156 results match your criteria intestine propagate

Murine astrovirus tropism for goblet cells and enterocytes facilitates an IFN-λ response in vivo and in enteroid cultures.

Mucosal Immunol 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Although they globally cause viral gastroenteritis in children, astroviruses are understudied due to the lack of well-defined animal models. While murine astroviruses (muAstVs) chronically infect immunodeficient mice, a culture system and understanding of their pathogenesis is lacking. Here, we describe a platform to cultivate muAstV using air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures derived from mouse enteroids, which support apical infection and release. Read More

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stimulates dendritic cells to induce IL-33 expression via abundant ATP production.

J Med Microbiol 2021 Mar 13;70(3). Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Oral Microbiology, Division of Oral Infection Health Sciences, Asahi University School of Dentistry, 1851 Hozumi, Mizuho, Gifu 501-0296, Japan.

Food allergies (FAs) occur due to intestinal immune dysfunction elicited by dysbiotic conditions. It was previously determined by us that species propagate in the faeces of mice with FAs and worsen allergic symptoms by inducing the allergenic cytokine IL-33. Dendritic cells can play important roles in regulation of FA responses. Read More

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Histo-blood group antigens of glycosphingolipids predict susceptibility of human intestinal enteroids to norovirus infection.

J Biol Chem 2020 11 10;295(47):15974-15987. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Laboratory of Clinical Chemistry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

The molecular mechanisms behind infection and propagation of human restricted pathogens such as human norovirus (HuNoV) have defied interrogation because they were previously unculturable. However, human intestinal enteroids (HIEs) have emerged to offer unique models for targeted studies of intestinal biology, including inflammatory and infectious diseases. Carbohydrate-dependent histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are known to be critical for clinical infection. Read More

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November 2020

Modeling Complex Deformations of the Sigmoid Colon Between External Beam Radiation Therapy and Brachytherapy Images of Cervical Cancer.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2020 04 3;106(5):1084-1094. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Purpose: In this study, we investigated registration methods for estimating the large interfractional sigmoid deformations that occur between external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy (BT) for cervical cancer.

Methods And Materials: Sixty-three patients were retrospectively analyzed. The sigmoid colon was delineated on 2 computed tomography images acquired during EBRT (without applicator) and BT (with applicator) for each patient. Read More

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A Framework for Spatiotemporal Analysis of Gastrointestinal Spike Burst Propagation.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2019 Jul;2019:4619-4622

Gastrointestinal spike bursts are a bioelectrical phenomenon associated with motility. These events when initiated propagate a small distance and abruptly terminate activating a small area defined as a patch. Understanding normal and abnormal propagation patterns of these events may shed light on the root causes of functional motility disorders. Read More

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Neural motor complexes propagate continuously along the full length of mouse small intestine and colon.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2020 01 11;318(1):G99-G108. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

College of Medicine and Public Health and Centre for Neuroscience, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Cyclical propagating waves of muscle contraction have been recorded in isolated small intestine or colon, referred to here as motor complexes (MCs). Small intestinal and colonic MCs are neurogenic, occur at similar frequencies, and propagate orally or aborally. Whether they can be coordinated between the different gut regions is unclear. Read More

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January 2020

Establishment and Characterization of Small Bowel Neuroendocrine Tumor Spheroids.

J Vis Exp 2019 10 14(152). Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Department of Surgery, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine;

Small bowel neuroendocrine tumors (SBNETs) are rare cancers originating from enterochromaffin cells of the gut. Research in this field has been limited because very few patient derived SBNET cell lines have been generated. Well-differentiated SBNET cells are slow growing and are hard to propagate. Read More

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October 2019

The Appendix in Parkinson's Disease: From Vestigial Remnant to Vital Organ?

J Parkinsons Dis 2019 ;9(s2):S345-S358

Center for Neurodegenerative Science, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI, USA.

Parkinson's disease (PD) has long been considered a brain disease, but studies now point to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as a potential starting point for PD. In particular, the human vermiform appendix has been implicated in PD. The appendix is a tissue rich in immune cells, serving as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and as a storehouse for the gut microbiome. Read More

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Altered gut microbiota and intestinal permeability in Parkinson's disease: Pathological highlight to management.

Neurosci Lett 2019 11 24;712:134516. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Neuroscience Division, Department of Pharmacology, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga, Punjab, 142001, India. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder, affecting 3.7% of the population over 65 years of age. PD involves degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPC) with deficiency of dopamine. Read More

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November 2019

Alteration in propagating colonic contractions by dairy proteins in isolated rat large intestine.

J Dairy Sci 2019 Nov 11;102(11):9598-9604. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Food Nutrition and Health Team, AgResearch, Palmerston North 4474, New Zealand; Riddet Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North 4474, New Zealand; High-Value Nutrition, National Science Challenge, Liggins Institute, University of Auckland 1023, New Zealand.

Gastrointestinal conditions in which the transit of contents is altered may benefit from nutritional approaches to influencing health outcomes. Milk proteins modulate the transit of contents along different regions, suggesting that they have varying effects on neuromuscular function to alter gastrointestinal motility. We tested the hypothesis that bovine whey and casein milk protein hydrolysates could have direct modulatory effects on colonic motility patterns in isolated rat large intestine. Read More

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November 2019

Exacerbated intestinal inflammation in P2Y deficient mice is associated with Th17 activation.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2019 10 2;1865(10):2595-2605. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Département de microbiologie-infectiologie et d'immunologie, Faculté de Médecine, Université Laval, Québec city, QC G1V 0A6, Canada; Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec - Université Laval, Québec city, QC G1V 4G2, Canada. Electronic address:

Extracellular nucleotides are released as constitutive danger signals by various cell types and activate nucleotide (P2) receptors such as P2Y receptor. P2Y activation on monocytes induces the secretion of the chemokine CXCL8 which may propagate intestinal inflammation. Also, P2Y expression is increased in infiltrating T cells of Crohn's disease patients. Read More

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October 2019

Faecal Proteases from Pouchitis Patients Activate Protease Activating Receptor-2 to Disrupt the Epithelial Barrier.

J Crohns Colitis 2019 Dec;13(12):1558-1568

The Research Center for Digestive Tract and Liver Diseases, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background And Aims: The pathogenesis of pouch inflammation may involve epithelial barrier disruption. We investigated whether faecal proteolytic activity is increased during pouchitis and results in epithelial barrier dysfunction through protease activating receptor [PAR] activation, and assessed whether the intestinal microbiome may be the source of the proteases.

Methods: Faecal samples were measured for protease activity using a fluorescein isothiocyanate [FITC]-casein florescence assay. Read More

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December 2019

Ultrasonographic and histopathological features in 8 cats with fibrotic small intestinal stricture.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2019 Jul 3;60(4):423-431. Epub 2019 May 3.

Diagnostic Pathology, Dick White Referrals, Cambridge, UK.

Benign stricture is an uncommon cause of chronic small intestinal obstruction in the cat. The purpose of this retrospective case series was to describe the ultrasonographic features, histopathological findings, and clinical presentation in a group of cats with benign small intestinal stricture. Inclusion criteria were cats presenting during the period 2010-2017, and that had ultrasonography and small intestinal stricture confirmed at surgery. Read More

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Embryogenesis of the peristaltic reflex.

J Physiol 2019 05 21;597(10):2785-2801. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Imagoseine Core Facility, Institut Jacques Monod, Université Paris Diderot/CNRS UMR7592, 15 rue Hélène Brion, 75013, Paris, France.

Key Points: Neurogenic gut movements start after longitudinal smooth muscle differentiation in three species (mouse, zebrafish, chicken), and at E16 in the chicken embryo. The first activity of the chicken enteric nervous system is dominated by inhibitory neurons. The embryonic enteric nervous system electromechanically couples circular and longitudinal spontaneous myogenic contractions, thereby producing a new, rostro-caudally directed bolus transport pattern: the migrating motor complex. Read More

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Impact of the gut microbiome on the genome and epigenome of colon epithelial cells: contributions to colorectal cancer development.

Genome Med 2019 02 25;11(1):11. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Orleans Street, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA.

In recent years, the number of studies investigating the impact of the gut microbiome in colorectal cancer (CRC) has risen sharply. As a result, we now know that various microbes (and microbial communities) are found more frequently in the stool and mucosa of individuals with CRC than healthy controls, including in the primary tumors themselves, and even in distant metastases. We also know that these microbes induce tumors in various mouse models, but we know little about how they impact colon epithelial cells (CECs) directly, or about how these interactions might lead to modifications at the genetic and epigenetic levels that trigger and propagate tumor growth. Read More

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February 2019

Schistosoma "Eggs-Iting" the Host: Granuloma Formation and Egg Excretion.

Front Immunol 2018 29;9:2492. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

School of Medicine, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Schistosomiasis is a major cause of morbidity in humans invoked by chronic infection with parasitic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes have a complex life-cycle involving infections of an aquatic snail intermediate host and a definitive mammalian host. In humans, adult male and female worms lie within the vasculature. Read More

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September 2019

Stem cell therapy in severe pediatric motility disorders.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2018 12 16;43:145-149. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London, WC1N 1EH, UK; Neurogastroenterology and Motility Unit, Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, WC1N 3JH, UK. Electronic address:

Pediatric gastrointestinal motility disorders represent a range of severe developmental or acquired conditions that disrupt enteric neuromuscular function. Current medical and surgical therapeutic options are very limited but recent advances have highlighted the possibility of improved or curative stem cell-based treatments. Not only has the ability to harvest, propagate and transplant human-derived enteric neural stem cells (ENSCs) been demonstrated but recent in vivo transplantation studies have confirmed that ENSCs are capable of engraftment within recipient intestine of animal models of enteric neuropathy and effecting functional rescue. Read More

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December 2018

The first digestive movements in the embryo are mediated by mechanosensitive smooth muscle calcium waves.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 09 24;373(1759). Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris Diderot/CNRS UMR 7057, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75013 Paris, France

Peristalsis enables transport of the food bolus in the gut. Here, I show by dynamic intra-cellular calcium imaging on living embryonic gut explants that the most primitive form of peristalsis that occurs in the embryo is the result of inter-cellular, gap-junction-dependent calcium waves that propagate in the circular smooth muscle layer. I show that the embryonic gut is an intrinsically mechanosensitive organ, as the slightest externally applied mechanical stimulus triggers contractile waves. Read More

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September 2018

Isolation of internal and external sphincter progenitor cells from the human anal sphincter with or without radiotherapy.

Colorectal Dis 2019 01 29;21(1):38-47. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Pathology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, South Korea.

Aim: We aimed to isolate and propagate internal and external anal sphincter progenitor cells from the human anal sphincter, with or without radiotherapy, for tailored cell therapy of faecal incontinence.

Methods: Sphincter progenitor cells were isolated from normal internal and external anal sphincters collected from 10 patients with rectal cancer who had undergone abdominoperineal resection with (n = 6) or without (n = 4) preoperative chemoradiotherapy. The isolated cells and differentiated muscle fibres were identified using immunofluorescence assay, western blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Read More

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January 2019

Brief summary of the current protocols for generating intestinal organoids.

Dev Growth Differ 2018 Aug 23;60(6):387-392. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Division of Organogenesis and Regeneration, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

The intestine has fundamental functions for the maintenance of homeostasis, including food digestion and nutrient/water absorption. Although the lumen of the intestine is always exposed to pathogens, intestinal epithelial cells form monolayer sheets that act as an epithelial barrier to prevent the invasion of pathogens. Thus, disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier causes inflammatory bowel diseases. Read More

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Intestinal organoids for modelling intestinal development and disease.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 07;373(1750)

Division of Cancer and Stem Cells, School of Medicine, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK

Gastrointestinal diseases are becoming increasingly prevalent in developed countries. Immortalized cells and animal models have delivered important but limited insight into the mechanisms that initiate and propagate these diseases. Human-specific models of intestinal development and disease are desperately needed that can recapitulate structure and function of the gut Advances in pluripotent stem cells and primary tissue culture techniques have made it possible to culture intestinal epithelial cells in three dimensions that self-assemble to form 'intestinal organoids'. Read More

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The effects of mitochondrial inhibitors on Ca signalling and electrical conductances required for pacemaking in interstitial cells of Cajal in the mouse small intestine.

Cell Calcium 2018 06 1;72:1-17. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557, USA. Electronic address:

Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-MY) are pacemakers that generate and propagate electrical slow waves in gastrointestinal (GI) muscles. Slow waves appear to be generated by the release of Ca from intracellular stores and activation of Ca-activated Cl channels (Ano1). Conduction of slow waves to smooth muscle cells coordinates rhythmic contractions. Read More

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Parathyroid Hormone-Like Hormone Induces Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition of Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Activating the Runt-Related Transcription Factor 2.

Am J Pathol 2018 06 22;188(6):1374-1388. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology, Department of Gastroenterology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key contributor to fibroblast activation in fibrosis of multiple organs, including the intestine. Parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) is an important factor in renal fibrosis and regulates several processes, including EMT. Herein, we investigated the role of PTHLH-induced EMT in intestinal fibrosis associated with Crohn disease. Read More

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Fibrinogen-like protein 2 prothrombinase may contribute to the progression of inflammatory bowel disease by mediating immune coagulation.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2018 1;11(3):1629-1636. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University Ouhai District, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Inflammation and coagulation are interdependent processes that enable each process to activate and propagate the other in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Thus, we investigated the role of a novel immune coagulant, fibrinogen-like protein 2 prothrombinase (FGL2), in patients and mice with IBD. 83 IBD patients and 40 normal controls were enrolled, and trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis mice were used. Read More

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'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' Accumulates inside Endoplasmic Reticulum Associated Vacuoles in the Gut Cells of Diaphorina citri.

Sci Rep 2017 12 5;7(1):16945. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Lake Alfred, FL, USA.

Citrus greening disease known also as Huanglongbing (HLB) caused by the phloem-limited bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas) has resulted in tremendous losses and the death of millions of trees worldwide. CLas is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. The closely-related bacteria 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (CLso), associated with vegetative disorders in carrots, is transmitted by the carrot psyllid Bactericera trigonica. Read More

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December 2017

IncA/C plasmids conferring high azithromycin resistance in vibrio cholerae.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2018 Jan 14;51(1):140-144. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

State Key Laboratory for Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China. Electronic address:

Azithromycin (AZM) is a clinically important antibiotic against Vibrio cholerae, especially for inhibiting V. cholerae colonisation of the intestine and for the treatment of severe cholera in children and pregnant women. An IncA/C plasmid was isolated from two high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) AZM-resistant V. Read More

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January 2018

Alpha-Synuclein to the Rescue: Immune Cell Recruitment by Alpha-Synuclein during Gastrointestinal Infection.

J Innate Immun 2017 2;9(5):437-440. Epub 2017 Sep 2.

Center for Neurodegenerative Science, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI, USA.

Intraneuronal accumulation of misfolded alpha-synuclein in the central and peripheral nervous systems is strongly linked to Parkinson disease (PD) and other related synucleinopathies. In rare inherited forms of PD, point mutations or gene multiplications mediate the formation of alpha-synuclein protein aggregates. However, in most PD cases it is presumed that the combined effects of ageing and environmental factors drive the formation of alpha-synuclein aggregates. Read More

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Kinetic Analysis of Enzymes Immobilized in Porous Film Arrays.

Anal Chem 2017 10 14;89(19):10311-10320. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

UC Berkeley/UCSF Graduate Program in Bioengineering, ‡Department of Bioengineering, University of California Berkeley , Berkeley, California 94720, United States.

Measuring the catalytic activity of immobilized enzymes underpins development of biosensing, bioprocessing, and analytical chemistry tools. To expand the range of approaches available for measuring enzymatic activity, we report on a technique to probe activity of enzymes immobilized in porous materials in the absence of confounding mass transport artifacts. We measured reaction kinetics of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP) immobilized in benzophenone-modified polyacrylamide (BPMA-PAAm) gel films housed in an array of fluidically isolated chambers. Read More

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October 2017

The Enteric Network: Interactions between the Immune and Nervous Systems of the Gut.

Immunity 2017 06;46(6):910-926

Division of Biology & Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. Electronic address:

Interactions between the nervous and immune systems enable the gut to respond to the variety of dietary products that it absorbs, the broad spectrum of pathogens that it encounters, and the diverse microbiome that it harbors. The enteric nervous system (ENS) senses and reacts to the dynamic ecosystem of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by translating chemical cues from the environment into neuronal impulses that propagate throughout the gut and into other organs in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS). This review will describe the current understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the GI tract by focusing on the ENS and the mucosal immune system. Read More

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