported by veterans involved in the legal system: A qualitative study.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Mar 4;129:108353. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Center for Innovation to Implementation (Ci2i), VA Palo Alto Health Care System, 795 Willow Road (152-MPD), Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA; National Center on Homelessness Among Veterans, Department of Veterans Affairs, 795 Willow Road (152-MPD), Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Veterans involved in the legal system have a high risk of overdose mortality but limited utilization of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD). To increase the use of MOUD in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities and reduce overdose mortality, the VHA should incorporate strategies identified by legal-involved veterans to improve quality of care and ensure that their patients' experiences are integrated into care delivery. This study aims to determine strategies to increase use of MOUD from the perspective of legal-involved veterans with a history of opioid use or opioid use disorder (OUD). Read More

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Evaluations of Continuing Health Provider Education Focused on Opioid Prescribing: A Scoping Review.

Acad Med 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

A. Sud is assistant professor, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8354-6153. G.R. Molska is research coordinator, Bridgepoint Collaboratory for Research and Innovation, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. F. Salamanca-Buentello is postdoctoral fellow, Bridgepoint Collaboratory for Research and Innovation, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3666-7785.

Purpose: Continuing health provider education (HPE) is an important intervention supported by health policy to counter the opioid epidemic; knowledge regarding appropriate program design and evaluation is lacking. The authors aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of evaluations of opioid-related continuing HPE programs and their appropriateness as interventions to improve population health.

Method: In January 2020, the authors conducted a systematic search of 7 databases, seeking studies of HPE programs on opioid analgesic prescribing and overdose prevention. Read More

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The perspectives of people who use drugs regarding short term involuntary substance use care for severe substance use disorders.

Int J Drug Policy 2021 May 28;97:103208. Epub 2021 May 28.

Centre for Applied Research in Mental Health and Addiction, Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 515 West Hastings Street, Vancouver, BC, V6B 5K3, Canada; British Columbia Centre on Substance Use. Electronic address:

Background: In the Canadian Province of British Columbia (BC), the BC Mental Health Act permits involuntary care for treating mental disorders. However, the Act has also been applied to provide involuntary care to individuals with a primary substance use disorder, in the absence of specific guidelines and legislation, and with insufficient understanding of perspectives of people who use drugs (PWUD) regarding this approach.

Methods: As part of a larger mixed-methods research project providing an overview of involuntary care for severe substance use disorders in BC, three focus groups were convened with: PWUD, families and caregivers, and Indigenous community stakeholders. Read More

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meningitis in kidney transplant recipients: A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

Med Mycol Case Rep 2021 Jun 4;32:84-87. Epub 2021 May 4.

Infectious Diseases Department, APHP, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris, France.

Cryptococcosis is the third most common invasive fungal infection in solid organ transplant recipients. We describe three cases of neuro-meningeal cryptococcosis occurring among kidney transplant (KT) patients, and discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in this context. Median time from KT to infection was 6 months [range: 3-9]. Read More

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Drugs and Drug Classes Involved in Overdose Deaths Among Females, United States: 1999-2017.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Drug overdose deaths among U.S. women have risen steadily from 1999 to 2017, especially among certain ages. Read More

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Explaining the Differences in Opioid Overdose Deaths between Scotland and England/Wales: Implications for European Opioid Policies.

Eur Addict Res 2021 May 7:1-14. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam UMC, Location AMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Backgrounds: Between 2009 and 2018, the number of opioid-related deaths (ORDs) in Scotland showed a dramatic increase, whereas in England and Wales, a much lower increase in ORD was seen. This regional difference is remarkable, and the situation in Scotland is worrisome. Therefore, it is important to identify the drivers of ORD in Scotland. Read More

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Decision-making by laypersons equipped with an emergency response smartphone app for opioid overdose.

Int J Drug Policy 2021 Apr 19;95:103250. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Community Health and Prevention, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Background: Targeted naloxone distribution to potential lay responders increases the timeliness of overdose response and reduces mortality. Little is known, however, about the patterns of decision-making among overdose lay responders. This study explored heuristic decision-making among laypersons equipped with an emergency response smartphone app. Read More

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Trends in substances involved in polysubstance overdose fatalities in Maryland, USA 2003-2019.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Jun 12;223:108700. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 624 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Background: The substances driving the overdose epidemic in the United States have changed over time. Since 2013, fentanyl-analogues have become the primary opioids driving the epidemic. Recently, polysubstance related deaths have come to the forefront of the epidemic. Read More

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Treatment Retention in Opioid Dependent Clients Receiving Medication-Assisted Treatment: Six-Month Rate and Baseline Correlates.

Subst Use Misuse 2021 11;56(7):1018-1023. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

University of Connecticut, School of Social Work, Hartford, Connecticut, USA.

Background: In the current opioid overdose epidemic, treatment retention among clients receiving medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for opioid dependence is a significant and growing concern among treatment providers, policymakers, and researchers. We examined a sample of clients enrolled in a federally funded MAT expansion program implemented in four sites in Connecticut. Program participants received MAT for their opioid use disorders (OUDs). Read More

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Bilateral cerebellar hemorrhagic infarcts as an early presentation following opioid-induced toxic encephalopathy in an adult patient.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 May 20;16(5):1207-1210. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

In the midst of the national opioid crisis, it is necessary for emergency physicians and radiologists to be familiar with presentations of opioid-related complications. We describe a case report of a 51-year-old female who developed bilateral cerebellar hemorrhages following opioid and benzodiazepine overdose. Malignant cerebellar edema is a rare but recognized complication following opiate overdose in children or chronic heroin toxicity. Read More

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Co-involvement of Opioids in Drug Overdose Deaths Involving Cocaine and Psychostimulants.

NCHS Data Brief 2021 Apr(406):1-8

Deaths from drug overdose continue to contribute to the public health burden in the United States (1). The increase in the rate of drug overdose deaths involving cocaine and psychostimulants has been well-documented in recent years (1-4). This NCHS Data Brief provides additional information on drug overdose deaths involving cocaine and other psychostimulants (drugs such as methamphetamine, amphetamine, and methylphenidate) by examining the concurrent involvement of opioids. Read More

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Functional characterization of N-octyl 4-methylamphetamine variants and related bivalent compounds at the dopamine and serotonin transporters using Ca channels as sensors.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 05 27;419:115513. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, United States of America. Electronic address:

The early characterization of ligands at the dopamine and serotonin transporters, DAT and SERT, respectively, is important for drug discovery, forensic sciences, and drug abuse research. 4-Methyl amphetamine (4-MA) is a good example of an abused drug whose overdose can be fatal. It is a potent substrate at DAT and SERT where its simplest secondary amine (N-methyl 4-MA) retains substrate activity at them. Read More

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Buprenorphine Treatment Intake and Critical Encounters following a Nonfatal Opioid Overdose.

Subst Use Misuse 2021 22;56(7):988-996. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Center for Behavioral Health and Justice, School of Social Work, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Background: Individuals with prior opioid-related overdose events have an increased risk for opioid-related mortality. Buprenorphine is a partial agonist that has shown to be an effective medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD). Yet, few studies have investigated whether buprenorphine reduces the risk of opioid-related mortality following a nonfatal opioid-related overdose. Read More

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Cannabis Use and Nonfatal Opioid Overdose among Patients Enrolled in Methadone Maintenance Treatment.

Subst Use Misuse 2021 22;56(5):697-703. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Some ecological studies found lower rates of opioid overdose in states with liberalized cannabis legislation, but results are mixed, and the association has not been analyzed in individuals. We quantified the association between cannabis use and nonfatal opioid overdose among individuals enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid use disorder (OUD).

Methods: We recruited a convenience sample of individuals enrolled in four MMT clinics in Washington State and southern New England who completed a one-time survey. Read More

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Characteristics of fatal opioid overdoses with stimulant involvement in Tennessee: A descriptive study using 2018 State Unintentional Drug Overdose Reporting System Data.

Ann Epidemiol 2021 Jun 17;58:149-155. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Tennessee Department of Health, Office of Informatics and Analytics, Nashville, TN.

Purpose: Opioid overdose deaths involving stimulants are on the rise. Demographic characteristics for these deaths to be used in prevention efforts have not been established.

Methods: We conducted a statewide retrospective study to evaluate the characteristics of fatal opioid overdoses with stimulant involvement using 2018 Tennessee State Unintentional Drug Overdose Reporting System data. Read More

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"They're not doing enough.": women's experiences with opioids and naloxone in Toronto.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2021 Mar 20;16(1):26. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

MAP Centre for Urban Health Solutions, St. Michael's Hospital, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, ON, M5B1W8, Canada.

Background: Amid increasing opioid overdose deaths in Canada since 2010 and a changing naloxone access landscape, there is a need for up-to-date research on Canadian women's experiences with opioids. Studies on Canadian take-home naloxone programs are promising, but research beyond these programs is limited. Our study is the first to focus on women's experiences and perspectives on the opioid crisis in Ontario, Canada's most populous province, since the opioid crisis began in 2010. Read More

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An Evaluation of Opioid Use in Black Communities: A Rapid Review of the Literature.

Harv Rev Psychiatry 2021 Mar-Apr 01;29(2):108-130

From the Division of Prevention and Community Research (Dr. Haeny), Department of Psychiatry (Dr. Jordan and Ms. Paltin), Yale University School of Medicine; Department of Psychiatry, University of Rochester (Dr. Mathis); The Consultation Center, New Haven, CT (Dr. Haeny); Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library, Yale University (Ms. Funaro); Studies of Religion Ethnicity Technology and Contextual Influences on Health, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, (Dr. Ransome).

Background: There are multiple aspects of the opioid crisis among Black people, who have been left out of the broader conversation. Despite evidence of increased opioid overdose deaths, less is known about opioid use among Black people. This review synthesizes research on Black people who use opioids; the goals are to advance knowledge, highlight research gaps, and inform clinical practice. Read More

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Tracing a path for opium gum from Mexico as a safe supply harm reduction measure for Canada.

Int J Drug Policy 2021 May 3;91:103066. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

International relations from the University of Tec de Monterrey, Artículo 123 #115, Mexico City, Mexico City 06000, Mexico.

Historically, the poppy plant has had multiple uses including as a food product and with medical uses in pain relief; today it is most commonly known as the plant from which heroin is derived. The United Nations international drug control regime currently only allows legal poppy production for medical use in 19 countries. Although Mexico is the third largest illegal poppy producer in the world, no Latin American country is currently allowed to legally produce poppies. Read More

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Trends in unintentional polysubstance overdose deaths and individual and community correlates of polysubstance overdose, North Carolina, 2009-2018.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 02 2;219:108504. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2101 McGavran-Greenberg Hall, CB #7435, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7435, United States; Injury Prevention Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 725 Martin Luther King Jr Blvd, Chapel Hill, NC, 27514, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Polysubstance involvement is increasing among fatal drug overdoses. However, little is known about the epidemiology of polysubstance drug overdoses. This paper describes emerging trends in unintentional polysubstance overdose deaths in North Carolina (NC) and examines associations with individual and community factors. Read More

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February 2021

"And we just have to keep going": Task shifting and the production of burnout among overdose response workers with lived experience.

Soc Sci Med 2021 02 5;270:113631. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, 1045 Howe Street, Vancouver, V6Z 1Y6, BC, Canada; Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States; Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, United States; Department of Anthropology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States. Electronic address:

Overdose response programs in North America increasingly employ task shifting-shifting overdose response tasks to less specialized workers-to increase effectiveness and promote involvement of people with lived/living experience of drug use (PWLE). In Canada, task shifting has occurred through community-driven implementation of overdose response programs staffed primarily by PWLE. The implications of this task shifting on workers' well-being and service delivery has received little scholarly consideration, despite reports of widespread burnout among frontline responders. Read More

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February 2021

Harm reduction in Europe: a framework for civil society-led monitoring.

Harm Reduct J 2021 Jan 6;18(1). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Correlation - European Harm Reduction Network, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Civil society organisations (CSOs) play a vital role in developing and implementing effective measures to reduce the harms of drug use. They are also fundamental actors to monitor and evaluate programmes and policies for improvement. While harm reduction services are subject to monitoring, and international and European indicators exist, a framework for civil society-led monitoring does not exist. Read More

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January 2021

Having a voice and saving lives: a qualitative survey on employment impacts of people with lived experience of drug use working in harm reduction.

Harm Reduct J 2021 Jan 6;18(1). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, 400 - 1045 Howe Street, Vancouver, BC, V6Z 2A9, Canada.

Background: Ongoing legal and social discrimination, and stigmatization of people with lived experience of drug use (PWLE) continues to contribute to overdose-related deaths in Canada. The involvement of PWLE working in harm reduction services has proven effective in decreasing drug-related harms among PWLE; however, there exist unintended negative impacts. PWLE working in harm reduction services risk overextending themselves beyond employment parameters (e. Read More

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January 2021

Reasons People Who Use Opioids Do Not Accept or Carry No-Cost Naloxone: Qualitative Interview Study.

JMIR Form Res 2020 Dec 23;4(12):e22411. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY, United States.

Background: Many people use opioids and are at risk of overdose. Naloxone is an opioid antagonist used to counter the effects of opioid overdose. There is an increased availability of naloxone in New York City; however, many who use opioids decline no-cost naloxone even when offered. Read More

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December 2020

Factors associated with drug checking service utilization among people who use drugs in a Canadian setting.

Harm Reduct J 2020 12 14;17(1):100. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, 400-1045 Howe Street, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: The United States and Canada are amidst an opioid overdose crisis, with the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC) among the hardest hit. In response, drug checking services (DCS) have been introduced in this setting as a novel pilot harm reduction intervention though little is known about usage rates. Therefore, we sought to identify factors associated with drug checking uptake among people who use drugs (PWUD) in Vancouver, BC. Read More

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December 2020

Characteristics of oxycodone-related ambulance attendances: analysis of temporal trends and the effect of reformulation in Victoria, Australia from 2013 to 2018.

Addiction 2020 Dec 9. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Monash Adiction Research Centre, Eastern Health Clinical School, Victoria, Australia.

Background And Aims: In Australia, oxycodone has been associated with increasing rates of harm over time, despite reduced use, reformulation to a tamper-resistant form and in contrast to most prescription opioids. We explored characteristics of oxycodone-related ambulance attendances to understand whether presentation characteristics could explain increasing oxycodone harm.

Design: Retrospective study of coded ambulance patient care records related to extramedical oxycodone use, January 2013 to September 2018. Read More

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December 2020

Factors associated with substance use disorder treatment completion: a cross-sectional analysis of justice-involved adolescents.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2020 12 7;15(1):92. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, 13201 Bruce B. Downs Blvd, MDC 56, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA.

Background: Substance use disorders (SUD) are prevalent among those in the juvenile justice system. SUD treatment programs implemented in correctional settings can prevent overdose and other health-related problems among an underserved health disparity population. However, only a fraction of justice-involved adolescents with SUDs complete a treatment program and the factors associated with treatment completion among adolescents in the criminal justice system have not been thoroughly investigated. Read More

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December 2020

Moderate Hypothermia Effectively Alleviates Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury With Prolonged Action Beyond Cooling.

Dose Response 2020 Oct-Dec;18(4):1559325820970846. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose accounts for the highest incidence of acute liver failure, despite the availability of an antidote i.e. N-acetylcysteine. Read More

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November 2020