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When biographical disruption meets HIV exceptionalism: Reshaping illness identities in the shadow of criminalization.

Sociol Health Illn 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Criminology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Drawing on interviews with civil society actors in the AIDS Service Organization (ASO) sector in Canada, this article explores how these actors contribute to shaping the illness identities of people living with HIV/AIDS in the shadow of efforts to criminalize exposure to HIV. While the biographically disruptive qualities associated with an HIV diagnosis have been addressed in the medical sociology literature, we turn our attention to the key role played by ASOs as interlocutors in this process. Paying specific attention to the intersection of processes of medicalization and criminalization, we ask how they are re-stigmatizing a condition that has shifted in the public consciousness from its earlier association with deviance and moral culpability. Read More

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Myofibroblast progeny in wound biology and wound healing studies.

Wound Repair Regen 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Central Research Laboratory and Division of Research and Patents, Ramaiah Medical College & Hospitals, Bangalore, India.

Fibroblasts and myofibroblasts play a myriad of important roles in human tissue function, especially in wound repair and healing. Among all cells, fibroblasts are group of cells that decide the status of wound as they maintain tissue homeostasis. Currently, the increase in the deleterious effects of chronic wound and their morbidity rate has necessitated the need to understand the influence of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, which chiefly originate locally from tissue-resident fibroblasts to address the same. Read More

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Process of forgiveness in the recovery of Chinese women survivors of intimate partner violence: Empowerment, transformation, and integration.

Health Soc Care Community 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Social Work and Social Administration, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Forgiveness has been found one substantial element in the recovery for women survivors from intimate partner violence following the termination of the abusive relationship. To further investigate the details of forgiveness in this specific context, the present study explored the process of forgiveness using grounded theory. In-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 Chinese women survivors of IPV. Read More

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Documentation of chaperone presence in breast clinic, a complete audit cycle.

Ir J Med Sci 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Breast Clinic, Beaumont Hospital, Royal College of Surgeons, Dublin, Ireland.

Objective: The General Medical Council (GMC) and Irish Medical Council (IMC) recommend the presence of a chaperone for all intimate examinations and that it should be clearly documented. The aim of this report is to assess doctors' compliance with obtaining a chaperone and documenting their presence, determining possible causes of non-compliance and implement interventions to increase compliance.

Methods: Prospective audit of patients seen in the breast clinic in Beaumont hospital over the week starting 8th February 2021. Read More

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The Cytochrome P450 Catalyzing C-S Bond Formation in S-Heterocyclization of Chuangxinmycin Biosynthesis.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

NHC Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Antibiotics, CAMS Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology for Drug Innovation, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, No.1 Tiantan Xili, Beijing, 100050, China.

Microbial sulfur-containing secondary metabolites show various biological activities, but the C-S bond-forming in their biosynthetic metabolism has not been thoroughly understood. Here, we present genetic, biochemical and structural characterization of a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CxnD exhibiting C-S bond forming activity in S-heterocyclization of chuangxinmycin biosynthesis. In vivo and in vitro analyses demonstrated that CxnD generated an indole-fused dihydrothiopyran skeleton from a L-Trp-derived thiol intermediate. Read More

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Crystal structures of LeuT reveal conformational dynamics in the outward-facing states.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 1:100609. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Rare Diseases Center, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China. Electronic address:

The neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) homolog LeuT from Aquifex aeolicus has proven to be a valuable model for studying the transport mechanism of the NSS family. Crystal structures have captured LeuT in key conformations visited during the transport cycle, allowing for the construction of a nearly complete model of transport, with much of the conformational dynamics studied by computational simulations. Here, we report crystal structures of LeuT representing new intermediate conformations between the outward-facing open and occluded states. Read More

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A Multifaceted Intimate Partner Violence Communication Skills Curriculum Increases Screening Among Internal Medicine Residents.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is common, yet physicians do not routinely screen patients for IPV. There are no clear recommendations for best educational practices for physician trainees that improve screening rates. We implemented an IPV curriculum combining didactics and communication skills training for internal medicine residents. Read More

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The Enigma of 2-Cys Peroxiredoxins: What Are Their Roles?

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2021 Jan;86(1):84-91

Centre for Free Radical Research, University of Otago Christchurch, Christchurch, Otago, 8140, New Zealand.

2-Cys peroxiredoxins are abundant thiol proteins that react efficiently with a wide range of peroxides. Unlike other enzymes, their exceptionally high reactivity does not rely on cofactors. The mechanism of oxidation and reduction of peroxiredoxins places them in a good position to act as antioxidants as well as key players in redox signaling. Read More

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January 2021

A Multi-Method Approach to a Comprehensive Examination of the Psychiatric and Neurological Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence in Women: A Methodology Protocol.

Front Psychiatry 2021 19;12:569335. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

The Translational Research Center for Traumatic Brain Injury and Stress Disorders and the Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, United States.

The number of women in the United States that experience blows to the head during assaults by intimate partners is substantial. The number of head blows that result in a traumatic brain injury (TBI) is virtually unknown, but estimates far exceed numbers of TBI in parallel populations (e.g. Read More

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February 2021

How Do Smut Fungi Use Plant Signals to Spatiotemporally Orientate on and ?

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Feb 2;7(2). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Institute for Microbiology, Cluster of Excellence on Plant Sciences, Heinrich-Heine University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

Smut fungi represent a large group of biotrophic plant pathogens that cause extensive yield loss and are also model organisms for studying plant-pathogen interactions. In recent years, they have become biotechnological tools. After initial penetration of the plant epidermis, smut fungi grow intra-and intercellularly without disrupting the plant-plasma membrane. Read More

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February 2021

G-Quadruplexes: Emerging Targets for the Structure-Based Design of Potential Anti-Cancer and Antiviral Therapies.

Acta Chim Slov 2020 Sep;67(3):683-700

G-quadruplexes (G4s) are noncanonical secondary structures that fold within guanine (G) rich strands of regulatory genomic regions. Recent evidences suggest their intimate involvement in important biological processes such as telomere maintenance, end-capping and protection, chromosome stability, gene expression, viral integration, and recombination. Mechanistic details of how and why G4 structures influence biological function indicate a rationale for treating G4s as emerging molecular targets for future therapeutics. Read More

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September 2020

Correlation of Sexual Behavior Change, Family Function, and Male-Female Intimacy Among Adults Aged 18-44 Years During COVID-19 Epidemic.

Sex Med 2021 Feb 8;9(1):100301. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Institute of Chronic Disease Risks Assessment, School of Nursing and Health, Henan University, Kaifeng, China; General Practice Center, Nanhai Hospital, Southern Medical University, Foshan, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic. In this unprecedented situation, the intimate relationship, sexual behavior, and family functions of partners have also undergone unique changes. There are few reports on whether sexual behavior and family function affect intimate relationships between partners, especially among people aged 18 to 44 years. Read More

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February 2021

Gender, Power, and Health: Measuring and Assessing Sexual Relationship Power Equity Among Young Sub-Saharan African Women and Men, a Systematic Review.

Trauma Violence Abuse 2020 Dec 23:1524838020979676. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Faculty of Health Sciences, 1763Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

Gender inequity, including low sexual relationship power (SRP), is an important determinant of intimate partner violence (IPV) and negative sexual, reproductive, and mental health. Different versions of the Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) are commonly used within youth studies to examine how gender inequities, including controlling behaviors, in heterosexual relationships impact the lives of young people in sub-Saharan Africa. This review aims to (1) describe definitions and measures of SRP within sub-Saharan African youth studies and (2) review and summarize associations between SRP equity, IPV, and sexual, reproductive, and mental health. Read More

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December 2020

Quantitative Methods for Analyzing Intimate Partner Violence in Microblogs: Observational Study.

J Med Internet Res 2020 11 19;22(11):e15347. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, United States.

Background: Social media is a rich, virtually untapped source of data on the dynamics of intimate partner violence, one that is both global in scale and intimate in detail.

Objective: The aim of this study is to use machine learning and other computational methods to analyze social media data for the reasons victims give for staying in or leaving abusive relationships.

Methods: Human annotation, part-of-speech tagging, and machine learning predictive models, including support vector machines, were used on a Twitter data set of 8767 #WhyIStayed and #WhyILeft tweets each. Read More

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November 2020

Lymphatic System of the Head and Neck.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Nov 16. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tulane Center for Clinical Neurosciences, Tulane University School of Medicine.

An intimate knowledge of the lymphatic drainage of the head and neck is needed by the clinician examining and diagnosing patients with lesion of this region.It is considered that approximately 150 to 300 lymph nodes are located in the neck region. The classification of cervical lymph nodes by Rouvière has long been most widely referenced in textbooks and articles because it covers most of the lymph nodes of the head and neck region. Read More

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November 2020

A Systematic Review of the Associations of Adult Sexual Abuse in Women with Cardiovascular Diseases and Selected Risk Factors.

Glob Heart 2020 09 24;15(1):65. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Non-communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, ZA.

Aim: To systematically assess the association between adult sexual abuse (ASA) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) of heart attack and stroke, and their risk factors of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and obesity.

Methods: Two authors conducted a PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science review of the literature published prior to 1 October 2019. Relevant English language studies irrespective of study design and data collection techniques were included. Read More

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September 2020

Glans inflation morphology and female cloaca copulatory interactions of the male American alligator phallus†.

Biol Reprod 2021 02;104(2):374-386

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst MA, USA.

The phallic glans of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is the distal termination of the semen-conducting sulcus spermaticus and during copulation has the closest, most intimate mechanical interactions with the female urodeum, the middle cloacal chamber that contains the opening to the vaginal passages and oviducts. However, the details of this interface leading to insemination and gamete uptake are unclear. Here, we: (1) histologically characterize the underlying tissue types and morphologically quantify the shape changes associated with glans inflation into the copulatory conformation, (2) digitally reconstruct from MRI the 3D shape of functional tissue compartments, and (3) diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography image the copulatory fit between male phallus and female cloaca. Read More

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February 2021

Adaptability to acute stress among women survivors of intimate partner violence: protocol for a mixed-methods cross-sectional study in a laboratory setting (BRAW study).

BMJ Open 2020 10 1;10(10):e036561. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Animal Physiology Unit (School of Biosciences), Institut de Neurociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, CIBERSAM, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most common and alarming form of violence against women, affecting around 30% of all women around the world. Using an integrative methodology, we approach IPV as a form of chronic exposure to severe stress that alters the stress-response system of exposed women. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that sustained exposure to IPV in women confers a vulnerability-to-stress profile characterised by higher neuroendocrine and behavioural responsiveness associated with a selective attentional processing bias towards threat. Read More

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October 2020

Strain engineering of the charge and spin-orbital interactions in SrIrO.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Oct 21;117(40):24764-24770. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Photon Science Division, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland;

In the high spin-orbit-coupled SrIrO, the high sensitivity of the ground state to the details of the local lattice structure shows a large potential for the manipulation of the functional properties by inducing local lattice distortions. We use epitaxial strain to modify the Ir-O bond geometry in SrIrO and perform momentum-dependent resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the metal and at the ligand sites to unveil the response of the low-energy elementary excitations. We observe that the pseudospin-wave dispersion for tensile-strained SrIrO films displays large softening along the [h,0] direction, while along the [h,h] direction it shows hardening. Read More

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October 2020

What barriers prevent health professionals screening women for domestic abuse? A literature review.

Br J Nurs 2020 Jul;29(13):754-760

Independent Nurse Teacher, South East England.

Background: Domestic abuse is known to affect one in four women (although it is difficult to quantify) and has significant short- and long-term health implications. As people who often have regular contact with women in a variety of circumstances, including routine appointments, health professionals, particularly nurses and midwives, are in an ideal position to screen women for domestic abuse. However, it is recognised that there is a reluctance by some health professionals to undertake this important role. Read More

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The ALOHA Study: Intimate Partner Violence in Hawai'i's Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Community.

Hawaii J Health Soc Welf 2020 06;79(6):187-193

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Women's Health, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI (JWHW, VVL, SR).

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention describes intimate partner violence (IPV) as a serious, preventable problem. The ALOHA (Assessing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender [LGBT] Violence in Hawai'i) Study examines IPV in Hawai'i's LGBT community. The study's primary outcome is to determine the prevalence of IPV in Hawai'i's LGBT community, and secondary outcomes are to determine the prevalence of help-seeking behavior, associations between IPV and demographics, and associations between help-seeking behavior and demographics. Read More

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The provision of emergency healthcare for women who experience intimate partner violence: part 2. Strategies to address knowledge deficits and negative attitudes.

Emerg Nurse 2020 Jul 26;28(4):18-23. Epub 2020 May 26.

Queensland Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

The first article in this two-part series evaluated healthcare professionals' approaches to the care of women who present to the emergency department (ED) with injuries related to intimate partner violence (IPV). It identified barriers to appropriate care provision, which included a lack of knowledge on the part of healthcare professionals and negative professional attitudes. This second article details the findings of a literature review of three databases that aimed to evaluate strategies to address the lack of knowledge of healthcare professionals and negative attitudes concerning IPV. Read More

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Demographics and Fracture Patterns of Patients Presenting to US Emergency Departments for Intimate Partner Violence.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev 2020 02 18;4(2). Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

Orthopaedic surgeons are in a position to assist in identifying intimate partner violence (IPV) patients. It was the purpose of this study to analyze the demographics and fracture patterns of IPV patients in the United States.

Methods: Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program from 2005 through 2013 were used. Read More

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February 2020

In suit constructing 2D/1D MgInS/CdS heterojunction system with enhanced photocatalytic activity towards treatment of wastewater and H production.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2020 Sep 11;576:264-279. Epub 2020 May 11.

College of Environmental Science Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, PR China.

A novel visible-light-driven 2D/1D MgInS/CdS catalyst with heterostructure was fabricated for sewage treatment and energy conversion. In this study, MIS/CdS-0.3 heterostructure catalyst displayed the remarkable photocatalytic performance, which could reduce about 100% of Cr(VI) within 30 min and decompose approximately 95. Read More

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September 2020

The experiences of individuals re-engaging in sexual relationships following a bone marrow transplant: A grounded theory study.

Eur J Oncol Nurs 2020 Apr 7;46:101756. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Faculty of Nursing, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, T2N 1N4, Alberta, Canada; Department of Community Health Sciences, TRW Building, 3D10, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, T2N 4Z6, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Purpose: Sexual health is often neglected following a bone marrow transplant. The purpose of this study was to develop an in-depth explanation of the process that patients undergo when re-engaging in sexual relationships following a bone marrow transplant.

Methods: A Straussian Grounded Theory methodology was employed. Read More

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The Crystal Structure of a Biological Insulated Transmembrane Molecular Wire.

Cell 2020 04 13;181(3):665-673.e10. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK. Electronic address:

A growing number of bacteria are recognized to conduct electrons across their cell envelope, and yet molecular details of the mechanisms supporting this process remain unknown. Here, we report the atomic structure of an outer membrane spanning protein complex, MtrAB, that is representative of a protein family known to transport electrons between the interior and exterior environments of phylogenetically and metabolically diverse microorganisms. The structure is revealed as a naturally insulated biomolecular wire possessing a 10-heme cytochrome, MtrA, insulated from the membrane lipidic environment by embedding within a 26 strand β-barrel formed by MtrB. Read More

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Phenyl-Group Exchange in Triphenylphosphine Mediated by Cationic Gold-Platinum Complexes-A Gas-Phase Mimetic Approach.

Inorg Chem 2020 Jul 3;59(14):9496-9510. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Albertstr. 21, 79104 Freiburg, Germany.

The PPh ligands in the heterodinuclear AuPt complex [(PhP)AuPt(PPh)][BAr] (BAr = tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate) exhibit a high fluxionality on the AuPt core. Fast intramolecular and slow intermolecular processes for the reversible exchange of the PPh ligands have been identified. When [(PhP)AuPt(PPh)][BAr] is heated in solution, the formation of benzene is observed, and a trinuclear, cationic AuPt complex is generated. Read More

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Quantification of the Interaction of SmI with Substrates and Ligands.

Chemistry 2020 May 30;26(30):6846-6850. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, 5290002, Israel.

The method developed and introduced here enables for the first time (to the authors' knowledge), a quantitative assessment of the interaction of SmI with substrates prior to the electron transfer stage. As a proof of concept, equilibrium constants for some model substrates including carbonyl compounds and aromatic nuclei are reported here. In addition, the first equilibrium constants with some common ligands were also determined. Read More

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