274 results match your criteria investigates capabilities

An investigation into time-variant subsidence potentials using inclusive multiple modelling strategies.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 12;294:112949. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, East Azerbaijan, Iran. Electronic address:

Groundwater over-abstraction due to the absence of an effective management plan is often one of the main reasons for land subsidence in aquifer areas. This paper investigates this environmental problem at Salmas plain, Iran, by using the ALPRIFT framework, an acronym of a set of seven general-purpose data layers, introduced recently by the authors. It is capable of mapping Subsidence Vulnerability Indices (SVI) and the paper investigates an innovation to transform it into Time-variant SVI (TSVI) mapping capabilities through a three module strategy: Module 1: maps SVI; Module 2: develops a predictive model for Groundwater Levels (GWL); Module 3: combines both modules to produces TSVI maps. Read More

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Crude oil biodegradation potential of biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Meyerozyma sp.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 2;418:126276. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Key Laboratory of Coal Processing and Efficient Utilization, Ministry of Education, China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu, China; Department of Civil & Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA. Electronic address:

This study investigates the potential of crude oil degrading capabilities of biosurfactant-producing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MF069166 and Meyerozyma sp. MF138126. P. Read More

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Determinants of Social Distancing Among South Africans From 12 Days Into the COVID-19 Lockdown: A Cross Sectional Study.

Front Public Health 2021 24;9:632619. Epub 2021 May 24.

Human and Social Capabilities Division, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa.

Social or physical distancing has been an effective measure for reducing the spread of COVID-19 infections. Investigating the determinants of adherence to social distancing can inform public health strategies to improve the behaviour. However, there is a lack of data in various populations. Read More

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Mapping the Burden of Hypertension in South Africa: A Comparative Analysis of the National 2012 SANHANES and the 2016 Demographic and Health Survey.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 19;18(10). Epub 2021 May 19.

Health & Wellbeing, Human and Social Capabilities (HSC) Division, Human Sciences Research Council, Private Bag X9182, Cape Town 8000, South Africa.

This study investigates the provincial variation in hypertension prevalence in South Africa in 2012 and 2016, adjusting for individual level demographic, behavioural and socio-economic variables, while allowing for spatial autocorrelation and adjusting simultaneously for the hierarchical data structure and risk factors. Data were analysed from participants aged ≥15 years from the South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES) 2012 and the South African Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2016. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg or self-reported health professional diagnosis or on antihypertensive medication. Read More

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Development of artificial intelligence models for well groundwater quality simulation: Different modeling scenarios.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(5):e0251510. Epub 2021 May 27.

Water Engineering Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.

Groundwater is one of the most important freshwater resources, especially in arid and semi-arid regions where the annual amounts of precipitation are small with frequent drought durations. Information on qualitative parameters of these valuable resources is very crucial as it might affect its applicability from agricultural, drinking, and industrial aspects. Although geo-statistics methods can provide insight about spatial distribution of quality factors, applications of advanced artificial intelligence (AI) models can contribute to produce more accurate results as robust alternative for such a complex geo-science problem. Read More

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Blockchain for decentralization of internet: prospects, trends, and challenges.

Cluster Comput 2021 May 15:1-26. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Compute, 2800 KGS KGS Lyngby, Denmark.

Blockchain has made an impact on today's technology by revolutionizing the financial industry through utilization of cryptocurrencies using decentralized control. This has been followed by extending Blockchain to span several other industries and applications for its capabilities in verification. With the current trend of pursuing the decentralized Internet, many methods have been proposed to achieve decentralization considering different aspects of the current Internet model ranging from infrastructure and protocols to services and applications. Read More

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Iso-mukaadial acetate and ursolic acid acetate inhibit the chaperone activity of Plasmodium falciparum heat shock protein 70-1.

Cell Stress Chaperones 2021 May 23. Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, 2006, South Africa.

Plasmodium falciparum is the most lethal malaria parasite. The present study investigates the interaction capabilities of select plant derivatives, iso-mukaadial acetate (IMA) and ursolic acid acetate (UAA), against P. falciparum Hsp70-1 (PfHsp70-1) using in vitro approaches. Read More

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Identifying research gaps: A review of virtual patient education and self-management.

Technol Health Care 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland, Fribourg, Switzerland.

Background: Avatars in Virtual Reality (VR) can not only represent humans, but also embody intelligent software agents that communicate with humans, thus enabling a new paradigm of human-machine interaction.

Objective: The research agenda proposed in this paper by an interdisciplinary team is motivated by the premise that a conversation with a smart agent avatar in VR means more than giving a face and body to a chatbot. Using the concrete communication task of patient education, this research agenda is rather intended to explore which patterns and practices must be constructed visually, verbally, para- and nonverbally between humans and embodied machines in a counselling context so that humans can integrate counselling by an embodied VR smart agent into their thinking and acting in one way or another. Read More

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Determinants of Confidence in Overall Knowledge About COVID-19 Among Healthcare Workers in South Africa: Results From an Online Survey.

Front Public Health 2021;9:614858. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Human and Social Capabilities Research Division, Human Sciences Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.

Adequate information and knowledge about COVID-19 has been shown to induce the confidence and positive performance among healthcare workers (HCWs). Therefore, assessing the relationship between confidence in knowledge and associated factors among HCWs is vital in the fight against COVID-19. This paper investigates factors associated with HCWs' confidence in their overall knowledge about COVID-19 in South Africa in the early stages of the epidemic. Read More

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Playing the long game: Exploring the phenomenon of dementia-friendly golf.

Dementia (London) 2021 May 14:14713012211019498. Epub 2021 May 14.

3525Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK.

As individuals age, participation in previously accessible leisure activities can be compromised through diminished capabilities and negative societal expectations. This study investigates the unexplored accessibility of golf for older people with dementia using interviews and observations of Scottish participants in social enterprise-led golfing activities. The resulting thematic analysis concluded that golf is an accessible activity for people living with dementia, and continued participation generates social connectedness and enhances well-being. Read More

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Impact of big data analytics on sales performance in pharmaceutical organizations: The role of customer relationship management capabilities.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(4):e0250229. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

School of Economics and Management, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

In this era of technology development, every business wants to equip its salesforce with a sustainable salesforce automation system to improve sales performance and customer relationship management (CRM) capabilities. This study investigates the impact of big data analytics (BDA) on CRM capabilities and the sales performance of pharmaceutical organizations. A research model was tested based on 416 valid responses collected from pharmaceutical companies through a structured questionnaire. Read More

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Infrastructure, ontology and meaning: The endogenous development of economic ideas.

David Pinzur

Soc Stud Sci 2021 Apr 22:3063127211011524. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK.

In contrast to work showing exogenous social influences on the production of economic ideas, this article asks how a market's own infrastructure can endogenously shape practitioners' economic perspectives. It investigates this question by comparing the evolution of opposed views on speculation across two 19th-century American futures markets. The analysis locates the origins of this divergence in features of the grading, receipting and contracting processes that linked these new derivative markets to underlying agricultural markets. Read More

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TROPOMI NO in the United States: A Detailed Look at the Annual Averages, Weekly Cycles, Effects of Temperature, and Correlation With Surface NO Concentrations.

Earths Future 2021 Apr 2;9(4):e2020EF001665. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Energy Systems Division Argonne National Laboratory Argonne IL USA.

Observing the spatial heterogeneities of NO air pollution is an important first step in quantifying NO emissions and exposures. This study investigates the capabilities of the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) in observing the spatial and temporal patterns of NO pollution in the continental United States. The unprecedented sensitivity of the sensor can differentiate the fine-scale spatial heterogeneities in urban areas, such as emissions related to airport/shipping operations and high traffic, and the relatively small emission sources in rural areas, such as power plants and mining operations. Read More

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Spotting isomer mixtures in forensic illicit drug casework with GC-VUV using automated coelution detection and spectral deconvolution.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Mar 29;1173:122675. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Van 't Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, PO Box 94157, Amsterdam 1090 GD, the Netherlands; Co van Ledden Hulsebosch Center (CLHC), Amsterdam Center for Forensic Science and Medicine, PO Box 94157, Amsterdam 1090 GD, the Netherlands.

Analysis of isomeric mixtures is a significant analytical challenge. In the forensic field, for example, over 1000 new psychoactive substances (NPSs), comprising of many closely related and often isomeric varieties, entered the drugs-of-abuse market within the last decade. Unambiguous identification of the isomeric form requires advanced spectroscopic techniques, such as GC-Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (GC-VUV). Read More

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A 40 Mb/s VLC System Reusing an Existing Large LED Panel in an Indoor Office Environment.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 2;21(5). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Intelligent Sensing and Communications Group, School of Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK.

With advances in solid-state lighting, visible light communication (VLC) has emerged as a promising technology to enhance existing light-emitting diode (LED)-based lighting infrastructure by adding data communication capabilities to the illumination functionality. The last decade has witnessed the evolution of the VLC concept through global standardisation and product launches. Deploying VLC systems typically requires replacing existing light sources with new luminaires that are equipped with data communication functionality. Read More

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Factors associated with age-disparate sexual partnerships among males and females in South Africa: a multinomial analysis of the 2012 national population-based household survey data.

Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2021 Mar 12;18(1). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Office of the Deputy CEO for Research, Human Sciences Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: In South Africa, age-disparate to sexual relationships where the age difference between partners is 5 years or greater is an important contributor to the spread of HIV. However, little is known about the predictors of age-disparate sexual relationships. This study investigates factors associated with age-disparate sexual relationships among males and females in South Africa. Read More

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Exploring the need for a responsive school curriculum to cope with the Covid-19 pandemic in Pakistan.

Prospects (Paris) 2021 Mar 4:1-20. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Bureau of Curriculum Secondary Education Department, Quetta, Balochistan Pakistan.

The article investigates the response of the Pakistani curriculum to the Covid-19 outbreak. It also looks into the development of a curriculum that addresses the specificities of students' situations, while reminding them of global connectedness. The article is based on semi-structured interviews with 10 curriculum experts, 20 principals, and 35 teachers, as well as content analysis of the 2018 National Curriculum Framework of Pakistan. Read More

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Towards Accurate Microwave Characterization of Tissues: Sensing Depth Analysis of Open-Ended Coaxial Probes with Ex Vivo Rat Breast and Skin Tissues.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Feb 18;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul, Turkey.

Dielectric properties of biological materials are commonly characterized with open-ended coaxial probes due to the broadband and non-destructive measurement capabilities. Recently, potential diagnostics applications of the technique have been investigated. Although the technique can successfully classify the tissues with different dielectric properties, the classification accuracy can be improved for tissues with similar dielectric properties. Read More

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February 2021

The effect of early hormonal treatment (EHT) on expressive and receptive language capabilities in boys with 47,XXY (Klinefelter syndrome) during infancy and early childhood.

Genet Med 2021 Jun 24;23(6):1017-1022. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Neurology, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.

Purpose: 47,XXY is associated with variable neurodevelopmental outcomes including deficits in expressive and receptive language development. Early hormonal treatment (EHT) has been associated with mitigating some deficiencies in boys with 47,XXY. This study investigates these language capabilities of 47,XXY boys in the first five years of life and the associated effects of EHT on these capabilities. Read More

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Artificial intelligence-driven innovation for enhancing supply chain resilience and performance under the effect of supply chain dynamism: an empirical investigation.

Ann Oper Res 2021 Feb 3:1-26. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Marketing and Management, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Supply chain resilience (SCRes) and performance have become increasingly important in the wake of the recent supply chain disruptions caused by subsequent pandemics and crisis. Besides, the context of digitalization, integration, and globalization of the supply chain has raised an increasing awareness of advanced information processing techniques such as Artificial Intelligence (AI) in building SCRes and improving supply chain performance (SCP). The present study investigates the direct and indirect effects of AI, SCRes, and SCP under a context of dynamism and uncertainty of the supply chain. Read More

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February 2021

Design of a Single Layer Metamaterial for Pressure Offloading of Transtibial Amputees.

J Biomech Eng 2021 May;143(5)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, 218 South Palmetto Building, Clemson, SC 29631.

While using a prosthesis, transtibial amputees can experience pain and discomfort brought on by large pressure gradients at the interface between the residual limb and the prosthetic socket. Current prosthetic interface solutions attempt to alleviate these pressure gradients using soft homogenous liners to reduce and distribute pressures. This research investigates an additively manufactured metamaterial inlay with a tailored mechanical response to reduce peak pressure gradients around the limb. Read More

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Antibacterial, Antiviral, and Self-Cleaning Mats with Sensing Capabilities Based on Electrospun Nanofibers Decorated with ZnO Nanorods and Ag Nanoparticles for Protective Clothing Applications.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 25;13(4):5678-5690. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

ERNAM-Erciyes University Nanotechnology Application and Research Center, Kayseri 38039, Turkey.

The COVID-19 pandemic has clearly shown the importance of developments in fabrication of advanced protective equipment. This study investigates the potential of using multifunctional electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibers decorated with ZnO nanorods and Ag nanoparticles (PMMA/ZnO-Ag NFs) in protective mats. Herein, the PMMA/ZnO-Ag NFs with an average diameter of 450 nm were simply prepared on a nonwoven fabric by directly electrospinning from solutions containing PMMA, ZnO nanorods, and Ag nanoparticles. Read More

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February 2021

Biofilm formation by is altered in the presence of pesticides.

Access Microbiol 2020 12;2(12):acmi000175. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Truman State University, 100 E Normal Kirksville, MO 63501, USA.

uses swarming motility and biofilm formation to colonize plant roots and form a symbiotic relationship with the plant. Swarming motility and biofilm formation are group behaviours made possible through the use of chemical messengers. We investigated whether chemicals applied to plants would interfere with the swarming motility and biofilm-forming capabilities of . Read More

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November 2020

Deep Learning in Mining Biological Data.

Cognit Comput 2021 Jan 5:1-33. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

School of Computing , Edinburgh, EH11 4BN Edinburgh, UK.

Recent technological advancements in data acquisition tools allowed life scientists to acquire multimodal data from different biological application domains. Categorized in three broad types (i.e. Read More

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January 2021

Ensemble perception during multiple-object tracking.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2021 Apr 6;83(3):1263-1274. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Center for Applied Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Tufts University, Medford, MA, 02155, USA.

Multiple-object tracking studies consistently reveal attentive tracking limits of approximately three to five items. How do factors such as visual grouping and ensemble perception impact these capacity limits? Which heuristics lead to the perception of multiple objects as a group? This work investigates the role of grouping on multiple-object tracking ability, and more specifically, in identifying the heuristics that lead to the formation and perception of ensembles within dynamic contexts. First, we show that group tracking limits are approximately four groups of objects and are independent of the number of items that compose the groups. Read More

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Capacitive Based Micromachined Resonators for Low Level Mass Detection.

Micromachines (Basel) 2020 Dec 25;12(1). Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada.

Advancements in microfabrication technologies and novel materials have led to new innovations in miniaturized gas sensors that can identify miniscule changes in a complex environment. Micromachined resonators with the capability to offer high sensitivity and selectivity in array integration make mass loading a potential mechanism for electronic nose applications. This paper investigates the mass sensing characteristics of progressive capacitive based micromachined resonators as potential candidates for volatile organic compound detection where also there is a need for miniaturized array configuration. Read More

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December 2020

Overweight and Obesity in the French Army.

Mil Med 2020 Dec 17. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Digestive, Endocrine and Metabolic Surgery, Laveran Hospital, 13013, Marseille (Bouches-du-Rhne), France.

Introduction: Today, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is, respectively, 49% and 17% among French adults. This research investigates their existence in the French Armed Forces, in terms of the impact on military operative response and military readiness. As no previous studies have evaluated the weight status of the whole French Armed Forces, this work assesses the situation for the first time in France. Read More

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December 2020

'Sea of Blood': The Intended and Unintended Effects of the Criminalisation of Humanitarian Volunteers Rescuing Migrants in Distress at Sea.

Disasters 2020 Dec 13. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Research Affiliate, Monash University.

This paper investigates the impact of the recent criminalisation of humanitarian actors engaged in search and rescue (SAR) activities for migrants in distress in the Mediterranean Sea, focussing particularly on the impact on the motivation and engagement of humanitarian volunteers in Greece. We argue that criminalisation is aimed at reducing SAR activities and thus removing perceived 'pull factors' for migrants. We locate this phenomenon within the broader trend of policing and punishing those who assist migrants to deter them and prevent others from engaging in such activities. Read More

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December 2020

Temperature-Related Properties of Solid Birch Wood under Quasi-Static and Dynamic Bending.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Dec 3;13(23). Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Vehicle Safety Institute, Graz University of Technology, 8010 Graz, Austria.

The project WoodC.A.R. Read More

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December 2020

Terminator or accelerator? Lessons from the peer-to-peer accommodation hosts in China in responses to COVID-19.

Int J Hosp Manag 2021 Jan 11;92:102760. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

International College of Intellectual Property, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

This study investigates how peer-to-peer accommodation (P2PA) hosts in China have responded to the COVID-19 pandemic. A multi-case study approach was adopted to depict the decision-making logic of three different types of hosts-speculators, diplomats, and entrepreneurs-based on an awareness-motivation-capability (AMC) framework under COVID-19. The findings highlight the role of owner motivation (profit/sharing/entrepreneurial-driven) and capabilities, such as having a unique value proposition and linkages with other hospitality experience, under COVID-19. Read More

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January 2021