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Copy number alterations identify a smoking-associated expression signature predictive of poor outcome in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Cancer Genet 2021 May 28;256-257:136-148. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Biochemistry, Program in Cancer Cell Biology USA. Electronic address:

Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), partially due to tobacco-induced large-scale chromosomal copy-number alterations (CNAs). Identifying CNAs caused by smoking is essential in determining how gene expression from such regions impact tumor progression and patient outcome. We utilized The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) whole genome sequencing data for HNSCC to directly identify amplified or deleted genes correlating with smoking pack-year based on linear modeling. Read More

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Activity of glutathione S-transferase and its π isoenzyme in the context of single nucleotide polymorphism in the GSTP1 gene (rs1695) and tobacco smoke exposure in the patients with acute pancreatitis and healthy subjects.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 12;140:111589. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analyses, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw 50-556, Poland. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress associated with the course of acute pancreatitis (AP) can cause changes in the involvement of antioxidants, which can result in the increased production of free radicals with pro-inflammatory potential. Through its noncatalytic activity, the glutathione S-transferase and its π isoenzyme (GST-π), apart from cellular xenobiotics detoxification, are involved in the regulation of cellular signalling, metabolism and apoptosis. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of SNP rs1695 in the GSTP1 gene on GST and GST-π activity in healthy subjects and patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). Read More

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Adrenalectomy During Radical Nephrectomy- Incidence and Oncologic Outcomes from the Canadian Kidney Cancer Information System (CKCis) -A Modern Era, Nationwide, Multicenter Cohort.

Urology 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Urology Division, Department of Surgery, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: To characterize proportion of patients receiving adrenalectomy, adrenal involvement prevalence and oncologic outcomes of routine adrenalectomy in contemporary practice. Ipsilateral adrenalectomy was once standard during radical nephrectomy. However, benefit of routine adrenalectomy has been questioned because adrenal involvement of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is low. Read More

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Possible involvement of agmatine in neuropharmacological actions of metformin in diabetic mice.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jun 12:174255. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacology, Shrimati Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee, Nagpur, M.S, India, 441 002. Electronic address:

The risk of psychiatric and neurological disorders is significantly higher in patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetic patients are more susceptible to depression, anxiety and memory impairment as compared with non-diabetic individuals. Metformin, a biguanide used for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), promotes neurogenesis, enhances spatial memory function and protects the brain against oxidative imbalance beyond its effect on glucose metabolism. Read More

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Increase in brain L-lactate enhances fear memory in diabetic mice: involvement of glutamate neurons.

Brain Res 2021 Jun 12:147560. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics, Hoshi University School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8501, Japan.

Previous reports suggest that diabetes mellitus is associated with psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. We have reported that streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice show enhancement of conditioned fear memory. To clarify the mechanisms through which diabetes affects conditioned fear memory, the present study investigated the role of L-lactate and glutamatergic function in enhancement of conditioned fear memory in diabetes. Read More

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Treatment Guideline for Patients with Native Culture-negative Pyogenic Vertebral Osteomyelitis.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Spine Center, Department of Orthopedics, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, Korea.

Background: With the development of evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of patients with pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis, various nonsurgical and surgical treatment strategies have achieved favorable results. However, sufficient administration of appropriate antibiotics is a prerequisite for treatment success, which cannot be guaranteed in patients with culture-negative pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis. Unfortunately, previous studies on culture-negative pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis were limited by small patient groups, short follow-up periods, varied treatment protocols, and inconsistently defined clinical endpoints. Read More

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High dimensional mass cytometry identifies T cell and B cell signatures predicting reduced risk of Plasmodium vivax malaria.

JCI Insight 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Infectious Disease and Immune Defense, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Australia.

IFN-γ-driven responses to malaria have been shown to modulate the development and function of T follicular helper (TFH) cells and memory B cells (MBCs), with conflicting evidence in their involvement in the induction of antibody responses required to achieve clinical immunity and their association with disease outcomes. Using high-dimensional single cell mass cytometry, we identified distinct populations of TH1-polarized CD4+ T cells and MBCs expressing the TH1-defining transcription factor T-bet, associated with either increased or reduced risk of Plasmodium vivax malaria, demonstrating that inflammatory responses to malaria are not universally detrimental for infection. Furthermore, we found that whereas class-switched but not IgM+ MBCs were associated with reduced risk of symptomatic malaria, populations of TH1 cells with a stem central memory phenotype, TH17 cells and T regulatory cells were associated with protection from asymptomatic infection, suggesting that activation of cell mediated immunity might be also required to control persistent P. Read More

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Subclinical enthesopathy of the midfoot: could it be a peculiar feature in early psoriatic arthritis?

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine-DIMED, Padova University Hospital, Padova, Italy.

Objectives: Bone scintigraphy (BS) is a sensitive tool that provides functional imaging to evaluate bone abnormalities in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Our aims were to analyse the prevalence of increased BS uptake in the midfoot of PsA patients and to evaluate whether BS midfoot abnormalities could herald ultrasonography (US) and x-ray lesions in the same site.

Methods: Out of 88 consecutive BS performed in patients with early musculoskeletal symptoms (January-December 2010) and retrospectively analysed, 32 exams were carried out on subjects 3 months after being diagnosed with PsA. Read More

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Soluble ST2 is increased in systemic lupus erythematous and is a potential marker of lupus nephritis.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Rheumatology, Hôpital Erasme, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium.

Objectives: To investigate the role of the interleukin IL-33/ST2 axis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Methods: Serum concentrations of IL-33 and sST2 were measured by sandwich ELISA in SLE patients (n=111) compared to sex- and age-matched healthy controls (n=36). The serum concentrations of IL-33 and sST2 were correlated with various clinical and biological parameters. Read More

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WRKY46 promotes ammonium tolerance in Arabidopsis by repressing NUDX9 and IAA-conjugating genes and by inhibiting NH efflux in the root elongation zone.

New Phytol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, China.

Ammonium (NH ) is toxic to root growth in most plants already at moderate levels. Transcriptional regulation is one of the most important mechanisms in plant's response to NH toxicity, but the nature of the involvement of transcription factors (TFs) in this regulation remains unclear. Here, RNA-seq analysis in Arabidopsis roots was performed to screen ammonium-responsive TFs. Read More

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Stabilization of fatty acid synthesis enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 suppresses acute myeloid leukemia development.

J Clin Invest 2021 Jun;131(12)

Cancer cells reprogram lipid metabolism during their malignant progression, but limited information is currently available on the involvement of alterations in fatty acid synthesis in cancer development. We herein demonstrate that acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), a rate-limiting enzyme for fatty acid synthesis, plays a critical role in regulating the growth and differentiation of leukemia-initiating cells. The Trib1-COP1 complex is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets C/EBPA, a transcription factor regulating myeloid differentiation, for degradation, and its overexpression specifically induces acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Read More

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Involvement of Activation of Mast Cells via IgE Signaling and Epithelial Cell-Derived Cytokines in the Pathogenesis of Pollen Food Allergy Syndrome in a Murine Model.

J Immunol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan.

Murine models to elucidate the pathogenesis of pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS), characterized by oral hypersensitivity symptoms induced by specific foods in patients previously sensitized with a pollen, are lacking. The study aimed to examine PFAS pathogenesis in a novel murine model. Birch pollen-immunized mice were orally administered apple extract, and oral symptoms were evaluated based on oral rubbing frequency following the challenge. Read More

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Effect of physical frailty on elder mistreatment in a national survey: examining psychological vulnerability, housework involvement, and financial independence as mediators.

Int Psychogeriatr 2021 Jun 15:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Social Development and Public Policy, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: To explore the prevalence of EM in an older Chinese population and examine the mediating role of three psychosocial variables - psychological vulnerability, housework involvement, and financial independence - in the relationship between physical frailty and EM.

Design: Cross-sectional analysis.

Setting: The data source was the Third Survey on Chinese Women's Social Status (SCSSW), which is a nationwide decennial survey conducted in 2010. Read More

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Caveolin-1 mediates soft scaffold-enhanced adipogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Jun 14;12(1):347. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Center for Cellular and Molecular Engineering, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) can differentiate into adipocytes upon stimulation and are considered an appropriate cell source for adipose tissue engineering. In addition to biochemical cues, the stiffness of a substrate that cells attach to has also been shown to affect hBMSC differentiation potential. Of note, most current studies are conducted on monolayer cultures which do not directly inform adipose tissue engineering, where 3-dimensional (3D) scaffolds are often used to create proper tissue architecture. Read More

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The involvement of Sestrin2 in the effect of IGF-I and leucine on mTROC1 activity in C2C12 and L6 myocytes.

Growth Horm IGF Res 2021 Jun 4;59:101406. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Kobe Women's University Graduate School of Life Sciences, 2-1 Higashisuma-aoyama, Suma-ku, Kobe 654-8585, Japan. Electronic address:

Objective: IGF-I and branched-chain amino acids have been reported to promote muscle hypertrophy via the stimulation of protein synthesis. Sestrin2, the function of which is regulated by leucine, has been reported to attenuate the activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) that stimulates protein synthesis. The objective of this study was to examine whether IGF-I modulates Sestrin2 abundance and to clarify the involvement of Sestrin2 in the effect of IGF-I and leucine on mTROC1. Read More

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The protective effect of HOXA5 on carotid atherosclerosis occurs by modulating the vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2021 Jun 11:111366. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Vascular Surgery, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China. Electronic address:

The phenotypic change of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from a contractile to a synthetic form is a key player in atherogenic processes. Homeobox A5 (HOXA5), a transcription factor of the homeobox gene family, has been shown to regulate cell differentiation and morphogenesis. The present study was designed to clarify the involvement of HOXA5 in VSMC phenotypic transition in carotid atherosclerosis (CAS). Read More

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Depletion of Fractalkine ameliorates renal injury and Treg cell apoptosis via the p38MAPK pathway in lupus-prone mice.

Exp Cell Res 2021 Jun 11:112704. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Nephrology, Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Electronic address:

Fractalkine (FKN) is a chemokine with several roles, including chemotaxis; adhesion; and immune damage, which also participates in cell inflammation and apoptosis and responds to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Given the involvement of regulatory T cells (Treg) cells in autoimmune diseases, this study investigated the regulatory mechanism of FKN in renal injury and Treg apoptosis via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) signaling pathway in lupus-prone mice. Lupus was induced in BALB/c female mice by injection of pristane, followed by isolation of CD4CD5 Treg cells from the spleen of lupus model mice. Read More

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Stereotactic body radiotherapy versus conventional external beam radiotherapy in patients with painful spinal metastases: an open-label, multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 2/3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Canadian Clinical Trials Group, Queens's University, Kingston, ON, Canada.

Background: Conventional external beam radiotherapy is the standard palliative treatment for spinal metastases; however, complete response rates for pain are as low as 10-20%. Stereotactic body radiotherapy delivers high-dose, ablative radiotherapy. We aimed to compare complete response rates for pain after stereotactic body radiotherapy or conventional external beam radiotherapy in patients with painful spinal metastasis. Read More

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Long-term effects of father involvement in childhood on their son's physiological stress regulation system in adulthood.

Dev Psychobiol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, USA.

Using a long-term prospective longitudinal study of U.S. men and their fathers, the present study examined the extent to which the quantity (i. Read More

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Inflammatory biomarkers in COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, Kawasaki disease, and macrophage activation syndrome: a cohort study.

Lancet Rheumatol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Rheumatology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Background: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a potentially life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome that occurs after primary SARS-CoV-2 infection. The pathogenesis of MIS-C remains undefined, and whether specific inflammatory biomarker patterns can distinguish MIS-C from other hyperinflammatory syndromes, including Kawasaki disease and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether inflammatory biomarkers could be used to distinguish between these conditions. Read More

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Synovial Fibrosis Involvement in Osteoarthritis.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 26;8:684389. Epub 2021 May 26.

Departments of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Bone changes have always been the focus of research on osteoarthritis, but the number of studies on synovitis has increased only over the last 10 years. Our current understanding is that the mechanism of osteoarthritis involves all the tissues that make up the joints, including nerve sprouting, pannus formation, and extracellular matrix environmental changes in the synovium. These factors together determine synovial fibrosis and may be closely associated with the clinical symptoms of pain, hyperalgesia, and stiffness in osteoarthritis. Read More

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Invasive Mediastinal Mucormycosis with Pulmonary and Cardiac Involvement in an Adult with Chronic Granulomatous Disease: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2021 5;8(5):002435. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Critical Care Medicine at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection that often causes rhinocerebral disease. However, there have been rare cases of mediastinal involvement. These patients remain a therapeutic challenge and mortality in this group is very high. Read More

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CA19.9 Serum Level Predicts Lymph-Nodes Status in Resectable Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: A Retrospective Single-Center Analysis.

Front Oncol 2021 27;11:690580. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome, Italy.

Background: The choice between upfront surgery or neoadjuvant treatments (NAT) for resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (R-PDAC) is controversial. R-PDAC with potential nodal involvement could benefit from NT. Ca (Carbohydrate antigen) 19. Read More

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Overexpression of improves the tolerance of Arabidopsis to salt stress.

3 Biotech 2021 Jul 8;11(7):316. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding (Northeast Forestry University), Harbin, 150040 People's Republic of China.

Alternative oxidase (AOX) has a well-established involvement in plant growth and stress tolerance in many studies. In this study, we isolated and characterized the AOX2 from . The Open Reading Frame (ORF) contains 1029 nucleotides and encodes 342 amino acid residues. Read More

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Small Intestinal Tuft Cell Activity Associates With Energy Metabolism in Diet-Induced Obesity.

Front Immunol 2021 28;12:629391. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.

Little is known about the involvement of type 2 immune response-promoting intestinal tuft cells in metabolic regulation. We here examined the temporal changes in small intestinal tuft cell number and activity in response to high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice and investigated the relation to whole-body energy metabolism and the immune phenotype of the small intestine and epididymal white adipose tissue. Intake of high fat diet resulted in a reduction in overall numbers of small intestinal epithelial and tuft cells and reduced expression of the intestinal type 2 tuft cell markers and . Read More

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Roles and Mechanisms of Gut Microbiota in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 28;13:650047. Epub 2021 May 28.

Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterized by a decline in cognitive function and neuronal loss, and is caused by several factors. Numerous clinical and experimental studies have suggested the involvement of gut microbiota dysbiosis in patients with AD. The altered gut microbiota can influence brain function and behavior through the microbiota-gut-brain axis via various pathways such as increased amyloid-β deposits and tau phosphorylation, neuroinflammation, metabolic dysfunctions, and chronic oxidative stress. Read More

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Kaposi sarcoma of the adrenal gland: A report of two cases with a review of the literature.

J Cancer Res Ther 2021 Apr-Jun;17(2):606-608

Department of Pathology, Ibn Sina Teaching Hospital, Rabat, Morocco.

Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade vascular neoplasm commonly involving mucocutaneous sites, while adrenal gland involvement is exceptional. The anaplastic variant is a rare entity characterized by marked cellular pleomorphism, increased mitosis, worse prognosis, and an increased metastatic potential. The diagnosis remains on histology and immunohistochemistry. Read More

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TREM2 Deficiency Disrupts Network Oscillations Leading to Epileptic Activity and Aggravates Amyloid-β-Related Hippocampal Pathophysiology in Mice.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Genetic mutations in triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) have been strongly associated with increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other progressive dementias. In the brain, TREM2 protein is specifically expressed on microglia suggesting their active involvement in driving disease pathology. Using various transgenic AD models to interfere with microglial function through TREM2, several recent studies provided important data indicating a causal link between TREM2 and underlying amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau pathology. Read More

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MicroRNAs: Harbingers and shapers of periodontal inflammation.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Texas A&M Center for Craniofacial Research and Diagnosis and Department of Periodontics, TAMU College of Dentistry, 75246 Dallas, TX USA. Electronic address:

Periodontal disease is an inflammatory reaction of the periodontal tissues to oral pathogens. In the present review we discuss the intricate effects of a regulatory network of gene expression modulators, microRNAs (miRNAs), as they affect periodontal morphology, function and gene expression during periodontal disease. These miRNAs are small RNAs involved in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation and affect all stages of periodontal disease, from the earliest signs of gingivitis to the regulation of periodontal homeostasis and immunity and to the involvement in periodontal tissue destruction. Read More

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Prognostic Impact of Branch Vessel Involvement on Computed Tomography versus Clinical Presentation of Malperfusion in Patients With Type a Acute Aortic Dissection.

Am J Cardiol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan.

Type A acute aortic dissection (AAD) is a life-threatening disease. The use of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing AAD has increased, and CT can provide pathophysiologic information on dissection such as intramural hematoma (IMH), longitudinal extent of dissection, and branch vessel involvement. However, the prognostic impact of these CT findings is poorly investigated. Read More

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