1,423 results match your criteria introduction craniofacial


Improving the reporting of orthodontic clinical audits: an evaluation.

Br Dent J 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Oral and Craniofacial Sciences, King's College London, Floor 25, Guy's Hospital, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, SE1 9RT, UK.

Aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the reporting of orthodontic audits published between 2013-2019 following the introduction of a submission template in 2015.Methods An audit reporting checklist was developed, with each audit independently assessed by two assessors. Based on the previous quality checklist, an overall score of 4 or less represented poor reporting, 5-8 fair reporting and 9 or greater good reporting. Read More

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Rethinking Farkas: Updating Cephalic Index Norms in a Large, Diverse Population.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

From the Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, and the Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Division of Biostatistics, University of Massachusetts Medical School.

Background: Cephalic index, the ratio of head width to length, is frequently used in decision-making in craniofacial surgery. Insurers derive criteria for helmet authorization for plagiocephaly based on deviations from norms, with one indicator being cephalic index. Current cephalic index norms were established by the Farkas and Munro data set, a small sample of Caucasian children published in 1987. Read More

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Cross-sectional survey of treatments and outcomes among injured adult patients in Kigali, Rwanda.

Afr J Emerg Med 2021 Jun 15;11(2):299-302. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Brown University Warren Alpert Medical School, Department of Emergency Medicine, 222 Richmond Street, Providence, RI 02912, USA.

Introduction: Traumatic injuries and their resulting mortality and disability impose a disproportionate burden on sub-Saharan countries like Rwanda. An important facet of addressing injury burdens is to comprehend injury patterns and aetiologies of trauma. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of injuries, treatments and outcomes at the University Teaching Hospital-Kigali (CHUK). Read More

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Bias in a blink: Shedding light on implicit attitudes toward patients with a cleft lip.

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Mt Sinai-Dr Edward Reiter Fellowship Program, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

Introduction: Previous studies have shown that patients with cleft lip and/or palate may be stigmatized in society. The objective of this study was to use an implicit association test to evaluate the subconscious biases of non-health care providers and orthodontists against patients with a repaired cleft lip (CL).

Methods: Respondents participated in an implicit association test. Read More

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Applicability of lung ultrasound in COVID-19 diagnosis and evaluation of the disease progression: A systematic review.

Pulmonology 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Tessália Vieira de Camargo, 126, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, Campinas, São Paulo, CEP: 13083-887, Brazil; Laboratory of Medical Genetics and Genome Medicine, Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Tessália Vieira de Camargo, 126, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, Campinas, São Paulo, CEP: 13083-887, Brazil; Laboratory of Human and Medical Genetics, São Francisco University, Avenida São Francisco de Assis, 218, Jardim São José, Bragança Paulista, São Paulo, CEP: 12916-900, Brazil. Electronic address:

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic originated in China and within about 4 months affected individuals all over the world. One of the limitations to the management of the COVID-19 is the diagnostic imaging to evaluate lung impairment and the patients' clinical evolution, mainly, in more severe cases that require admission into the intensive care unit. Among image examinations, lung ultrasound (LU) might be a useful tool to employ in the treatment of such patients. Read More

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Correlation between esthetic expectations for orthognathic treatment and psychological characteristics among Chinese adult patients.

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Stomatology of Second Dental Center, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine; College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University; National Center for Stomatology; National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the association of esthetic expectations with self-reported personal characteristics, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, oral health-related quality of life, and the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ) in Chinese adult patients before orthognathic treatment.

Methods: This study involved 213 patients with clinically significant skeletal deformity requiring orthognathic surgery for comprehensive treatment. Each patient completed a series of Chinese version scales, including the self-rating anxiety scale, self-rating depression scale, self-esteem scale, the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 questionnaire, and the OQLQ. Read More

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Distinct Microbial Signatures between Periodontal Profile Classes.

J Dent Res 2021 Apr 27:220345211009767. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Division of Comprehensive Oral Health, Adams School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Precise classification of periodontal disease has been the objective of concerted efforts and has led to the introduction of new consensus-based and data-driven classifications. The purpose of this study was to characterize the microbiological signatures of a latent class analysis (LCA)-derived periodontal stratification system, the Periodontal Profile Class (PPC) taxonomy. We used demographic, microbial (subgingival biofilm composition), and immunological data (serum IgG antibody levels, obtained with checkerboard immunoblotting technique) for 1,450 adult participants of the Dental Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, with already generated PPC classifications. Read More

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Crouzon syndrome: posterior fossa volume studies in vestibular orientation.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Lille University Hospital, Lille, France.

Introduction: With the increasing possibilities of surgical treatment addressing the complex spectrum of defects in Crouzon syndrome (CS), it is of utmost importance to obtain accurate assessment of the malformation. Evaluating the volume of the posterior fossa is of great importance since many authors, considering that its volume is always decreased, favor posterior fossa enlargement as a first step in the treatment of CS.

Material And Methods: We studied CT scans of children with CS, which were vestibular-oriented (VO) in order to conform with physiological landmarks, and we measured intracranial volume by manual segmentation; these abnormal CT scans were superposed with VO 3D-CT scanners of age-matched controls. Read More

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Mild traumatic brain injury induces microvascular injury and accelerates Alzheimer-like pathogenesis in mice.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2021 Apr 23;9(1):74. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Center for Neurodegeneration and Regeneration, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Room: 241, 1501 San Pablo Street, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA.

Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered as the most robust environmental risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Besides direct neuronal injury and neuroinflammation, vascular impairment is also a hallmark event of the pathological cascade after TBI. However, the vascular connection between TBI and subsequent AD pathogenesis remains underexplored. Read More

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Product advertisements in orthodontic journals: Are they evidence-based?

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Oral & Craniofacial Sciences, King's College London; Guy's Hospital, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Introduction: Previous research has suggested orthodontic advertisements are poorly supported by evidence. The primary aim of this study was to identify the type and quality of evidence supporting advertisement claims in leading orthodontic journals.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess all advertisements published between January 2015 and December 2017 in 6 major orthodontic journals. Read More

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Role of Navigation in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: A Surgeon's Perspectives.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dent 2021 15;13:127-139. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Surgeries related to the maxillofacial area deal with an intricate network of anatomical structures. With the complexity of the vital structures, it necessitates a surgical team to respect each anatomical boundary. In the past, there was an exceptionally high number of cases with surgical errors. Read More

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The effects of mode of delivery, maternal age, birth weight, gender and family history on screening hearing results: A cross sectional study.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 Apr 26;64:102236. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of General and Special Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan.

Introduction: Congenital hearing impairment is one of the principal issues that make distress to families especially those with a family history of hearing problems. Early detection of hearing impairment can make a difference regarding cognitive, attention, learning, speech, and social and emotional development of babies. Otoacoustic test emission is a very common screening test that can be used to pick up early cases and relieve family stress. Read More

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Performance of Prognostication Scores for Mortality in Injured Patients in Rwanda.

West J Emerg Med 2021 Jan 22;22(2):435-444. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Brown University Warren Alpert Medical School, Department of Emergency Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island.

Introduction: While trauma prognostication and triage scores have been designed for use in lower-resourced healthcare settings specifically, the comparative clinical performance between trauma-specific and general triage scores for risk-stratifying injured patients in such settings is not well understood. This study evaluated the Kampala Trauma Score (KTS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), and Triage Early Warning Score (TEWS) for accuracy in predicting mortality among injured patients seeking emergency department (ED) care at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali (CHUK) in Rwanda.

Methods: A retrospective, randomly sampled cohort of ED patients presenting with injury was accrued from August 2015-July 2016. Read More

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January 2021

Necrotising fasciitis of the posterior neck crossing the midline: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 1;82:105851. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Northwick Park Hospital, London Northwest University Healthcare NHS Trust, Watford Road, Harrow, HA1 3UJ, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Introduction And Importance: Craniofacial necrotising fasciitis is a complex condition, with high mortality given its propensity to descend via the deep neck spaces into the chest and mediastinum. Management requires optimal antimicrobial therapy with associated aggressive surgical debridement.

Presentation Of Case: A 64-year-old man presented to ENT with a posterior neck swelling. Read More

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Citation of prior systematic reviews in reports of randomized controlled trials published in dental speciality journals.

J Dent 2021 Apr 6;109:103658. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Dental School/Medical Faculty, University of Bern, Switzerland.

Objectives: To assess the extent to which reports of dental Randomised Clinical Trials (RCTs) cite prior systematic reviews (SR) to explain the rationale or justification of the trial. Study characteristics that predicated the citation of SR in the RCT report were explored.

Methods: An electronic database search was undertaken to identify dental RCTs published between 1st January 2014 and 31st December 2019. Read More

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A Life Saving Emergent Temporary External Carotid Artery Controlled in Extensive Craniofacial Injury.

Int Med Case Rep J 2021 30;14:199-204. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Khonkaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Introduction: Craniofacial trauma may potentially have significant blood loss which may lead to death in some trauma patients.

Case Report: We report a case of a 43-year-old male who had a lethal noncompressible arterial hemorrhage from a penetrating wound on his left frontotemporal and preauricular region. Extensive bleeding was successfully temporarily controlled by external carotid artery (ECA) occlusion. Read More

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Epidemiology of Craniofacial Pathology in Northern Vietnam Using Digital Platforms: Utilization of Electronic Medical Records and an SMS-Based Reporting System in a Low-Middle Income Country.

Ann Plast Surg 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

From the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Vietnam National Children's Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam Division of Pediatric Plastic Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX.

Introduction: Current disease surveillance in Vietnam relies on underdeveloped electronic medical record (EMR) systems, which are insufficient for timely standardized data collection about craniofacial and cleft pathologies. Concurrently, the World Bank reports Vietnamese mobile cellular subscription rates (per 100 people) of 128, some of the highest in the world. Herein, we discuss the development of a short messaging service (SMS)-based surveillance system based in Hanoi, Vietnam, and its utility in contrast to an EMR-based approach to craniofacial epidemiology study. Read More

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Study protocol for randomised clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of side-lying sleep positioning to back-lying at reducing oxygen desaturation resulting from obstructive sleep apnoea in infants with cleft palate (SLUMBRS2).

BMJ Open 2021 Apr 7;11(4):e049290. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Royal Manchester Children's Hospital, Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK

Introduction: The craniofacial abnormalities found in infants with cleft palate (CP) decrease their airway patency and increase their risk of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). We hypothesise that optimising sleep position in infants with CP may improve airway patency and offer a 'low-cost, high-impact' intervention to prevent the negative impacts of OSA. Because cleft centres give inconsistent advice about sleep position: some recommend back-lying and others side-lying, we will compare these in a randomised controlled trial. Read More

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Expression of DLX6 Gene in Mandibular Deficiency (Retrognathic Mandible): A Randomized Clinical and Genetic Study.

Cureus 2021 Feb 26;13(2):e13572. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Pedodontics, Navodaya Dental College and Hospital, Raichur, IND.

Introduction There are various genes that affect craniofacial development and among the important genes that affect jaw development is distal-less homeobox (DLX) 6 genes. The present study was carried out to determine the role of DLX6 gene variations in mandibular deficiency. Methods Thirty subjects having retrognathic mandible were evaluated by clinical examination and assessed using lateral cephalometric radiographs based on cephalometrics for orthognathic surgery (COGS) analysis of hard tissue with N-Pog parameters being less than -13 mm. Read More

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February 2021

Regenerative Endodontic Procedures for the Treatment of Necrotic Mature Teeth with Apical Periodontitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

J Endod 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

Introduction: Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) are intended to repair and regenerate part of the pulp-dentin complex. The aim of this study was to systematically appraise the existing evidence on the effectiveness of REPs on mature teeth with pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis.

Methods: Electronic database and hand searches were performed on 8 databases of published and unpublished literature from inception to January 3, 2021, for the identification of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or prospective clinical trials. Read More

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Upper airways after mandibular advancement orthognathic surgery: A 4-year follow-up.

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Araras Dental School, Fundação Hermínio Ometto, Araras, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess the stability of changes in the upper airways 4 years after orthognathic surgery in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion.

Methods: A retrospective clinical study was conducted including 33 cone-beam computed tomography images from 11 patients (average age of 35.91 years) followed up longitudinally for 4 years. Read More

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Dental arch changes after open bite treatment with spurs associated with posterior build-ups in the mixed dentition: A randomized clinical trial.

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Orthodontics, Bauru Dental School, University of São Paulo, Bauru, Brazil.

Introduction: This single-center, 2-arm, parallel-group randomized clinical trial aimed to compare the dimensional dental arch changes after anterior open bite (AOB) treatment with bonded spurs associated with posterior build-ups vs bonded spurs alone.

Methods: Patients aged between 7 and 11 years with AOB were recruited at a university clinic and randomly allocated into 2 groups. The experimental group was treated with bonded spurs associated with posterior build-ups (SBU) and the comparison group with bonded spurs alone (S). Read More

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Mind the Gap: Alveolar Bone Graft Revision in the Era of Computed Tomography.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2021 Apr 1:10556656211002689. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Division of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Objective: To determine the rate of revision alveolar bone grafting (ABG) in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) before and after the introduction of postoperative computed tomography (CT).

Design: Retrospective case-control study analyzing the incidence of revision ABG in patients with and without postoperative CT scans for graft success evaluation.

Setting: Academic tertiary care pediatric hospital. Read More

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Roles of autophagy in orthodontic tooth movement.

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2021 May 23;159(5):582-593. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Nc. Electronic address:

Introduction: Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) relies on efficient remodeling of alveolar bone. While a well-controlled inflammatory response is essential during OTM, the mechanism regulating inflammation is unknown. Autophagy, a conserved catabolic pathway, has been shown to protect cells from excess inflammation in disease states. Read More

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Maxillary Changes Following Facial Bipartition - A Three-Dimensional Quantification.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery UCL Institute of Child Health and Department of Craniofacial Surgery, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children Department of Computing, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Introduction: Children with Apert syndrome have hypertelorism and midfacial hypoplasia, which can be treated with facial bipartition (FB), often aided by rigid external distraction. The technique involves a midline osteotomy that lateralizes the maxillary segments, resulting in posterior cross-bites and midline diastema. Varying degrees of spontaneous realignment of the dental arches occurs postoperatively. Read More

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Dental Caries Severity and Nutritional Status of Nigerian Preschool Children.

JDR Clin Trans Res 2021 Mar 25:23800844211002108. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Oral Pathology, Radiology and Medicine, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Introduction: Malnutrition in children is one of the most prevalent global health challenges, and malnourished children have a higher risk of death from childhood diseases. Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Complications from ECC such as pain, loss of tooth/teeth, and infection can undermine a child's nutrition and growth. Read More

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Dental periodontal procedures: a systematic review of contamination (splatter, droplets and aerosol) in relation to COVID-19.

BDJ Open 2021 Mar 24;7(1):15. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Public Health, Policy & Systems, University of Liverpool, Room 124, 1st Floor, Block B, Waterhouse Building, Liverpool, UK.

Introduction: The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and subsequent COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant effect on the delivery of routine dentistry; and in particular, periodontal care across the world. This systematic review examines the literature relating to splatter, droplet settle and aerosol for periodontal procedures and forms part of a wider body of research to understand the risk of contamination in relation to periodontal care procedures relevant to COVID-19.

Methods: A search of the literature was carried out using key terms and MeSH words relating to the review questions. Read More

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Finite element analysis of C-expanders with different vertical vectors of anchor screws.

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2021 Mar 21. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Orthodontics, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Introduction: C-expanders are tissue- and bone-borne maxillary expanders that are anchored by 6 orthodontic miniscrews, 3 on each side of the palate. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of C-expanders on the circummaxillary sutures and bucco-palatal axis of teeth in 3-dimensional finite element analyses when anchor screw vectors are different.

Methods: Five expansion models were studied on the basis of the vertical positions of anchor screws on the palate. Read More

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Effectiveness of functional orthodontic appliances in obstructive sleep apnea treatment in children: literature review.

Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Mar 14. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), Departamento de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a common condition in childhood and if left untreated can result in many health problems. An accurate diagnosis of the etiology is crucial for obstructive sleep apnea treatment success. Functional orthodontic appliances that stimulate mandibular growth by forward mandibular positioning are an alternative therapeutic option in growing patients. Read More

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Trichilemmal carcinoma in an unexposed area of the nose: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 11;81:105752. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia. Electronic address:

Introduction: Trichilemmal carcinoma (TC) is a rare, low-grade, cutaneous malignant lesion that originates from hair follicle cells. It usually occurs in photo-exposed areas, especially on the face, scalp, neck, and dorsal part of the hand. We report a case of an adult female with TC in an unexposed area of the nose, which completely obstructed the right nasal cavity. Read More

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