186 results match your criteria investigation pmi

Feasibility of using tissue autolysis to estimate the postmortem interval in horses.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2021 Jun 10:10406387211021865. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Comparative, Diagnostic, and Population Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) is a poorly studied field in veterinary pathology. The development of field-applicable methods is needed given that animal cruelty investigations are increasing continually. We evaluated various histologic criteria in equine brain, liver, and muscle tissue to aid the estimation of PMI in horses, which is central to forensic investigations of suspicious death. Read More

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Evaluation of gingival tissue samples for predicting the time of death using histological and biochemical tests.

Forensic Sci Int 2021 Jul 23;324:110850. Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Periodontics, Bangalore Institute of Dental Sciences and Post Graduate Research Centre, 5/3, Hosur road Bangalore, 560029 Karnataka, India.

Thanatochemistry also known as chemistry of death and is used to determine post mortem interval (PMI). It is arguably one of the critical steps in forensic investigation. Recent addition of analyzing biochemical changes along with the traditional methods have gained importance, as they help us to record very early changes in the tissue specimens. Read More

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Effects of Natural Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors on Anxiety-Like Behavior in Zebrafish.

Front Pharmacol 2021 13;12:669370. Epub 2021 May 13.

PMI R&D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Quai Jeanrenaud 5, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a valuable class of mitochondrial enzymes with a critical role in neuromodulation. In this study, we investigated the effect of natural MAO inhibitors on novel environment-induced anxiety by using the zebrafish novel tank test (NTT). Because zebrafish spend more time at the bottom of the tank when they are anxious, anxiolytic compounds increase the time zebrafish spend at the top of the tank and vice versa. Read More

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An investigation of the effectiveness of oral cyclosporine on perioperative myocardial injury (PMI) in patients who undergo the surgical procedure of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG): A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Feb 27;10(2):675-680. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Student Research Committee, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Routine clinical strategies for the prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) during the surgical procedure of CABG include cross-clamp fibrillation and cardioplegia have failed to decrease the risk of perioperative myocardial injury (PMI). Cyclosporine-A (CsA) might be able to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and PMI.

Methods: In the present clinical trial, patients were divided into two groups (Case receive 2. Read More

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February 2021

Dismembered porcine limbs as a proxy for postmortem muscle protein degradation.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Jul 6;135(4):1627-1636. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Biosciences, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Str. 34, 5020, Salzburg, Austria.

The estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) is of critical importance in forensic routine. The most frequently applied methods, however, are all restricted to specific time periods or must be excluded under certain circumstances. In the last years it has been shown that the analysis of muscle protein degradation has the potential to contribute to according delimitations in practice. Read More

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Development of an Advanced Multicellular Intestinal Model for Assessing Immunomodulatory Properties of Anti-Inflammatory Compounds.

Front Pharmacol 2021 16;12:639716. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

PMI R&D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

Intestinal inflammation is the collective term for immune system-mediated diseases of unknown, multifactorial etiology, with often complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. To mechanistically investigate the effect of treatment with compounds possessing immunomodulating properties in the context of intestinal inflammation, we developed an immunocompetent triculture intestinal model consisting of a differentiated intestinal epithelial layer (Caco-2/HT29-MTX) and immunocompetent cells (differentiated THP-1). The triculture mimicked a healthy intestine with stable barrier integrity. Read More

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Comparison of Accumulated Degree-Days and Entomological Approaches in Post Mortem Interval Estimation.

Insects 2021 Mar 21;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra dell'Ambiente e della Vita (DISTAV), Università di Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova, Italy.

Establishing the post mortem interval (PMI) is a key component of every medicolegal death investigation. Several methods based on different approaches have been suggested to perform this estimation. Among them, two methods based their evaluation on the effect of the temperature and time on the considered parameters: total body score (TBS)/accumulated degree-days (ADDs) and insect development. Read More

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Activity of Novel Copper(II)-Based Formulations to Inhibit the Esca-Associated Fungus in Grapevine Propagation Material.

Front Plant Sci 2021 15;12:649694. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Unité Résistance Induite et Bioprotection des Plantes, SFR Condorcet FR CNRS 3417, Reims, France.

Grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) are a serious and growing threat to vineyards worldwide. The need for innovative control tools persists since pesticides used against some GTDs have been banned and only methods to prevent infections or to reduce foliar symptoms have been developed so far. In this context, the application of imaging methods, already applied to study plant-microbe interactions, represents an interesting approach to understand the effect of experimental treatments applied to reduce fungal colonization, on GTD-related pathogens activity. Read More

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Association Between Lipoprotein(a) and Peri-procedural Myocardial Infarction in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Who Underwent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 3;11:603922. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Cardiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: High lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) levels are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular events in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Peri-procedural myocardial infarction (PMI) occurs commonly during the PCI, whereas the relationship between Lp(a) and PMI remains unclear. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between Lp(a) value and the incidence of PMI in a larger-scale diabetic cohort undergoing PCI throughout 2013. Read More

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Post-mortem ocular changes and time since death: Scoping review and future perspective.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 May 12;50:101862. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Health Care Surveillance and Bioethics, Section of Legal Medicine, Università Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome, Italy; Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

The forensics literature on the relationship between ocular changes and the postmortem interval (PMI) has traditionally focused on time-related variations in concentrations of metabolites and elements within the eye. However, structural changes within the eye over time deserve the same attention because there is significant evidence of their importance in determining the time since death. Therefore, we reviewed publications that provided substantial evidence on this issue. Read More

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Variation of physical durability between LLIN products and net use environments: summary of findings from four African countries.

Malar J 2021 Jan 7;20(1):26. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

PMI VectorWorks Project, JHU Center for Communication Programs, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Physical durability of long-lasting-insecticidal nets (LLIN) is an important aspect of the effectiveness of LLIN as a malaria prevention tool, but there is limited data on performance across locations and products. This secondary analysis of data from the VectorWorks project from 10 sites in four African countries involving six LLIN brands provides such data.

Methods: A total of 4672 campaign nets from 1976 households were recruited into prospective cohort studies 2-6 months after distribution through campaigns and followed for 3 years in Mozambique, Nigeria, DRC and Zanzibar, Tanzania. Read More

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January 2021

Combined Techniques of Non-invasive Tc-Besilesomab/Tc-Sulfur Colloid with Hybrid SPECT/CT Imaging in Characterising Cellulitis from Symptomatic Perimegaprosthetic Infection: A Case Report.

Malays Orthop J 2020 Nov;14(3):188-193

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia.

Megaprosthesis is used to restore the form and function of massive skeletal defects, but it is accompanied by risks of failure, mainly due to perimegaprosthetic infection (PMI). In practice, the diagnosis of infected megaprosthesis among patients with a high index of clinical suspicion, elevated serological markers, and multiple negative or inconclusive imaging can be very challenging and poses a diagnostic conundrum to many orthopaedic surgeons. We present the case of a symptomatic 26-year-old female with large B-cell lymphoma who developed cellulitis with suspected complication of PMI 15 months post-implantation. Read More

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November 2020

The paradigm of interdisciplinarity in forensic investigation. A case in Southeastern Spain.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 Feb 19;48:101817. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Area of Legal and Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain.

The paper presents the procedure followed to fully solve a forensic case which occurred in Southeastern Spain through the collaboration of specialists from different scientific areas belonging to two different government institutions, a public University and the Guardia Civil. Entomological evidence was required to estimate the PMI in order to settle the perimortem circumstances. Piophila megastigmata (Diptera: Piophilidae) is reported for the first time from a forensic case in Spain, enhancing the interest of its presence in corpses to estimate the PMI. Read More

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February 2021

Corneal-Smart Phone: A novel method to intelligently estimate postmortem interval.

J Forensic Sci 2021 Jan 28;66(1):356-364. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Criminal Investigation Police University of China, Shenyang, China.

The changes of postmortem corneal opacity are often used to roughly estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) in forensic practice. The difficulty associated with this time estimate is the lack of objective means to rapidly quantify postmortem corneal changes in crime scenes. This study constructed a data analysis model of PMI estimation and implemented an intelligent analysis system for examining the sequential changes of postmortem corneal digital images, named Corneal-Smart Phone, which can be used to quickly estimate PMI. Read More

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January 2021

Collecting e-cigarette aerosols for in vitro applications: A survey of the biomedical literature and opportunities to increase the value of submerged cell culture-based assessments.

J Appl Toxicol 2021 01 4;41(1):161-174. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

Imperial Brands PLC, Bristol, UK.

Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are being developed as potentially reduced-risk alternatives to the continued use of combustible tobacco products. Because of the widespread uptake of ENDS-in particular, e-cigarettes-the biological effects, including the toxic potential, of their aerosols are under investigation. Preclinically, collection of such aerosols is a prerequisite for testing in submerged cell culture-based in vitro assays; however, despite the growth in this research area, there is no apparent standardized collection method for this application. Read More

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January 2021

Corpse dismemberment: A case series. Solving the puzzle through an integrated multidisciplinary approach.

J Forensic Leg Med 2020 Aug 7;74:102005. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic and Orthopaedic Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00185, Rome, Italy; IRCCS Neuromed, Via Atinense 18, 86077, Pozzilli, Italy. Electronic address:

The finding of corpse parts poses several challenges for the forensic pathologist presenting implications for identification, diagnosis of death and determination of wounds vitality. Further interpretative difficulties in cases of cadaveric dismemberment derive from the scarcity of tanatochronological parameters useful to estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI) and the absence of uniform investigative protocols in the different centres of forensic pathology. The present study proposes an investigation protocol for the cadaveric dismemberment through the discussion of a case series. Read More

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Thanatomicrobiome and epinecrotic community signatures for estimation of post-mortem time interval in human cadaver.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 Nov 1;104(22):9497-9512. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology and Ecology (LEnME), Department of Life Science, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha, 769008, India.

Estimation of post-mortem time interval (PMI) is a key parameter in the forensic investigation which poses a huge challenge to the medico-legal experts. The succession of microbes within different parts of the human body after death has shown huge potential in the determination of PMI. Human body harbors trillions of microorganisms as commensals. Read More

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November 2020

Polarization modulation instability in a nonlinear fiber Kerr resonator.

Opt Lett 2020 Sep;45(18):5069-5072

We report on the experimental and numerical observation of polarization modulation instability (PMI) in a nonlinear fiber Kerr resonator. This phenomenon is phased-matched through the relative phase detuning between the intracavity fields associated with the two principal polarization modes of the cavity. Our experimental investigation is based on a 12 m long fiber ring resonator in which a polarization controller is inserted to finely control the level of intracavity birefringence. Read More

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September 2020

Applications of forensic entomology: overview and update.

Arch Med Sadowej Kryminol 2020 ;70(1):44-77

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

Despite the great strides made in fundamental and applied research, forensic entomology is constantly growing and considered to be an interconnected scientific discipline. Indeed, there is shortage in the available scientific literature in comparison to many other legal and biological subjects as well as in the number of forensic entomologists. The main goal of this work is to clarify the importance of forensic entomology by demonstration of their applications; it can provide important information about when, where, and how a particular death occurred. Read More

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January 2020

Investigation of Early Death-Induced Changes in Rat Brain by Solid Phase Microextraction via Untargeted High Resolution Mass Spectrometry: versus Postmortem Comparative Study.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2020 06 29;11(12):1827-1840. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada.

Analysis of brain samples obtained postmortem remains a standard approach in neuroscience, despite often being suboptimal for inferring roles of small molecules in the pathophysiology of brain diseases. Sample collection and preservation further hinders conclusive interpretation of biomarker analysis in autopsy samples. We investigate purely death-induced changes affecting rat hippocampus in the first hour of postmortem interval (PMI) by means of untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Read More

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Malaria elimination using the 1-3-7 approach: lessons from Sampov Loun, Cambodia.

BMC Public Health 2020 Apr 22;20(1):544. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

University Research Co., LLC, Chevy Chase, MD, USA.

Background: Cambodia has targeted malaria elimination within its territory by 2025 and is developing a model elimination package of strategies and interventions designed to achieve this goal.

Methods: Cambodia adopted a simplified 1-3-7 surveillance model in the Sampov Loun operational health district in western Cambodia beginning in July 2015. The 1-3-7 approach targets reporting of confirmed cases within one day, investigation of specific cases within three days, and targeted control measures to prevent further transmission within seven days. Read More

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Big Data and Artificial Intelligence: New Insight into the Estimation of Postmortem Interval.

Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2020 Feb;36(1):86-90

Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310000, China.

Abstract: The estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) is a core issue in forensic practice. A large amount of time-dependent data can be produced in the decomposition process of a body, however, such multidimensional data cannot be comprehensively and effectively analyzed and utilized by any existing conventional PMI estimation method. As a rapidly developing information technology, artificial intelligence (AI) has significant advantages in big data processing, due to it's comprehensiveness, efficiency and automation. Read More

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February 2020

Lactate determination in human vitreous humour by capillary electrophoresis and time of death investigation.

Electrophoresis 2020 06 12;41(12):1039-1044. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, Unit of Forensic Medicine, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Forensic inquests, particularly, in assessing time since death currently recognize the importance of the analysis of vitreous humour (VH) biomarkers. Present research, studies, and validates the determination of lactate (La) in VH by CZE with indirect UV detection. The BGE (pH 8. Read More

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Vitreous humor endogenous compounds analysis for post-mortem forensic investigation.

Forensic Sci Int 2020 May 4;310:110235. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Diagnostics and Public Health - Unit of Forensic Medicine, University of Verona, P.le L.A. Scuro 10, Verona, Italy; Institute of Translational Medicine and Biotechnology, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

The chemical and biochemical analysis of bodily fluids after death is an important thanatochemical approach to assess the cause and time since death. Vitreous humor (VH) has been used as a biofluid for forensic purposes since the 1960s. Due to its established relevance in toxicology, a literature review highlighting the use of VH with an emphasis on endogenous compounds has not yet been undertaken. Read More

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A survey of bacteria associated with various life stages of primary colonizers: Lucilia sericata and Phormia regina.

Sci Justice 2020 03 4;60(2):173-179. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Department of Forensic Science, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States. Electronic address:

Blow flies are common primary colonizers of carrion, play an important role in the transfer of microbes between environments, and serve as a vector for many human pathogens. While some investigation has begun regarding the bacteria associated with different life stages of blow flies, a well replicated study is currently not available for the majority of blow flies. This study investigated bacteria associated with successive life stages of blow fly species Lucilia sericata and Phormia regina. Read More

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Cold Case Experiment Demonstrates the Potential Utility of Aquatic Microbial Community Assembly in Estimating a Postmortem Submersion Interval.

J Forensic Sci 2020 Jul 19;65(4):1210-1220. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824.

Microbial community assembly (MCA) of both human and nonhuman animal carcasses provides indicators useful for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) in terrestrial settings. However, there are fewer studies estimating postmortem submersion intervals (PMSIs) in aquatic habitats. No aquatic studies to date assessed MCA in the context of a death investigation, with all previous studies focusing on important basic ecological questions. Read More

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Can We Play Together? A Closer Look at the Peers of a Peer-Mediated Intervention to Improve Play in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord 2020 Aug;50(8):2860-2873

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Peer-mediated interventions (PMIs) are often used to support children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to develop social skills. However, more investigation is needed to better understand the role of peers as both intervention recipients and models. Sixty-five typically developing peers who participated in a PMI for children with ASD were investigated using a randomised control trial. Read More

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A Comparative Investigation of the Role of the Anchoring Group on Perylene Monoimide Dyes in NiO-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

ChemSusChem 2020 Apr 12;13(7):1844-1855. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Université de Nantes, CNRS, CEISAM UMR 6230, 2 rue de la Houssinière, F-44000, Nantes, France.

The anchoring group of a sensitizer may strongly affect the overall properties and stability of the resulting dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthetic solar cells (DSPECs). The properties of seven perylene monoimide (PMI) dyes have been comprehensively studied for their immobilization on nanocrystalline NiO film. The PMI dyes differ only by the nature of the anchoring group, which are: carboxylic acid (PMI-CO H), phosphonic acid (PMI-PO H ), acetyl acetone (PMI-acac), pyridine (PMI-Py), aniline (PMI-NH ), hydroxyquinoline (PMI-HQ), and dipicolinic acid (PMI-DPA). Read More

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Feasibility Study of MRI Muscles Molecular Imaging in Evaluation of Early Post-Mortem Interval.

Sci Rep 2020 01 15;10(1):392. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences,and of Morphological and Functional Images, Section of Radiological Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

Estimating early postmortem interval (EPI) is a difficult task in daily forensic activity due to limitations of accurate and reliable methods. The aim of the present work is to describe a novel approach in the estimation of EPI based on quantitative magnetic resonance molecular imaging (qMRMI) using a pig phantom since post-mortem degradation of pig meat is similar to that of human muscles. On a pig phantom maintained at 20° degree, using a 1. Read More

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January 2020

Comparison of monoamine oxidase inhibition by cigarettes and modified risk tobacco products.

Toxicol Rep 2019 13;6:1206-1215. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Department of Systems Toxicology, PMI R&D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Quai Jeanrenaud 5, CH-2000, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

The adverse effects of cigarette smoking are well documented, and the two main strategies for reducing smoking prevalence are prevention of smoking initiation and promotion of smoking cessation. More recently, a third and complementary avenue, tobacco harm reduction has emerged, which is aimed to reduce the burden of smoking-related diseases. This has been enabled by the development of novel products such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and heated tobacco products, designed to deliver nicotine with significantly reduced levels of the toxicants that are emitted by cigarettes. Read More

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November 2019