56,893 results match your criteria interventions reduce

Review: The development of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota and intervention in neonatal ruminants.

Animal 2021 Jul 19;15(8):100316. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Animal Science, College of Animal Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China. Electronic address:

The complex microbiome colonizing the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants plays an important role in the development of the immune system, nutrient absorption and metabolism. Hence, understanding GIT microbiota colonization in neonatal ruminants has positive impacts on host health and productivity. Microbes rapidly colonize the GIT after birth and gradually develop into a complex microbial community, which allows the possibility of GIT microbiome manipulation to enhance newborn health and growth and perhaps induce lasting effects in adult ruminants. Read More

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Time-trends and predictors of interhospital transfers and 30-day rehospitalizations after acute coronary syndrome from 2000-2015.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0255134. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Community Medicine, Information and Health Decision Sciences (MEDCIDS) and Center for Health Technology and Services Research (CINTESIS), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Aims: Assess trends and factors associated with interhospital transfers (IHT) and 30-day acute coronary syndrome (ACS) rehospitalizations in a national administrative database of patients admitted with an ACS between 2000-2015.

Methods And Results: Cohort study of patients hospitalized with ACS from 2000 to 2015, using a validated linkage algorithm to identify and link patient-level sequential hospitalizations occurring within 30 days from first admission (considering all hospitalizations within the 30-day timeframe as belonging to the same ACS episode of care-ACS-EC). From 212,481 ACS-EC, 42,670 (20. Read More

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Developing a core outcome set for periodontal trials.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254123. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Health Services Research Unit, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

Background: There is no agreement which outcomes should be measured when investigating interventions for periodontal diseases. It is difficult to compare or combine studies with different outcomes; resulting in research wastage and uncertainty for patients and healthcare professionals.

Objective: Develop a core outcome set (COS) relevant to key stakeholders for use in effectiveness trials investigating prevention and management of periodontal diseases. Read More

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Newborn Screening in the Diagnosis of Primary Immunodeficiency.

Lisa J Kobrynski

Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Pediatrics Institute, Emory University and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Newborn screening for severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) is the first inborn error of immunity (IEI) to be detected through population screening. It also represents the first newborn screening test to utilize molecular testing on DNA from newborn dried blood spots. Newborn screening for SCID has provided opportunities to measure the population prevalence of this disorder and evaluate the effect of early interventions on the overall outcomes in affected infants. Read More

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Diversity fatigue: A survey for measuring attitudes towards diversity enhancing efforts in academia.

Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Office of Research.

Objectives: Academia is grappling with how to address persistent underrepresentation and reduce inequities. With so many diversity-enhancing initiatives underway, some within the academic community might experience "diversity fatigue," a construct we use to understand majority groups' feelings of weariness toward diversity efforts.

Method: For our testing purposes, we focused on ethnic and minority underrepresentation, and collected data in four studies from 473 White American students and faculty. Read More

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The effectiveness of exergames on fear of falling in community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review.

Aging Ment Health 2021 Jul 22:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA.

Fear of falling is common among older adults and can increase fall-risk through premature activity restriction. Exergames, an emerging tool in fall prevention, combine exercise with interactive and adaptive game elements. This review examines the extent to which exergame interventions reduce fear of falling among community-dwelling older adults. Read More

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Differential diagnosis checklists reduce diagnostic error differentially: a randomized experiment.

Med Educ 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Inselspital University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Introduction: Wrong and missed diagnoses contribute substantially to medical error. Can a prompt to generate alternative diagnoses (prompt) or a differential diagnosis checklist (DDXC) increase diagnostic accuracy? How do these interventions affect the diagnostic process and self-monitoring?

Methods: Advanced medical students (N = 90) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions to complete six computer-based patient cases: Group 1 (prompt) was instructed to write down all diagnoses they considered while acquiring diagnostic test results, and to finally rank them. Groups 2 and 3 received the same instruction plus a list of 17 differential diagnoses for the chief complaint of the patient. Read More

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Lessons from the field: delivering trachoma mass drug administration safely in a COVID-19 context.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Inclusive Eye Health and Neglected Tropical Diseases Initiative, CBM Christoffel-Blindenmission Christian Blind Mission e.V., Wellington House, East Road CB1 1BH, Cambridge, UK.

The first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) interim guidance released by the World Health Organization recommended suspension of non-urgent community health interventions, including mass drug administration (MDA) for neglected tropical diseases. However, with no end in sight for the COVID-19 pandemic, it was crucial to find ways to restart MDA while testing measures to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission between health workers, volunteers and communities. Consequently, guidelines were developed for delivering MDA safely in a COVID-19 context and the training and implementation were assessed through an observation checklist. Read More

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Do You Prefer Safety to Social Participation? Finnish Population-Based Preference Weights for the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT) for Service Users.

MDM Policy Pract 2021 Jul-Dec;6(2):23814683211027902. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Personal Social Services Research Unit, University of Kent, Kent, UK.

The Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT) was developed in England to measure people's social care-related quality of life (SCRQoL). The aim of this article is to estimate preference weights for the Finnish ASCOT for service users (ASCOT). In addition, we tested for learning and fatigue effects in the choice experiment used to elicit the preference weights. Read More

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A Spanish Neuropsychological Battery Discriminates Between the Behavioral Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia and Primary Progressive Aphasia in a Colombian Sample.

Front Neurol 2021 5;12:656478. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Neuroscience Group of Antioquia, The University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.

The differential diagnosis among the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia FTD (bvFTD) and the linguist one primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is challenging. Presentations of dementia type or variants dominated by personality change or aphasia are frequently misinterpreted as psychiatric illness, stroke, or other conditions. Therefore, it is important to identify cognitive tests that can distinguish the distinct FTD variants to reduce misdiagnosis and best tailor interventions. Read More

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Advanced Image Registration and Reconstruction using the O-Arm System: Dose Reduction, Image Quality, and Guidance using Known-Component Models.

Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 2018 Feb 13;10576. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

Purpose: Model-based image registration and reconstruction offer strong potential for improved safety and precision in image-guided interventions. Advantages include reduced radiation dose, improved soft-tissue visibility (detection of complications), and accurate guidance with/without a dedicated navigation system. This work reports the development and performance of such methods on an O-arm system for intraoperative imaging and translates them to first clinical studies. Read More

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February 2018

Non-invasive, vagus nerve stimulation to reduce ileus after colorectal surgery: protocol for a feasibility trial with nested mechanistic studies.

BMJ Open 2021 Jul 21;11(7):e046313. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Leeds Institute of Medical Research at St. James's, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Introduction: Ileus is a common and distressing condition characterised by gut dysfunction after surgery. While a number of interventions have aimed to curtail its impact on patients and healthcare systems, ileus is still an unmet challenge. Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve is a promising new treatment due to its role in modulating the neuro-immune axis through a novel anti-inflammatory reflex. Read More

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Return on investment of a model of access combining triage with initial management: an economic analysis.

BMJ Open 2021 Jul 21;11(7):e045096. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

School of Health and Social Development, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia.

Objectives: Timely access to outpatient services is a major issue for public health systems. To address this issue, we aimed to establish the return on investment to the health system of the implementation of an alternative model for access and triage (Specific Timely Appointments for Triage: STAT) compared with a traditional waitlist model.

Design: Using a prospective pre-post design, an economic analysis was completed comparing the health system costs for participants who were referred for community outpatient services post-implementation of STAT with a traditional waitlist comparison group. Read More

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Reducing inequality in avoidable emergency admissions: Case studies of local health care systems in England using a realist approach.

J Health Serv Res Policy 2021 Jul 21:13558196211021618. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Professor, Centre for Health Economics, University of York, UK.

Objective: People in disadvantaged areas are more likely to have an avoidable emergency hospital admission. Socio-economic inequality in avoidable emergency hospital admissions is monitored in England. Our aim was to inform local health care purchasing and planning by identifying recent health care system changes (or other factors), as reported by local health system leaders, that might explain narrowing or widening trends. Read More

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Voucher Reinforcement Decreases Psychiatric Symptoms in Young People in Treatment for Drug Use Disorders - A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Dual Diagn 2021 Jul 21:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research, Aarhus University, Denmark.

Objective: This multicenter, parallel randomized, open study examined the effect of using vouchers and session reminders as an added element to outpatient treatment for drug use disorders in youth. It was hypothesized that being randomly assigned to a contingency management condition would lead to a reduction of psychiatric symptoms, and that this reduction would be mediated through abstinence and treatment completion.

Methods: A total of 460 participants aged 15 to 25 years from nine outpatient sites were randomized to one of four treatment conditions (standard treatment alone [STD], i. Read More

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COVID-19 vaccination intention and influencing factors among different occupational risk groups: a cross-sectional study.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Jul 21:1-8. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institute of Social Medicine, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

As an effective measure to manage the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine and understanding the influencing factors of vaccination intention is particularly important. This study aimed to describe the COVID-19 vaccination intention among three different occupational risk groups and identify influencing factors of vaccination intention since a COVID-19 vaccine is available in China. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted from January 10 to February 5, 2021 in Hangzhou city of Zhejiang Province, an eastern coastal province in China. Read More

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ConquerFear-Group: Feasibility study with pilot results of a psychological intervention for fear of cancer recurrence delivered in groups.

Psychooncology 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Psychology and Behavioural Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark.

Objective: ConquerFear has been found to effectively reduce fear of cancer recurrence (FCR). Group interventions may be particularly effective for the treatment of FCR and could lower overall costs. Our objectives were therefore to adapt ConquerFear into a group format (ConquerFear-Group, CF-G), and to evaluate its feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy. Read More

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Socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity among Peruvian adults.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(7):e0254365. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Lima, Peru.

Objectives: Abdominal obesity (AO) has become a public health issue due to its impact on health, society and the economy. The relationship between socioeconomic disparities and the prevalence of AO has yet to be studied in Peru. Thus, our aim was to analyze the socioeconomic inequalities in AO distribution defined using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) cut-off points in Peruvian adults in 2018-2019. Read More

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Prior Night Sleep Affects Next-Day Pain Interference Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults With Lower Extremity Chronic Pain.

Res Gerontol Nurs 2021 Jul-Aug;14(4):173-179. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Emergent work suggests that sleep is a robust biobehavioral predictor of pain; however, it remains unclear how sleep is prospectively linked to pain on a day-to-day basis among older adults. The current prospective study examined how sleep duration (total sleep time), quality (sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset), and late and irregular sleep timing influenced next-day pain perception among community-dwelling older adults ( = 10; 65 matched observations) with lower extremity chronic pain over 1 week. Multilevel modeling estimated the association between sleep (Actigraph GT9X Link) and pain perception (Brief Pain Inventory Short Form). Read More

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The Growing Trend of No Primary Surgery in Colorectal Cancer.

Colorectal Dis 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Aim: In colorectal cancer (CRC), surgery of the primary site is commonly curative. We sought to determine estimates of 'no surgery' on primary CRC while identifying common reasons for 'no surgery'.

Method: We identified all patients with a diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma from the National Cancer Database between 01/2004 and 12/2016. Read More

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Steroid Phobia: A Review of Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Interventions.

Am J Clin Dermatol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Dermatology, New York Medical College School of Medicine, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Topical corticosteroid phobia may lead to poor adherence, resulting in persistent disease and escalation to systemic agents. The aim of this paper was to review current literature to assess topical steroid phobia prevalence, populations most at risk, reasons behind steroid phobia, and interventions to reduce it. A systematic search of PubMed, Ovid ([email protected], MEDLINE), ScienceDirect, and Web of Science was performed. Read More

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Practical Pharmacist-Led Interventions to Improve Antimicrobial Stewardship in Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.

Pharmacy (Basel) 2021 Jul 8;9(3). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Commonwealth Pharmacy Association (CPA), London E1W 1AW, UK.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) and others have identified, as a priority, the need to improve antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) interventions as part of the effort to tackle antimicrobial resistance (AMR). An international health partnership model, the Commonwealth Partnerships for Antimicrobial Stewardship (CwPAMS) programme, was established between selected countries in Africa (Ghana, Tanzania, Zambia and Uganda) and the UK to support AMS. This was funded by UK aid under the Fleming Fund and managed by the Commonwealth Pharmacists Association (CPA) and Tropical Health and Education Trust (THET). Read More

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Both "Vitamin L for Life" and "One Milligram of Satan": A Multi-Perspective Qualitative Exploration of Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy Use after Breast Cancer.

Curr Oncol 2021 Jul 5;28(4):2496-2515. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada.

Adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) is recommended after hormone receptor-positive breast cancer to reduce risk of recurrence, but adherence is sub-optimal in many women. Behavioral interventions have been ineffective in improving adherence rates to AET. This qualitative descriptive study investigates factors that support women in AET use and suggestions for interventions to improve AET use and management. Read More

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Trend Analysis on Road Traffic Collision Occurrence in Nigeria.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Jul 21:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

BIDMC Fellowship in Disaster Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Objectives: Road traffic collisions (RTC) result in a significant number of preventable deaths worldwide. In 2010, the United Nations General Assembly launched, "The Decade of Action for Road Safety (2011-2020)" with the stated goal to "reduce road traffic deaths and injuries by 50% by 2020." This study aims to analyze trends in RTC numbers and subsequent deaths with respect to road safety laws in Nigeria and to suggest suitable interventions. Read More

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Impact of pharmacist consultation at clinical trial inclusion: an effective way to reduce drug-drug interactions with oral targeted therapy.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Institut de Recherche en Cancérologie de Montpellier (IRCM), INSERM U1194, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Purpose: Pharmacist consultation is unfrequently performed in oncology clinical trials that include patients who often have many co-treatments increasing the risk of drug-drug interactions (DDI). The aim of this study was to determine whether best possible medication history (BPMH) by hospital pharmacist at inclusion and therapeutic drug monitoring could be used for DDI risk evaluation and for current oral targeted therapy management.

Methods: A prospective clinical trial (ALCINA 2, NCT04025541) was carried out in metastatic breast cancer cohort treated by palbociclib to conduct pharmacokinetics-toxicity correlation study. Read More

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Manipulation of autophagy for host-directed tuberculosis therapy.

Afr J Thorac Crit Care Med 2019 31;25(2). Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Centre for Lung Infection and Immunity, Division of Pulmonology and UCT Lung Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

() is one of the world's most successful human pathogens, infecting ~2 billion people worldwide. Although there are effective drugs against ., the disease remains out of control owing to prolonged and toxic treatment. Read More

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A Pilot Trial: Fish Oil and Metformin Effects on ApoB-Remnants and Triglycerides in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

J Endocr Soc 2021 Sep 19;5(9):bvab114. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases Laboratory, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada.

Context: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have increased incidence of atherogenic dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Interventions targeting atherogenic dyslipidemia to reduce CVD risk are limited in women with PCOS.

Objective: This pilot study was conducted to determine the effect of 12 weeks of high dose fish oil (FO), metformin, and FO as an adjunct to metformin (FO-metformin) therapy on fasting and nonfasting plasma lipids and ApoB-remnants in young women with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and PCOS. Read More

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September 2021

Determinants of fertility differentials in Burundi: evidence from the 2016-17 Burundi demographic and health survey.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 30;38:316. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Cadi Ayyad University of Marrakech, Semlalia Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Marrakech, Morocco.

Introduction: although fertility control remains a major priority for the Burundian government and most of its partners, few studies on Burundi´s fertility determinants are available to guide interventions. To address this gap, our study aims to examine the most factors influencing fertility differentials in Burundi by using the latest Burundi demographic and health survey data.

Methods: using data from the 2016-17 Burundi demographic and health survey, one-way analysis of variance was performed to describe variations in mean number of children ever born across categories of correlate variables. Read More

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