61,284 results match your criteria intracellular reactive


Oxidative stress in obesity-associated hepatocellular carcinoma: sources, signaling and therapeutic challenges.

Oncogene 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Signal Transduction and Metabolism Laboratory, Laboratoire de Gastroentérologie Expérimental et Endotools, Université libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

Obesity affects more than 650 million individuals worldwide and is a well-established risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Oxidative stress can be considered as a bona fide tumor promoter, contributing to the initiation and progression of liver cancer. Indeed, one of the key events involved in HCC progression is excessive levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from the fatty acid influx and chronic inflammation. Read More

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Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes protect trabecular meshwork from oxidative stress.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 21;11(1):14863. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, Liaocheng People's Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Liaocheng, 252000, Shandong, China.

This study aims to investigate the beneficial effects of exosomes derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on trabecular meshwork cells under oxidative stress and predict candidate genes associated with this process. Trabecular meshwork cells were pretreated with BMSC-derived exosomes for 24 h, and exposed to 0.1 mM HO for 6 h. Read More

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Exosome-mediated delivery of SCD-1 siRNA promoted the death of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells via regulating ROS level.

Clin Transl Oncol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Seventh People's Hospital of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 358 Datong Road, Pudong, Shanghai, 200137, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive cancers in the world. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) is one of major enzymes in the de novo synthesis of fatty acids and is related to cancer aggressiveness and poor patient prognosis. The study aimed to construct exosomes loaded SCD-1 interference, investigate its effects and mechanisms on the cell proliferation and apoptosis of ATC cells. Read More

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Chondroitin sulfate from fish waste exhibits strong intracellular antioxidant potential.

Braz J Med Biol Res 2021 16;54(10):e10730. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brasil.

Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a type of glycosaminoglycan described as an antioxidant molecule that has been found in animal species such as fish. Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) represents an eco-friendly source of this compound, since its economical processing generates usable waste, reducing the negative environmental impact. This waste was used for CS extraction, purification, characterization by enzymatic degradation, and evaluation of its antioxidant effect. Read More

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Preparation, Optimization and Evaluation of Chitosan-Based Avanafil Nanocomplex Utilizing Antioxidants for Enhanced Neuroprotective Effect on PC12 Cells.

Gels 2021 Jul 16;7(3). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Arnold and Marie Schwartz College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA.

(1) Introduction: in recent decades, interdisciplinary research on the utilization of natural products as "active moiety carriers" was focused on due to their superior safety profile, biodegradability, biocompatibility and the ability for sustained or controlled release activity. The nano-based neuroprotective strategy is explored as an imperative treatment for diabetic neuropathy (DN). Avanafil (AV), that selectively inhibits the degradation of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase, thereby increasing the levels of cGMP, makes a decisive mediator for cytoprotection. Read More

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Investigating the Roles of Listeria monocytogenes Peroxidases in Growth and Virulence.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Jul 21:e0044021. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Microbiology, University of Washingtongrid.34477.33grid.471394.c School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Bacteria have necessarily evolved a protective arsenal of proteins to contend with peroxides and other reactive oxygen species generated in aerobic environments. Listeria monocytogenes encounters an onslaught of peroxide both in the environment and during infection of the mammalian host, where it is the causative agent of the foodborne illness listeriosis. Despite the importance of peroxide for the immune response to bacterial infection, the strategy by which L. Read More

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Intracellular and Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Measurement in Primary Cultured Neurons.

Bio Protoc 2018 Jun 5;8(11):e2871. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive oxygen containing molecules. ROS consist of radical oxygen species including superoxide anion (O ) and hydroxyl radical (•OH) and non-radical oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (HO), singlet oxygen (O). ROS are generated by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, environmental stresses including UV or heat exposure, and cellular responses to xenobiotics ( Ray , 2012 ). Read More

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Effects of the Na/H Ion Exchanger on Susceptibility to COVID-19 and the Course of the Disease.

J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 2021 15;2021:4754440. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Ota&Jinemed Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

The Na/H ion exchanger (NHE) pumps Na inward the cell and H ion outside the cell. NHE activity increases in response to a decrease in intracellular pH, and it maintains intracellular pH in a narrow range. Patients with obesity, diabetes, and hypertension and the elderly are prone to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Read More

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Oxidative stress tolerance contributes to heterologous protein production in Pichia pastoris.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2021 Jul 20;14(1):160. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, People's Republic of China.

Background: Pichia pastoris (syn. Komagataella phaffii) is an important yeast system for heterologous protein expression. A robust P. Read More

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Exosomes synergized with [email protected] enhance their immunity against hepatocellular carcinoma via promoting M1 macrophages polarization.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jul 18;99:107960. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Guilin Medical University, Guilin, Guangxi, People's Republic of China; Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, Guilin Medical University, Guilin, Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is easy to relapse after resection for its lack of anti-tumor immunity due to pro-tumorigenesis by promoting M2 type macrophage polarization. Recent studies have shown that exosomes are closely related to the occurrence and development of HCC. Antigenic exosomes from HCC are able to polarize into alternatively activated macrophages M2, but do not stimulate M1 macrophages polarization. Read More

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CBS-derived H2S facilitates host colonization of Vibrio cholerae by promoting the iron-dependent catalase activity of KatB.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jul 20;17(7):e1009763. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Sensing and resisting oxidative stress is critical for Vibrio cholerae to survive in either the aquatic environment or the gastrointestinal tract. Previous studies mainly focused on the mechanisms of oxidative stress response regulation that rely on enzymatic antioxidant systems, while functions of non-enzymatic antioxidants are rarely discussed in V. cholerae. Read More

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Identification of prenylated phenolics in mulberry leaf and their neuroprotective activity.

Phytomedicine 2021 Jul 3:153641. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Key Laboratory of Post-Harvest Handling of Fruits, Ministry of Agriculture, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Background: Neurodegenerative diseases are becoming increasingly prevalent over the world. Therefore, drug development in this field is urgently required. Neuron impairment leads to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, while amelioration of oxidative stress can inhibit the impairment. Read More

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Urease: Unsuspected Non-Enzymatic Properties Relevant to Pathogenicity.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 4;22(13). Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Laboratory of Neurotoxins, Brain Institute of Rio Grande do Sul (BRAINS) and School of Medicine, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre CEP 90610-000, RS, Brazil.

Infection by causes urinary stones and catheter incrustation due to ammonia formed by urease (PMU), one of its virulence factors. Non-enzymatic properties, such as pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic activities, were previously reported for distinct ureases, including that of the gastric pathogen . Here, PMU was assayed on isolated cells to evaluate its non-enzymatic properties. Read More

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Iron Chelator Induces Apoptosis in Osteosarcoma Cells by Disrupting Intracellular Iron Homeostasis and Activating the MAPK Pathway.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 2;22(13). Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Research & Development Institute of Northwestern Polytechnical University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057, China.

Osteosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor in clinical orthopedics. Iron chelators have inhibitory effects on many cancers, but their effects and mechanisms in osteosarcoma are still uncertain. Our in vitro results show that deferoxamine (DFO) and deferasirox (DFX), two iron chelators, significantly inhibited the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells (MG-63, MNNG/HOS and K7M2). Read More

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Oestrogenic metabolite equol negatively impacts the functionality of ram spermatozoa in vitro.

Theriogenology 2021 Jul 15;172:216-222. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

UWA Institute of Agriculture and UWA School of Agriculture and Environment, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, 6009, Australia. Electronic address:

Oestrogenic pastures are known to cause infertility in the ewe, due primarily to the oestrogen-like actions of the metabolite equol. Despite strong evidence that phytoestrogens and their metabolites compromise male reproductive function in many other species, there is little information concerning the effect of oestrogenic pastures on ram sperm quality and function. To investigate this, ram spermatozoa were exposed in vitro to physiologically relevant concentrations of either 0, 0. Read More

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Thymosin beta 4 alleviates non-alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting ferroptosis via up-regulation of GPX4.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jul 16;908:174351. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Blood Transfusion, The Affliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, China. Electronic address:

Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) can improve the liver fibrosis and reduce inflammation, while the role of Tβ4 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) whether mediated by ferroptosis remains unclear. A rat model of NAFLD was established on a high-fat diet (HFD), and rats were assigned ferroptosis inducer erastin and inhibitor Ferrostatin 1 (Fer-1). Subsequently, histopathology of the liver and the expression of ferroptosis-related genes in rat liver were detected. Read More

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Morphine Prevents Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Myocardial Mitochondrial Damage by Activating δ-opioid Receptor/EGFR/ROS Pathway.

Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

School of Public Health, North China University of Science and Technology, 21 Bohai Avenue, Caofeidian District, Tangshan, 063000, Hebei, China.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is a classical receptor tyrosine kinase, is involved in the protective effect of morphine against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocardial mitochondrial damage.

Methods: Isolated rats hearts were subjected to global ischemia followed by reperfusion. Cardiac H9c2 cells were exposed to a simulated ischemia solution followed by Tyrode's solution to induce hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury. Read More

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Assessing Respiratory Immune Responses to Haemophilus Influenzae.

J Vis Exp 2021 Jun 29(172). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Monash Lung and Sleep, Monash Medical Centre; Monash University Department of Medicine, Monash Medical Centre;

Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) is a prevalent bacterium found in a range of respiratory conditions. A variety of different assays/techniques may be used to assess the respiratory immune/inflammatory response to this bacterium. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy are fluorescence-based technologies that allow detailed characterization of biological responses. Read More

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Exploring the antioxidant effect of Lactobacillus plantarum SCS2 on mice with type 2 diabetes.

J Food Biochem 2021 Jul 18:e13781. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Public Health, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effect of Lactobacillus plantarum SCS2 (L. plantarum SCS2). After 1 week of acclimation, 120 male KM mice were divided into normal group (NG), model group (MG), solvent control group (KG), and different test groups (TG1, TG2, TG3) (n = 20/group) randomly. Read More

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Chrysin induces autophagy through the inactivation of the ROS‑mediated Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in endometrial cancer.

Int J Mol Med 2021 09 19;48(3). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230601, P.R. China.

Endometrial cancer (EC) is widely known as an aggressive malignancy. Due to the limited therapeutic options and poor prognosis of patients with advanced‑stage EC, there is a need to identify effective alternative treatments. Chrysin is a naturally active flavonoid (5,7‑dihydroxyflavone), which has been demonstrated to exert anticancer effects and may present a novel strategy for EC treatment. Read More

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September 2021

Exposure to Plasma From Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients Affects Hepatocyte Viability, Generates Mitochondrial Dysfunction, and Modulates Pathways Involved in Fat Accumulation and Inflammation.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 2;8:693997. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

AGING Project, Department of Translational Medicine, University East Piedmont, Novara, Italy.

Changes of lipidic storage, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the knowledge of intracellular pathways has vastly expanded in recent years, the role and mechanisms of circulating triggering factor(s) are debated. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that factors circulating in the blood of NAFLD patients may influence processes underlying the disease. Read More

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Construction and validation of a 15-gene ferroptosis signature in lung adenocarcinoma.

PeerJ 2021 7;9:e11687. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Background: Ferroptosis is a novel form of programmed cell death characterized by the excessive accumulation of intracellular iron and an increase in reactive oxygen species. Emerging studies have shown that ferroptosis plays a vital role in the progression of lung adenocarcinoma, but the effect of ferroptosis-related genes on prognosis has been poorly studied. The purpose of this study was to explore the prognostic value of ferroptosis-related genes. Read More

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Lipidomics reveals carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C protects cancer cells from lipotoxicity and senescence.

J Pharm Anal 2021 Jun 21;11(3):340-350. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Design and Evaluation, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

Lipotoxicity, caused by intracellular lipid accumulation, accelerates the degenerative process of cellular senescence, which has implications in cancer development and therapy. Previously, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (CPT1C), a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes carnitinylation of fatty acids, was found to be a critical regulator of cancer cell senescence. However, whether loss of CPT1C could induce senescence as a result of lipotoxicity remains unknown. Read More

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Malondialdehyde in dried blood spots: a biomarker of systemic lipid peroxidation linked to cardiopulmonary symptoms and risk factors.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Jun;13(6):3731-3740

Nicholas School of the Environment & Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: There are few oxidative biomarkers that can be used in resource-limited settings (e.g., rural Africa) where blood collection facilities are lacking. Read More

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Nitric Oxide System and Bronchial Epithelium: More Than a Barrier.

Front Physiol 2021 30;12:687381. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Airway epithelium forms a physical barrier that protects the lung from the entrance of inhaled allergens, irritants, or microorganisms. This epithelial structure is maintained by tight junctions, adherens junctions and desmosomes that prevent the diffusion of soluble mediators or proteins between apical and basolateral cell surfaces. This apical junctional complex also participates in several signaling pathways involved in gene expression, cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Read More

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Inhibition of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species improves coronary endothelial function after cardioplegic hypoxia/reoxygenation.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI. Electronic address:

Objective: Cardioplegic ischemia-reperfusion and diabetes mellitus are correlated with coronary endothelial dysfunction and inactivation of small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Increased reactive oxidative species, such as mitochondrial reactive oxidative species, may contribute to oxidative injury. Thus, we hypothesized that inhibition of mitochondrial reactive oxidative species may protect coronary small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and endothelial function against cardioplegic ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury. Read More

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Inhibition of c-Myc using 10058-F4 induces anti-tumor effects in ovarian cancer cells via regulation of FOXO target genes.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jul 13;908:174345. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, Shariati Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Ovarian cancer, characterized by rapid growth and asymptomatic development in the early stage, is the fifth common cancer in women. The deregulated expression of c-Myc in more than 50% of human tumors including ovarian cancer makes this oncogenic master transcription factor a potential therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-tumor effects of 10058-F4, a small molecule c-Myc inhibitor, on ovarian cancer cells. Read More

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Illuminating the effect of beneficial blue light and ROS-modulating enzymes in Dupuytren's disease.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(7):e0253777. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Dupuytren's disease (DD) is a fibroproliferative disorder of the palmar aponeurosis, which is characterized by a compound myofibrogenesis and evidenced by an increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). In Dupuytren's tissue, higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are documented, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of myofibroblasts. Our preliminary study demonstrates that α-SMA-expression is significantly inhibited by blue light irradiation in DD. Read More

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Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) are localized in the nucleus of retinal Müller glial cells and modulated by cytokines and oxidative stress.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(7):e0253915. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Mary D. Allen Vision Research Laboratory, USC Roski Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States of America.

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the pathology of numerous inflammatory retinal degenerations, including retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Our previous work revealed that intravitreal injections with tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) reduce the progression of rod cell death and inhibit cone cell remodeling that involves reactive gliosis in retinal Müller glial cells (MGCs) in rodent models. The underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of how TIMP-1 functions in the retina remain to be resolved; however, MGCs are involved in structural homeostasis, neuronal cell survival and death. Read More

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Lysophosphatidylcholine induces oxidative stress in  human endothelial cells via NOX5 activation - implications in atherosclerosis.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Universidade de Sao Paulo Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil.

Objective: The mechanisms involved in NOX5 activation in atherosclerotic processes are not completely understood.  This study tested the hypothesis that lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), a proatherogenic component of oxLDL, induces endothelial calcium influx, which drives NOX5-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, oxidative stress, and endothelial cell dysfunction.  Approach: Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were stimulated with LPC (10-5 M, for different time points). Read More

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