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Skin manifestations as potential symptoms of diffuse vascular injury in critical COVID-19 patients.

J Cutan Pathol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Dermatology, Rasool Akram Medical Complex, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.

As a respiratory viral infection caused by a novel coronavirus, COVID-19 became rapidly pandemic within a few months. Despite the wide range of manifestations and organ involvement in COVID-19 patients, the exact pathogenesis of severe and fatal types of COVID-19 and causes involved with the individual base of the disease is not yet understood. Several studies have reported clinical, laboratory and histopathological data in favor of vascular injury in multiple organs of critically ill patients with COVID-19 as a result of hyperactive immune response, inflammation and cytokine storm. Read More

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Excellent Outcome in Living Donor Liver Transplantation Treating Acute on Chronic Liver Failure patients.

Liver Transpl 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Liver Transplantation Center and Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Introduction: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a fatal condition and liver transplantation is a vital option for these patients. However, the result of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for ACLF is not well investigated. This study aimed to investigate the outcomes of LDLT in patients with ACLF as compared to patients without ACLF. Read More

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Fentanyl, Heroin, and Cocaine Overdose Fatalities are Shifting to the Black Community: An Analysis of the State of Connecticut.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Connecticut Convergence Institute for Translation in Regenerative Engineering, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, 06030, USA.

Background: Historically, Blacks and Hispanics have had lower opioid-involved overdose death rates in Connecticut (CT). We examined if a shift has taken place where rates of Black fatal overdoses have now surpassed Whites in the state.

Methods: Drug overdose fatality rates were calculated by number of deaths per year per 100,000 population from 2012 to 2019 in Connecticut. Read More

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Implications of Low-grade Inflammation in SARS-CoV-2 Immunopathology.

MEDICC Rev 2021 Apr 30;23(2):42. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Immunology Laboratory, National Oncology and Radiobiology Institute (INOR), Havana, Cuba.

Introduction: Advanced age and chronic disease comorbidities are indicators of poor prognosis in COVID-19 clinical progression. Fatal outcomes in patients with these characteristics are due to a dysfunctional immune response. Understanding COVID-19's immunopathogenesis helps in designing strategies to prevent and mitigate complications during treatment. Read More

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Rifampicin and Letermovir as potential repurposed drug candidate for COVID-19 treatment: insights from an in-silico study.

Pharmacol Rep 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Biotechnology, Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, 201310, India.

Introduction: Drug repurposing is the need of the hour considering the medical emergency caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Recently, cytokine storm by the host immune system has been linked with high viral load, loss of lung function, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiple organ failure, and subsequent fatal outcome.

Objective: This study aimed to identify potential FDA approved drugs that can be repurposed for COVID-19 treatment using an in-silico analysis. Read More

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MicroRNA Signature in Melanoma: Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets.

Front Oncol 2021 22;11:608987. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Urology and Nephrology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Melanoma is the utmost fatal kind of skin neoplasms. Molecular changes occurring during the pathogenic processes of initiation and progression of melanoma are diverse and include activating mutations in BRAF and NRAS genes, hyper-activation of PI3K/AKT pathway, inactivation of p53 and alterations in CDK4/CDKN2A axis. Moreover, several miRNAs have been identified to be implicated in the biology of melanoma through modulation of expression of genes being involved in these pathways. Read More

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Human Ubiquilin 2 and TDP-43 co-pathology drives neurodegeneration in transgenic C. elegans.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Geriatrics Research Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington, 98108, United States of America; Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98104, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA; Department of Pathology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a debilitating, fatal neurodegenerative disease that causes rapid muscle wasting. It shares a spectrum of symptoms and pathology with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). These diseases are caused by aberrant activity of a set of proteins including TDP-43 and UBIQUILIN-2 (UBQLN2). Read More

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Assessment of suspected adverse drug reactions in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus based on a Portuguese spontaneous reporting database: analysis of reporting from 2008 to 2018.

Expert Opin Drug Saf 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

UFBI - Pharmacovigilance Unit of Beira Interior, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal.

Background: Age is one of the most important risk factors in the development of diabetes mellitus and certain drug classes indicated for this condition may be associated with clinically important adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The aim of this study was to analyse the suspected ADRs in older patients with diabetes mellitus, reported to the Portuguese Pharmacovigilance System from 2008 to 2018.

Research Design And Methods: A retrospective analysis of suspected ADRs reports was performed, involving patients aged ≥65 years. Read More

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Prognostic value of CT pulmonary angiography parameters in acute pulmonary embolism.

Radiol Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Radiology, Santo Stefano Hospital, Prato, Italy.

Objectives: Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is the first-line test in acute pulmonary embolism (APE) diagnostic algorithm, but its correlation with short-term outcome remains not clear at all. The aim is to determine whether CTPA findings can predict 30-day mortality of patients with APE in Emergency Department.

Methods: This retrospective monocentric study involved 780 patients with APE diagnosed at the Emergency Department of our institution (period 2010-2019). Read More

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The Role of Non-coding RNAs in Diabetic Nephropathy-Related Oxidative Stress.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 20;8:626423. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pathology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the main complications of diabetes and the main cause of diabetic end-stage renal disease, which is often fatal. DN is usually characterized by progressive renal interstitial fibrosis, which is closely related to the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix and oxidative stress. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are RNA molecules expressed in eukaryotic cells that are not translated into proteins. Read More

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[Roles of growth factors on vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension].

Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi 2021 ;156(3):161-165

Department of Physiology, Aichi Medical University.

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is defined as mean pulmonary arterial pressure at rest ≥25 mmHg. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is classified as group 1 of PH and is a progressive and fatal disease of the pulmonary artery. The pathogenesis is sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction and pulmonary vascular remodeling, which cause progressive elevations in pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary arterial pressure. Read More

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Fatal hemoperitoneum due to rupture of mesenteric artery in remission state of microscopic polyangiitis, concomitant with severe hypertension and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: an autopsy case report.

CEN Case Rep 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pathology and Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan.

Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is a type of necrotizing vasculitis associated with high levels of myeloperoxidase-specific antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA). While generally associated with renal dysfunction, MPA can also cause intraabdominal hemorrhage in rare cases. A 66-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for renal dysfunction, numbness, and weight loss for 3 months. Read More

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Macrophage Proteome Analysis at Different Stages of Subspecies Infection Reveals a Mechanism of Pathogen Dissemination.

Proteomes 2021 Apr 30;9(2). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Carlson College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

Johne's disease is a chronic and usually fatal enteric infection of ruminants caused by subspecies (MAP) and is responsible for hundreds of millions of dollars in losses for the agricultural industry. Natural infection typically begins with bacterial uptake and translocation through the epithelium of the small intestine, followed by ingestion by tissue macrophages and dissemination via the lymphatic or blood system throughout the body. To gain insights into the host responses and adaptation of MAP within phagocytic cells, we utilized the previously developed cell culture passage model, and mass spectrometric-based quantitative proteomic approach. Read More

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An autopsy study of the spectrum of severe COVID-19 in children: From SARS to different phenotypes of MIS-C.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 May 26;35:100850. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 455, 01246-903 São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Background: COVID-19 in children is usually mild or asymptomatic, but severe and fatal paediatric cases have been described. The pathology of COVID-19 in children is not known; the proposed pathogenesis for severe cases includes immune-mediated mechanisms or the direct effect of SARS-CoV-2 on tissues. We describe the autopsy findings in five cases of paediatric COVID-19 and provide mechanistic insight into the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Read More

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The Advancing Understanding of Transportation Options (AUTO) study: design and methods of a multi-center study of decision aid for older drivers.

Inj Epidemiol 2021 May 3;8(1):23. Epub 2021 May 3.

School of Public Health, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

Background: Decision-making about when to stop driving for older adults involves assessment of driving risk, availability of support or resources, and strong emotions about loss of independence. Although the risk of being involved in a fatal crash increases with age, driving cessation can negatively impact an older adult's health and well-being. Decision aids can enhance the decision-making process by increasing knowledge of the risks and benefits of driving cessation and improve decision quality. Read More

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Fatal and Nonfatal Injury Patterns of Stranded Motorists.

J Forensic Nurs 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Author Affiliations:Texas A&M University The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Harris County Institute of Forensic Sciences Harris Health Grady Health System The University of Texas McGovern Medical School Baylor College of Medicine.

Abstract: Because nonfatal and fatal incidents for stranded motorists are not separated from vehicular accidents, little data are available on incident characteristics. To close this gap, data fields were inserted into databases at a medical examiner's office and two trauma centers to collect injury-related information. Forensic nurses and pathologists aided in forming a collaboration among the agencies involved and supported data collection efforts. Read More

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Mechanism of White Matter Injury and Promising Therapeutic Strategies of MSCs After Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 13;13:632054. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Neurosurgery Center, The National Key Clinical Specialty, The Engineering Technology Research Center of Education Ministry of China on Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebrovascular Disease, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory on Brain Function Repair and Regeneration, The Neurosurgery Institute of Guangdong Province, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most fatal subtype of stroke with high disability and high mortality rates, and there is no effective treatment. The predilection site of ICH is in the area of the basal ganglia and internal capsule (IC), where exist abundant white matter (WM) fiber tracts, such as the corticospinal tract (CST) in the IC. Proximal or distal white matter injury (WMI) caused by intracerebral parenchymal hemorrhage is closely associated with poor prognosis after ICH, especially motor and sensory dysfunction. Read More

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Cation Transporters of -New Targets to Fight Candidiasis?

Biomolecules 2021 Apr 16;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskiy Pereulok, 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Oblast, Russia.

Candidiasis is the wide-spread fungal infection caused by numerous strains of yeast, with the prevalence of . The current treatment of candidiasis is becoming rather ineffective and costly owing to the emergence of resistant strains; hence, the exploration of new possible drug targets is necessary. The most promising route is the development of novel antibiotics targeting this pathogen. Read More

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Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 () Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Cardiovascular Risk Factors Involved in Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis.

Metabolites 2021 Apr 23;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Neurology, Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 300041 Timisoara, Romania.

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), accounting for less than 1% of stroke cases, is characterized by various causes, heterogeneous clinical presentation and different outcome. The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 () gene polymorphisms has been found to be associated with CVST. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the potential association of polymorphisms and homocysteine levels with cardiovascular risk factors in a group of young patients with CVST. Read More

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Cardiovascular Outcomes in the Acute Phase of COVID-19.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 15;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Cardiology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan.

The cumulative number of cases in the current global coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has exceeded 100 million, with the number of deaths caused by the infection having exceeded 2.5 million. Recent reports from most frontline researchers have revealed that SARS-CoV-2 can also cause fatal non-respiratory conditions, such as fatal cardiovascular events. Read More

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Transcriptional Landscape of Vero E6 Cells during Early Swine Acute Diarrhea Syndrome Coronavirus Infection.

Viruses 2021 04 14;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Life Sciences School, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is a newly emerged and highly pathogenic virus that is associated with fatal diarrhea disease in piglets, causing significant economic losses to the pig industry. At present, the research on the pathogenicity and molecular mechanisms of host-virus interactions of SADS-CoV are limited and remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the global gene expression profiles of SADS-CoV-infected Vero E6 cells at 12, 18, and 24 h post-infection (hpi) using the RNA-sequencing. Read More

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The Role of Vitamin K in Humans: Implication in Aging and Age-Associated Diseases.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Apr 6;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 8 Victor Babes, 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

As human life expectancy is rising, the incidence of age-associated diseases will also increase. Scientific evidence has revealed that healthy diets, including good fats, vitamins, minerals, or polyphenolics, could have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, with antiaging effects. Recent studies demonstrated that vitamin K is a vital cofactor in activating several proteins, which act against age-related syndromes. Read More

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[Pathophysiology of COVID-19 related happy hypoxemia].

Rev Med Suisse 2021 Apr;17(736):831-834

Service de pneumologie, Département des spécialités de médecine, HUG, 1211 Genève 14.

A significative proportion of patients with pulmonary-related COVID-19 initially present with « silent » or « happy » hypoxemia, a term denoting an absence of dyspnea or other respiratory distress symptoms in face of profound hypoxemia. COVID-19 is a multisystemic disease characterized by the diffusion of SARS-COV-2 through the blood and a widespread secondary immune response. Most of the organs are involved, including the brain and this translates into the development of acute encephalopathy and other complications. Read More

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Amoeba Predation of Cryptococcus neoformans Results in Pleiotropic Changes to Traits Associated with Virulence.

mBio 2021 04 27;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Amoeboid predators, such as amoebae, are proposed to select for survival traits in soil microbes such as ; these traits can also function in animal virulence by defeating phagocytic immune cells, such as macrophages. Consistent with this notion, incubation of various fungal species with amoebae enhanced their virulence, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. In this study, we exposed three strains of (1 clinical and 2 environmental) to predation by for prolonged times and then analyzed surviving colonies phenotypically and genetically. Read More

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The frequency of cytomegalovirus non-ELR UL146 genotypes in neonates with congenital CMV disease is comparable to strains in the background population.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Apr 26;21(1):386. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev Gentofte, DK-2730, Herlev, Denmark.

Background: Congenital cytomegalovirus disease (cCMV) is common and can be fatal or cause severe sequelae. Circulating strains of cytomegalovirus carry a high number of variable or disrupted genes. One of these is UL146, a highly diverse gene with 14 distinct genotypes encoding a CXC-chemokine involved in viral dissemination. Read More

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Network-based analysis of fatal comorbidities of COVID-19 and potential therapeutics.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2021 Apr 23;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

COVID-19 is a highly contagious disease caused by the SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The case-fatality rate is significantly higher in older patients and those with diabetes, cancer or cardiovascular disorders. The human proteins, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and basigin (BSG), are involved in high-confidence host-pathogen interactions with SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Read More

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A rare iatrogenic mesenteric laceration and hemorrhagic shock after colonoscopy. Case report and literature review.

Ann Ital Chir 2021 Mar 5;10. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Aim: We report a particular case study of the unexpected death of a 70-year-old caucasian man (affected by crohn's disease) due to the laceration of the ileocolic mesentery and its blood vessels following a colonoscopy procedure carried out only a few hours previously.

Material Of The Study: The autopsy showed that the lacerated blood vessels (i.e. Read More

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Exploring the utility of extracellular vesicles in ameliorating viral infection-associated inflammation, cytokine storm and tissue damage.

Transl Oncol 2021 Apr 19;14(7):101095. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute for Immunity and Transplantation, Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94304, United States; Molecular Medicine Department of Medicine, Stanford University, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as potential mediators of intercellular communication. EVs are nano-sized, lipid membrane-bound vesicles that contains biological information in the form of proteins, metabolites and/or nucleic acids. EVs are key regulators of tissue repair mechanisms, such as in the context of lung injuries. Read More

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Hepatic Trauma Interventions.

Semin Intervent Radiol 2021 Mar 15;38(1):96-104. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

The liver is the second most commonly involved solid organ (after spleen) to be injured in blunt abdominal trauma, but liver injury is the most common cause of death in such trauma. In patients with significant blunt abdominal injury, the liver is involved approximately 35 to 45% of the time. Its large size also makes it a vulnerable organ, commonly injured in penetrating trauma. Read More

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TREM2 expression in the brain and biological fluids in prion diseases.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 Jun 21;141(6):841-859. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Network Center for Biomedical Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIBERNED), L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain.

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is an innate immune cell surface receptor that regulates microglial function and is involved in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases. Its soluble form (sTREM2) results from shedding of the TREM2 ectodomain. The role of TREM2 in prion diseases, a group of rapidly progressive dementias remains to be elucidated. Read More

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