1,172,444 results match your criteria intervention studies

Screening for Vitamin D Deficiency in Adults: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

JAMA 2021 04;325(14):1443-1463

RTI International-University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Evidence-based Practice Center, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Importance: Low serum vitamin D levels have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes; identifying and treating deficiency may improve outcomes.

Objective: To review the evidence about screening for vitamin D deficiency in adults.

Data Sources: PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and trial registries through March 12, 2020; bibliographies from retrieved articles, outside experts, and surveillance of the literature through November 30, 2020. Read More

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Prospective associations between physical activity and BMI with irregular periods and heavy menstrual bleeding in a large cohort of Australian women.

Hum Reprod 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Centre for Research on Exercise, Physical Activity and Health, School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane St Lucia, QLD, Australia.

Study Question: Are physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) associated with irregular periods and heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in Australian women?

Summary Answer: Overweight and obese women have higher odds of both irregular periods and HMB than underweight/normal-weight women, but high levels of PA reduce the odds of HMB.

What Is Known Already: Most studies on relationships between PA and menstrual problems have focused on female athletes, but there have been few population-based studies.

Study Design, Size, Duration: Prospective cohort study, 10618 participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH) who completed mailed surveys in 1996, with follow-ups in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, 2012, and 2015. Read More

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[Efficacy and safety of mycophenolate mofetil versus cyclophosphamide in the treatment of Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis with nephrotic-range proteinuria in children: a prospective randomized controlled trial].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2021 Apr;23(4):338-342

Department of Nephrology, Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing 100020, China.

Objective: To study the efficacy and safety of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) versus cyclophosphamide (CTX) in the treatment of children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) and nephrotic-range proteinuria.

Methods: A prospective clinical trial was conducted in 68 pediatric patients who were admitted to the Department of Nephrology, Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatrics and who were diagnosed with HSPN and nephrotic-range proteinuria from August 2016 to November 2019. The patients were randomly divided into two groups:MMF treatment (=33) and CTX treatment (=35). Read More

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[Effect of delayed cord clamping and umbilical cord milking on cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants: a randomized double-blind controlled trial].

Ling Lin Hao Peng

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2021 Apr;23(4):332-337

Department of Pediatrics, Suining Central Hospital, Suining, Sichuan 629000, China.

Objective: To compare the effect of delayed cord clamping (DCC) versus umbilical cord milking (UCM) on cerebral blood flow in preterm infants.

Methods: This was a single-center, prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. A total of 46 preterm infants, with a gestational age of 30-33 weeks, who were born in Suining Central Hospital from November 2, 2018 to November 15, 2019 were enrolled and randomly divided into DCC group and UCM group, with 23 infants in each group. Read More

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Association between autonomic function and obstructive sleep apnea: A systematic review.

Sleep Med Rev 2021 Mar 11;57:101470. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Sleep Research Group, Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Australia; Northern Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Australia; Centre for Sleep Health & Research, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, Australia.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Effects of OSA on the autonomic nervous system may mediate this association. We performed a systematic literature review to determine the profile of autonomic function associated with OSA. Read More

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Methylprednisolone or dexamethasone, which one is superior corticosteroid in the treatment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients: a triple-blinded randomized controlled trial.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Apr 10;21(1):337. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Although almost a year has passed since the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak and promising reports of vaccines have been presented, we still have a long way until these measures are available for all. Furthermore, the most appropriate corticosteroid and dose in the treatment of COVID-19 have remained uncertain. We conducted a study to assess the effectiveness of methylprednisolone treatment versus dexamethasone for hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Read More

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Navigating dietary advice for multiple sclerosis.

Health Expect 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

School of Population Health, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease with no known cure. Numerous diets are promoted to reduce symptoms or even cure MS, despite insufficient evidence for any therapeutic diet. There are few qualitative studies exploring the experiences of people with MS in relation to diet, and no use of theory to explain the findings. Read More

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Powered by virtual realities: Promoting emotional recovery through Technology-Based recovery interventions.

Ergonomics 2021 Apr 9:1-42. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Ludwigsburg University of Applied Sciences, Germany.

Previous research indicates that short work breaks in nature can facilitate emotional recovery, but during a workday nature is not always accessible. We conducted two intervention studies (N = 51; N = 101) applying virtual reality technology in a short work break and examined the effect of the degree of immersion into nature and the type of nature (stimulating vs. calming) on the restorative experience and, in turn, on affective states. Read More

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[Application of goal-oriented fluid replacement therapy in volume management of postpartum hemorrhage during cesarean section].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2021 Mar;33(3):305-310

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China.

Objective: To observe the effect of fluid therapy on volume and coagulation function in patients with severe postpartum hemorrhage during cesarean section of placenta accreta under the guidance of inferior vena cava diameter (IVCD) and inferior vena cava collapse index (IVC-CI).

Methods: A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted in 60 pregnant women with severe postpartum hemorrhage (blood loss ≄ 1 000 mL) who were hospitalized for delivery or referred for delivery in the Peking University Third Hospital from December 2018 to July 2019. The patients were divided into routine fluid replacement group and goal-oriented fluid resuscitation group (goal-oriented fluid replacement therapy was given) according to the different ways of fluid replacement. Read More

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[Efficacy of curcumin in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis: a Meta-analysis].

Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;39(2):195-202

Dept. of Mathematics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hongkong 999077, China.

Objectives: This study was performed to review the efficacy of curcumin in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis systematically.

Methods: We searched seven databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, EBSCO, The Cochrane Library, CNKI, WanFang Data, and VIP, to obtain randomized controlled trials related to the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis by curcumin. Each database was searched from inception to 30 June 2019. Read More

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[Clinical study of age-related sensory innervation of the anterior hard palate].

Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;39(2):170-174

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objectives: The present study aimed to explore the innervation of the anterior hard palatine and its relationship with individual development stage. Specifically, the effects of anesthesia on patients of different ages were observed, and neurodevelopment in the maxillofacial region was invesitgated. References that are helpful in selecting local anesthesia were provided. Read More

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Carbohydrates: Separating fact from fiction.

Atherosclerosis 2021 Mar 28. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Heart, Vascular, Thoracic Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:

The role of carbohydrate in a healthy diet has been controversial. The confusion over carbohydrate has come from the long standing limitation of dietary recall studies as well as inability in many of these studies to delineate between the different types of carbohydrates. It is the aim of this paper, to understand and review the data on the role of carbohydrate as pertaining to weight, insulin resistance, diabetes, inflammation, lipids, as well as epidemiological data on long-term cardiovascular outcome and all-cause mortality. Read More

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Application value of combination therapy of periodontal curettage and root planing on moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Head Face Med 2021 Apr 8;17(1):12. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Periodontology, Qingdao Stomatological Hospital, No. 17 Dexian Road, Qingdao, 266000, Shandong, China.

Background: Our study attempted to observe the value of periodontal curettage combined with root planing on moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: There involved 72 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis who were diagnosed and treated in our hospital from January 2019 to December 2019. The patients enrolled were randomly divided into four groups using a computer-generated table: root planing and periodontal curettage combined group (n = 18), root planning group (n = 18), periodontal curettage group (n = 18) and cleansing group (n = 18). Read More

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Harmonizing healthcare and other resource measures for evaluating economic costs in substance use disorder research.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2021 Apr 8;16(1):32. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1120 NW 14th St, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.

Background: Standardization and harmonization of healthcare resource utilization data can improve evaluations of the economic impact of treating people with substance use disorder (SUD), including reductions in use of expensive hospital and emergency department (ED) services, and can ensure consistency with current cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis guidelines.

Methods: We examined self-reported healthcare and other resource utilization data collected at baseline from three National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain intervention studies of individuals living with/at risk for HIV with SUD. Costs were calculated by multiplying mean healthcare resource utilization measures by monetary conversion factors reflecting cost per unit of care. Read More

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[The effect of extended depth of focus contact lenses on the accommodation of presbyopic eyes].

Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2021 Apr;57(4):292-296

Hainan Eye Hospital and Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Haikou 570311, China.

To evaluate the effect of extended depth of focus contact lenses on the accommodation of presbyopic eyes. It was a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Thirty eyes of 30 emmetropic volunteers (15 males, 15 females) who were staff or family members of Hainan Eye Hospital, aged (49. Read More

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Comparative Evaluation of the Effectiveness of 40% Miswak Mouthwash and 0.12% Chlorhexidine Mouthwash in Treating Gingivitis: A Blinded, Randomised Clinical Trial.

Oral Health Prev Dent 2021 Jan;19(1):229-233

Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of a 40% miswak compared to a 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash.

Materials And Methods: A total of 60 patients aged 20-55 years who attended the Periodontics Clinics at the College of Dentistry, Al-Iraqia University, Baghdad, Iraq, were allocated into 2 groups to use either 40% miswak mouthwash or 0. Read More

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January 2021

[A Randomized Controlled Study of Intravesical Instillation Therapy of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vs. Epirubicinin Treating Non-muscular Invasive Bladder Cancer].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):326-333

Department of Urology, Institute of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To explore the best treatment plan of intravesical instillation for patients with non-muscular invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), to explore recurrence-related clinicopathological factors after intravesical instillation, and to evaluate the value of the prognosis and prediction models currently used for NMIBC patients.

Methods: Starting from 2016, patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) in our hospital and who received post-surgery diagnosis of having intermediate or high risks for NMIBC were enrolled in the study. They were randomly assigned to different group sat a ratio of 2∶2∶1 for receiving intravesical instillation therapy of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for 19 times, BCG for 15 times, and epirubicin (EPI) for 18 times. Read More

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[A Preliminary Study of Applying Geometric Deep Learning in Brain Morphometry for Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):300-305

Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: A predictive model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was established based on brain surface meshes and geometric deep learning, and its performance was evaluated.

Methods: Seventy-six clinically diagnosed AD patients and 83 healthy older adults were enrolled and randomly assigned to the training set and the test set according to a 4-to-1 ratio. Brain surface mesh was constructed from 3-D T1-weighted high-resolution structural MR volumes of each participant. Read More

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Effects of functional correction training on injury risk of athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

PeerJ 2021 25;9:e11089. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

P.E School, Hubei University, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, P.R. China.

Background: We explored functional correction training using the Functional Movement Screen (FMSℱ) tool. We also analyzed the effects of training on the injuries of athletes in a systematic review and meta-analysis of non-randomized clinical trials.

Methodology: We collected twenty-four articles from PubMed, CENTRAL, Scopus, ProQuest, Web of Science, EBSCOhost, SPORTDiscus, Embase, WanFang, and CNKI that were published between January 1997 to September 2020. Read More

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Prognostic model to identify and quantify risk factors for mortality among hospitalised patients with COVID-19 in the USA.

BMJ Open 2021 04 7;11(4):e047121. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Product Development, Genentech, South San Francisco, California, USA.

Objectives: To develop a prognostic model to identify and quantify risk factors for mortality among patients admitted to the hospital with COVID-19.

Design: Retrospective cohort study. Patients were randomly assigned to either training (80%) or test (20%) sets. Read More

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Continuum beliefs and mental illness stigma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of correlation and intervention studies.

Psychol Med 2021 Apr 8:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Leipzig University, Medical Faculty, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: Promulgating a continuum model of mental health and mental illness has been proposed as a way to reduce stigma by decreasing notions of differentness. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines whether continuum beliefs are associated with lower stigma, and whether continuum interventions reduce stigma.

Methods: Following a pre-defined protocol (PROSPERO: CRD42019123606), we searched three electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO) yielding 6726 studies. Read More

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Short-term effects of mobilization on oxygenation in patients after open surgery for pancreatic cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

BMC Surg 2021 Apr 7;21(1):185. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: Despite the unequivocal role of progressive mobilization in post-surgical patient management, its specific effects and timing, particularly after abdominal surgery, remain debated. This study's aim was to examine the short-term effects of mobilization on oxygenation in hemodynamically stable patients after open surgery for pancreatic cancer.

Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in which patients (n = 83) after open pancreatic surgery were randomized to either the same-day mobilization group (mobilized when hemodynamically stable within four hours after surgery) or the next-day mobilization group (mobilized first time in the morning of the first post-operative day). Read More

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Comparative study of magnesium, sodium valproate, and concurrent magnesium-sodium valproate therapy in the prevention of migraine headaches: a randomized controlled double-blind trial.

J Headache Pain 2021 Apr 7;22(1):21. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neurology, Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Qom University of Medical Sciences, Shahid-Beheshti hospital, Shahid-Beheshti street, Qom, Iran.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of concurrent magnesium-sodium valproate therapy and compare it with either magnesium or sodium valproate alone in migraine prophylaxis.

Materials And Methods: This randomized single-center double-blind parallel-group controlled clinical trial study was conducted on migraine patients within the age range of 18-65 years. The subjects with at least four monthly attacks were randomly assigned to group A (n = 82) sodium valproate, group B (n = 70) magnesium with sodium valproate, and group C (n = 70) magnesium. Read More

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Overcoming hurdles to intervention studies with autistic children with profound communication difficulties and their families.

Autism 2021 Apr 7:1362361321998916. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Nottingham Trent University, UK.

Lay Abstract: Autistic children who speak few or no words or who have an intellectual disability are the most in need of new understandings and treatments, but the most often left out of the research that can bring these benefits. Researchers perceive difficulties around compliance with instructions, testing, challenging behaviours and family stress. Although research with these children can indeed be difficult, their continuing exclusion is unethical and unacceptable. Read More

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An Artificial Intelligence System for Distinguishing Between Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors and Leiomyomas Using Endoscopic Ultrasonography (with video).

Endoscopy 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Department of Gastroenterology, Qingdao, China.

Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and gastrointestinal leiomyomas (GILs) are the most common subepithelial lesions (SELs). All GISTs have malignant potential; however, GILs are considered benign. Current imaging cannot effectively distinguish GISTs from GILs. Read More

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Infection control measures in nosocomial MRSA outbreaks-Results of a systematic analysis.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(4):e0249837. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hospital Epidemiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

There is a lack of data on factors that contribute to the implementation of hygiene measures during nosocomial outbreaks (NO) caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Therefore, we first conducted a systematic literature analysis to identify MRSA outbreak reports. The expenditure for infection control in each outbreak was then evaluated by a weighted cumulative hygiene score (WCHS). Read More

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[Randomized study of tolerability, safety and efficacy of Pletax in intermittent claudication].

Angiol Sosud Khir 2021 ;27(1):7-16

Therapeutic Department #11, Municipal Clinical Hospital #23, Moscow, Russia.

Aim: This study was aimed at assessing tolerability, safety and therapeutic efficacy of PletaxÂź (cilostazol) compared with TrentalÂź (pentoxifylline) in patients with moderate-to-severe intermittent claudication.

Patients And Methods: The study included a total of one hundred 40-to-65-year-old patients presenting with confirmed diagnosis of moderate-to-severe intermittent claudication. Depending on the therapeutic regimen, the patients were divided into two groups. Read More

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Evaluation and Validation of a Joint Stress Test to Induce Activity-Related Knee Joint Discomfort - a Prospective Case-Control Study.

Sports Med Open 2021 Apr 6;7(1):24. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

BioTeSys GmbH, Schelztorstraße 54-56, 73728, Esslingen, Baden-WĂŒrttemberg, Germany.

Background: The assessment of improvement or maintenance of joint health in healthy subjects is a great challenge. The aim of the study was the evaluation of a joint stress test to assess joint discomfort in subjects with activity-related knee joint discomfort (ArJD).

Results: Forty-five subjects were recruited to perform the single-leg-step-down (SLSD) test (15 subjects per group). Read More

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[New Management of Cluster Headache].

Noboru Imai

Brain Nerve 2021 Apr;73(4):347-355

Department of Neurology, Japanese Red Cross Shizuoka Hospital.

Galcanezumab, a CGRP monoclonal antibody drug, has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the prevention of recurrent cluster headaches. Read More

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Persistent variations of blood DNA methylation associated with treatment exposures and risk for cardiometabolic outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood cancer in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort.

Genome Med 2021 Apr 6;13(1):53. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, MS 735, Memphis, TN, 38105, USA.

Background: It is well-established that cancer treatment substantially increases the risk of long-term adverse health outcomes among childhood cancer survivors. However, there is limited research on the underlying mechanisms. To elucidate the pathophysiology and a possible causal pathway from treatment exposures to cardiometabolic conditions, we conducted epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) to identify the DNA methylation (DNAm) sites associated with cancer treatment exposures and examined whether treatment-associated DNAm sites mediate associations between specific treatments and cardiometabolic conditions. Read More

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