606,209 results match your criteria involved pathogenesis


Iron aggravates hepatic insulin resistance in the absence of inflammation in a novel db/db mouse model with iron overload.

Mol Metab 2021 Apr 16:101235. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology - University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Molecular Medicine Partnership Unit, Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Objective: The molecular pathogenesis of late complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is not yet fully understood. While high glucose levels indicated by increased HbA1c only poorly explain disease progression and late complications, a pro-inflammatory status, oxidative stress and reactive metabolites generated by metabolic processes were postulated to be involved. Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) frequently progress to T2DM, whereby 70% of T2DM patients show non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of MetS, and insulin resistance (IR). Read More

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Mitophagy pathways and Alzheimer's disease: From pathogenesis to treatment.

Mitochondrion 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Precise Genome Engineering Center, School of Life Sciences, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, 510006. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-dependent, incurable mental illness that is associated with the accumulation of aggregates of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau fragments (p-tau). Detailed studies on postmortem AD brains, cell lines, and mouse models of AD have shown that numerous cellular alterations, including mitochondrial deficits, synaptic disruption and glial/astrocytic activation, are involved in the disease process. Mitophagy is a cellular process by which damaged/weakened mitochondria are selectively eliminated from the cell. Read More

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50 Years of Topical Retinoids for Acne: Evolution of Treatment.

Am J Clin Dermatol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Ortho Dermatologics, a Division of Bausch Health US, LLC, Bridgewater, NJ, USA.

Since the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved tretinoin in 1971, retinoids alone or combined with other agents have become the mainstay of acne treatment. Retinoids act through binding to retinoic acid receptors, altering expression levels of hundreds of cellular proteins affecting multiple pathways involved in acne pathogenesis. Retinoids have evolved from first-generation agents, such as tretinoin, through chemical modifications resulting in a second generation (etretinate and acitretin for psoriasis), a third generation (adapalene and tazarotene) and, most recently, a fourth (trifarotene). Read More

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How I do it: endarterectomy for carotid web.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Health, 550 1st Ave, New York, NY, 10016, USA.

Background: The carotid web is an important and under recognized etiology for recurrent cryptogenic strokes. A management option for a symptomatic carotid web is a carotid endarterectomy (CEA) with surgical microdissection and removal of the intimal luminal defect.

Methods: We describe some of the technical nuances involved in successfully performing a carotid endarterectomy for resection of a carotid web. Read More

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Testicular Tumors: A Contemporary Update on Morphologic, Immunohistochemical and Molecular Features.

Adv Anat Pathol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

Testicular tumors are incredibly diverse and one of the most challenging areas in surgical pathology. Because of the rarity and overlapping features with numerous entities occurring in the testis and paratestis, these tumors pose a diagnostic challenge even to the most experienced general pathologists. In 2016, the latest "World Health Organization (WHO) classification of testicular tumors" was released, which incorporated several updates to the previous 2004 classification system. Read More

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Downregulation of glial genes involved in synaptic function mitigates Huntington's Disease pathogenesis.

Elife 2021 Apr 19;10. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, United States.

Most research on neurodegenerative diseases has focused on neurons, yet glia help form and maintain the synapses whose loss is so prominent in these conditions. To investigate the contributions of glia to Huntington's disease (HD), we profiled the gene expression alterations of expressing human mutant (m) in either glia or neurons and compared these changes to what is observed in HD human and HD mice striata. A large portion of conserved genes are concordantly dysregulated across the three species; we tested these genes in a high-throughput behavioral assay and found that downregulation of genes involved in synapse assembly mitigated pathogenesis and behavioral deficits. Read More

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miR-155-5p predictive role to decelerate foam cell atherosclerosis through CD36, VAV3, and SOCS1 pathway.

Noncoding RNA Res 2021 Jun 8;6(2):59-69. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNA molecules that play a significant role in atherosclerosis pathogenesis through post-transcriptional regulation. In the present work, a bioinformatic analysis using TargetScan and miRdB databases was performed to identify the miRNAs targeting three genes involved in foam cell atherosclerosis (CD36, Vav3, and SOCS1). A total number of three hundred and sixty-seven miRNAs were recognized and only miR-155-5p was selected for further evaluation based on Venn analysis. Read More

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Knockdown of lncRNA TapSAKI alleviates LPS-induced injury in HK-2 cells through the miR-205/IRF3 pathway.

Open Med (Wars) 2021 7;16(1):581-590. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, No. 16, Jiangsu Road, Qingdao 266003, Shandong, China.

Sepsis is a common and lethal syndrome. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcript predicting survival in AKI (TapSAKI) has recently been found to serve as an important regulator in sepsis. However, the underlying mechanism of TapSAKI in sepsis pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Read More

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Hyperlipidemia Is a Risk Factor of Adhesive Capsulitis: Real-World Evidence Using the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Apr 5;9(4):2325967120986808. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Graduate Institute of Sports Science, National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan.

Background: Patients with adhesive capsulitis are evaluated for pain and progressive contracture of the glenohumeral joint. Whether endocrine, immune, or inflammatory processes are involved in its definite pathogenesis is still under debate. Some cross-sectional studies with a small sample size have noted that hyperlipidemia is a possible risk factor for frozen shoulders. Read More

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The Restoration of Vitamin D Levels Slows the Progression of Renal Ischemic Injury in Rats Previously Deficient in Vitamin D.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 1;8:625647. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Laboratorio de Investigacao Medica 12 (LIM12), Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a global public health problem. The initial damage after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) and predisposition to CKD. Several studies have been showing that risk factors such as AKI and hypovitaminosis D could also be involved in CKD progression. Read More

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Periodontal Inflammation-Triggered by Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell Pyroptosis Exacerbates Periodontitis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 1;9:663037. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine; College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University; National Center for Stomatology; National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology; Research Unit of Oral and Maxillofacial Regenerative Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Periodontitis is an immune inflammatory disease that leads to progressive destruction of bone and connective tissue, accompanied by the dysfunction and even loss of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). Pyroptosis mediated by gasdermin-D (GSDMD) participates in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. However, whether pyroptosis mediates PDLSC loss, and inflammation triggered by pyroptosis is involved in the pathological progression of periodontitis remain unclear. Read More

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miR-140 inhibits osteosarcoma progression by impairing USP22-mediated LSD1 stabilization and promoting p21 expression.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Jun 3;24:436-448. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Spine Surgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, P.R. China.

Osteosarcoma is a bone tumor frequently diagnosed in children and young adults. Despite advances in chemotherapy and surgical resection, tumors metastasize in 30% of osteosarcoma patients. In addition, side effects caused by chemotherapeutic drugs, as well as the development of chemoresistance, highlight the need to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. Read More

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Novel somatic variants in CTNNA1 gene in Iranian patients with diffuse gastric cancer.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2021 ;14(1):17-24

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Aim: we aimed to evaluate somatic mutations of CTNNA1 in DGC patients.

Background: Diffuse gastric cancer (DGC) is a major type of gastric cancer where most cases are sporadic diffuse gastric cancer (SDGC). It has been shown that mutations in CTNNA1 are responsible for some cases of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). Read More

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January 2021

Weighted Correlation Gene Network Analysis Reveals New Potential Mechanisms and Biomarkers in Non-obstructive Azoospermia.

Front Genet 2021 31;12:617133. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Center of Reproductive Medicine, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) denotes a severe form of male infertility, whose etiology is still poorly understood. This is mainly due to limited knowledge on the molecular mechanisms that lead to spermatogenesis failure. In this study, we acquired microarray data from GEO DataSets and identified differentially expressed genes using the limma package in R. Read More

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Cells of the Immune System in Cardiac Remodeling: Main Players in Resolution of Inflammation and Repair After Myocardial Infarction.

Front Immunol 2021 2;12:664457. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Emergency Cardiology, Cardiology Research Institute, Tomsk National Research Medical Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia.

The burden of heart failure (HF), developing after myocardial infarction MI, still represents a major issue in clinical practice. Failure of appropriate resolution of inflammation during post-myocardial injury is associated with unsuccessful left ventricular remodeling and underlies HF pathogenesis. Cells of the immune system have been shown to mediate both protective and damaging effects in heart remodeling. Read More

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Serum Levels of Inflammatory Proteins Are Associated With Peripheral Neuropathy in a Cross-Sectional Type-1 Diabetes Cohort.

Front Immunol 2021 31;12:654233. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, United States.

Chronic low-grade inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of type-1 diabetes (T1D) and its complications. In this cross-section study design, we investigated association between serum levels of soluble cytokine receptors with presence of peripheral neuropathy in 694 type-1 diabetes patients. Sex, age, blood pressure, smoking, alcohol intake, HbA1c and lipid profile, presence of DPN (peripheral and autonomic), retinopathy and nephropathy was obtained from patient's chart. Read More

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EZH2 Inhibition Interferes With the Activation of Type I Interferon Signaling Pathway and Ameliorates Lupus Nephritis in NZB/NZW F1 Mice.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:653989. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Rheumatology, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a histone-lysine N-methyltransferase mediating trimethylation of H3K27, which represses gene expression and is critical to immune regulation. Inhibition of EZH2 is proved to have the potential of treating many diseases. However, whether inhibition of EZH2 affects type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling pathway, the abnormality of which is an important pathogenic mechanism for SLE, is still elusive. Read More

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Interrelationship of Stress, Environment, and Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 on Behçet's Disease: Using a Mouse Model.

Front Immunol 2021 31;12:607768. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Biomedical Science, School of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon, South Korea.

The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of stress and environment factors on the induction of Behçet's disease (BD) using HSV-1 infected mouse model. BD is a chronic multisystemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. Environmental factors, immune dysfunction, and herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV) infection might be triggers of BD. Read More

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Characterization of Genes From : Searching for the Most Virulent Ones.

Front Microbiol 2021 22;12:632047. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Grapevine downy mildew is an insurmountable disease that endangers grapevine production and the wine industry worldwide. The causal agent of the disease is the obligate biotrophic oomycete , for which the pathogenic mechanism remains largely unknown. Crinkling and necrosis proteins (CRN) are an ancient class of effectors utilized by pathogens, including oomycetes, that interfere with host plant defense reactions. Read More

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Extrachromosomal Circular DNAs: Origin, formation and emerging function in Cancer.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 2;17(4):1010-1025. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Institute for Translational Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, College of Medicine, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266021, China.

The majority of cellular DNAs in eukaryotes are organized into linear chromosomes. In addition to chromosome DNAs, genes also reside on extrachromosomal elements. The extrachromosomal DNAs are commonly found to be circular, and they are referred to as extrachromosomal circular DNAs (eccDNAs). Read More

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Investigation of TSH receptor blocking antibodies in childhood-onset atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis.

Clin Pediatr Endocrinol 2021 3;30(2):79-84. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan.

Atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis (AAT) is a type of autoimmune hypothyroidism without goiter. TSH receptor-blocking antibodies (TSBAb) are involved in its etiology in adults. Reportedly, this disease is extremely rare in children. Read More

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Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Molecular Pathogenesis, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research Institute.

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited disorder with retarded clearance of plasma LDL caused by mutations of the genes involved in the LDL receptor-mediated pathway and most of them exhibit autosomal dominant inheritance. Homozygotes of FH (HoFH) may have plasma LDL-C levels, which are at least twice as high as those of heterozygous FH (HeFH) and therefore four times higher than normal levels. Prevalence of HoFH had been estimated as 1 in 1,000,000 before but more recent genetic analysis surveys predict 1 in 170,000 to 300,000. Read More

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The association between serum resistin and PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Nov;33(6):2553-2556

Department of Endocrinology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with the expression level of resistin and can induce insulin resistance. However, the possible effects of PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism for the origin of gestational diabetes mellitus are still unclear. A total of 156 patients with GDM and 160 normal pregnancy women were recruited. Read More

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November 2020

Adiponectin involved in portal flow hepatic extraction of 13C-metacethin in obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver.

Eur J Intern Med 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Clinica Medica "A. Murri", Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari 70124, Italy. Electronic address:

Obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are high prevalence, inter-related conditions at increased risk for advanced liver diseases and related mortality. Adiponectin and leptin have divergent roles in the pathogenesis of fat accumulation and NAFLD. However, the relationships between body and liver fat accumulation, early modification of liver function and unbalanced adipokine levels are still scarcely explored. Read More

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Low-Level Brain Somatic Mutations Are Implicated in Schizophrenia.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 Feb 5. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute for Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea; SoVarGen Inc., Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Somatic mutations arising from the brain have recently emerged as significant contributors to neurodevelopmental disorders, including childhood intractable epilepsy and cortical malformations. However, whether brain somatic mutations are implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ) is not well established.

Methods: We performed deep whole exome sequencing (average read depth > 550×) of matched dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and peripheral tissues from 27 patients with SCZ and 31 age-matched control individuals, followed by comprehensive and strict analysis of somatic mutations, including mutagenesis signature, substitution patterns, and involved pathways. Read More

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February 2021

Downregulation of miR-125a-5p and miR-218-5p in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

Immunol Invest 2021 Apr 19:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Neurophysiology Research Center, Cellular and Molecular Medicine Institute, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neuroinflammatory disease of the brain and spinal cord. Evidences have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the pathological process of MS that may confer a valuable diagnostic biomarker for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Hence, we assessed the expression pattern of miR-125a-5p and miR-218-5p in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Read More

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EBV load is associated with cfDNA fragmentation and renal damage in SLE patients.

Lupus 2021 Apr 17:9612033211010339. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Immunology, Transplantology and Internal Diseases, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: For long Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study was to verify the association between EBV, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and kidney disease in SLE.

Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 43 SLE patients and 50 healthy individuals. Read More

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High Serum-Induced AhRL Is Associated with Prevalent Metabolic Syndrome and Future Impairment of Glucose Tolerance in the Elderly.

Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: High circulating levels of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, acting via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), have previously been linked to diabetes. We now investigated whether the serum AhR ligands (AhRL) were higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and in subjects who had developed a worsened glucose tolerance over time.

Methods: Serum AhRL at baseline was measured by a cell-based AhRL activity assay in 70-year-old subjects (n=911) in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Read More

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Cartiotonic steroids affect monolayer permeability in lymphatic endothelial cells.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Orion Institute for Translational Medicine, Temple, TX, USA.

Edema is common in preeclampsia (preE), a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Cardiotonic steroids (CTSs) such as marinobufagenin (MBG) are involved in the pathogenesis of preE. To assess whether CTSs are involved in the leakage of lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC), we evaluated their effect on monolayer permeability of LECs (MPLEC) in culture. Read More

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A rice root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola-resistant mutant rice line shows early expression of plant-defence genes.

Planta 2021 Apr 17;253(5):108. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Division of Nematology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 110012, India.

Main Conclusion: Resistance to rice root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola in a mutant rice line is suggested to be conferred by higher expression of several genes putatively involved in damage-associated molecular pattern recognition, secondary metabolite biosynthesis including phytoalexins, and defence-related genes. Meloidogyne graminicola has emerged as the most destructive plant-parasitic nematode disease of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Read More

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