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A prospective cohort study of ambient air pollution exposure and risk of uterine leiomyomata.

Hum Reprod 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Study Question: To what extent are ambient concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 microns (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) associated with risk of self-reported physician-diagnosed uterine leiomyomata (UL)?

Summary Answer: In this large prospective cohort study of Black women, ambient concentrations of O3, but not PM2. Read More

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The prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and sleep disturbance in higher education students during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Mar 9;301:113863. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada.

The COVID-19 pandemic and its accompanying infection control measures introduced significant disruptions to the routines of many higher education students around the world. It also deprived them of in-person counselling services and social support. These changes have put students at a greater risk of developing mental illness. Read More

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Partnership and mortality in mid and late life: Protection or selection?

Soc Sci Med 2021 May 7;279:113971. Epub 2021 May 7.

(Universidad Complutense de Madrid & GEPS), Spain. Electronic address:

The main goal of this paper is to address how different partnership statuses impact the likelihood of death among mature adults and elderly persons in Spain circa 2012 using a massive new dataset of administrative registers linked to census data. First, gross and net effects of having a partner on mortality risks of partnered and non-partnered persons are evaluated; then the characteristics and the importance of selection and protection effects of marriage and partnership with regard to the likelihood of death are assessed. We make use of exact matching methods in order to avoid the selection bias associated with the non-random assignment of persons to different partnership statuses. Read More

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The relationship between chronic diseases and depression in middle-aged and older adults: A 4-year follow-up study from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study.

J Affect Disord 2021 Apr 24;289:160-166. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Stress Research Institute, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: Evidence of the association between common chronic diseases and depression is sparse.

Methods: Totally 7819 participants aged 45+ without depression at baseline were followed-up (2011-2015) to detect incident depression. Chronic diseases and depression were defined by self-reported diagnosis and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D10), respectively. Read More

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Advance Care Planning, Palliative Care, and End-of-life Care Interventions for Racial and Ethnic Underrepresented Groups: A Systematic Review.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing, NYU Rory Meyers College of Nursing.

Context: Persons from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups experience disparities in access to and quality of palliative and end-of-life care.

Objectives: To summarize and evaluate existing palliative and end-of-life care interventions that aim to improve outcomes for racial and ethnic underrepresented populations in the United States.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature in the English language from four databases through January 2020. Read More

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An integrated multicomponent care model for men affected by prostate cancer: A feasibility study of TrueNTH Australia.

Psychooncology 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Queensland University of Technology, Cancer and Palliative Care Outcomes Centre, Kelvin Grove, QLD, Australia.

Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of implementing an integrated multicomponent survivorship care model for men affected by prostate cancer.

Methods: Using a single arm prospective cohort study design, men with prostate cancer were recruited from two regional public hospitals in Australia for a 6-month program that provided information and decision support, exercise and nutrition management, specialised clinical support, and practical support through localised and central care coordination. Carers of the men were also invited to the program. Read More

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The effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy in light versus heavier smokers.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

University of Toronto, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Toronto, ON.

Purpose: The prevalence of light smoking has increased in North America; however, research on the effectiveness of current treatments in this sub-population of smokers is limited. We compared quit outcomes between light (1-10 cigarettes per day (CPD)) versus heavier smokers (>10 CPD) enrolled in a treatment program at their primary care clinic.

Methods: This secondary analysis analyzed 45,087 participants (light smokers (n=9,861); heavier smokers (n=35,226)) enrolled in a smoking cessation program between April 2016 and March 2020. Read More

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Mental-physical multimorbidity treatment adherence challenges in Brazilian primary care: A qualitative study with patients and their healthcare providers.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251320. Epub 2021 May 13.

Public Health Postgraduate Program, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Improved understanding of multimorbidity (MM) treatment adherence in primary health care (PHC) in Brazil is needed to achieve better healthcare and service outcomes. This study explored experiences of healthcare providers (HCP) and primary care patients (PCP) with mental-physical MM treatment adherence. Adults PCP with mental-physical MM and their primary care and community mental health care providers were recruited through maximum variation sampling from nine cities in São Paulo State, Southeast of Brazil. Read More

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Effectiveness of thermal screening in detection of COVID-19 among truck drivers at Mutukula Land Point of Entry, Uganda.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251150. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of National Health Laboratory and Diagnostic Services, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda.

Introduction: Despite the limited evidence for its effectiveness, thermal screening at points of entry has increasingly become a standard protocol in numerous parts of the globe in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to determine the effectiveness of thermal screening as a key step in diagnosing COVID-19 in a resource-limited setting.

Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study based on a review of body temperature and Xpert Xpress SARS CoV-2 test results records for truck drivers entering Uganda through Mutukula between 15th May and 30th July 2020. Read More

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Mouth-nose masks impair the visual field of healthy eyes.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251201. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany.

Background: Mouth-nose masks have been requested to prevent the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The aim of the present study was to investigate, if wearing a mouth-nose mask impairs the visual field function in normals.

Methods: Thirty eyes of 30 subjects were recruited for the present study. Read More

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Asthma severity as a contributing factor to cancer incidence: A cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0250430. Epub 2021 May 13.

Mohammed bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Background: A putative link between asthma and asthma severity with the occurrence of cancer has been suggested but has not been fully investigated. The objective of this study is to assess the incidence of all types of cancer in a cohort of asthmatic patients.

Methods And Findings: A single center cohort retrospective study was conducted to investigate the role of asthma as a potential risk factor for various cancers. Read More

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Rapid Emergence and Epidemiologic Characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.526 Variant - New York City, New York, January 1-April 5, 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 May 14;70(19):712-716. Epub 2021 May 14.

Recent studies have documented the emergence and rapid growth of B.1.526, a novel variant of interest (VOI) of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in the New York City (NYC) area after its identification in NYC in November 2020 (1-3). Read More

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Evaluating Longitudinal Anchoring Methods for Rasch Models.

J Appl Meas 2020 ;21(3):294-312

Tara Valladares, 120 Westwood Circle, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA,

Because modern, simultaneously estimated longitudinal Rasch models are unable to handle many timepoints, new methods of producing person and item estimates and evaluating test function are necessary. Longitudinal anchoring, in which a common scale of item parameters is used to estimate trait levels over multiple occasions, is a potential solution. With proper anchoring procedures, person and item estimates can be obtained without limiting the number of timepoints that can be analyzed. Read More

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January 2020

Feature Completion for Occluded Person Re-Identification.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 May 13;PP. Epub 2021 May 13.

Person re-identification (reID) plays an important role in computer vision. However, existing methods suffer from performance degradation in occluded scenes. In this work, we propose an occlusion-robust block, Region Feature Completion (RFC), for occluded reID. Read More

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An "oasis within a desert," but the desert remains: Clubhouse members' experiences of social belonging and societal oppression.

Am J Orthopsychiatry 2021 ;91(2):294-301

Department of Psychiatry, Program for Recovery and Community Health, Yale School of Medicine.

Persons living with mental health challenges are at increased risk of stigma, social isolation, and social exclusion. Due to its emphasis on member participation and community, the clubhouse model of mental health may help address these issues. In this study, we examined experiences of social belonging and of various social determinants of mental health among members attending a psychosocial clubhouse. Read More

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January 2021

Intraindividual dynamics between alliance and symptom severity in long-term psychotherapy: Why time matters.

J Couns Psychol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of General Internal Medicine and Psychosomatics.

The association between alliance and therapy outcome is one of the most investigated factors in psychotherapy research. However, even studies using advanced methods estimate effects over a specific time period (interval) between measurement occasions. Thus, it remains unknown how the magnitude and direction of effects depend on the considered time interval, resulting in limited comparability across studies. Read More

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Role of smoking in functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome: three random population-based studies.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW, Australia.

Background: It is uncertain if functional dyspepsia (FD) or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are linked to smoking, and smoking cessation is not part of the routine advice provided to these patients.

Aim: To assess if smoking is an independent risk factor for FD and IBS.

Methods: Three population-based endoscopy studies in Sweden with 2560 community individuals in total (mean age 51. Read More

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Local Effects of Intervention: a Configural Analysis.

Prev Sci 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Missouri Prevention Science Institute and Department of Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology, University of Missouri, 16 Hill Hall, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA.

In standard statistical data analysis, the effects of intervention or prevention efforts are evaluated in terms of variable relations. Results from application of regression-type methods suggest whether, overall, intervention is successful. In this article, we propose using configural frequency analysis (CFA) either in tandem with regression-type methods or by itself. Read More

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Prevalence of Visual Acuity Loss or Blindness in the US: A Bayesian Meta-analysis.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

NORC at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Importance: Globally, more than 250 million people live with visual acuity loss or blindness, and people in the US fear losing vision more than memory, hearing, or speech. But it appears there are no recent empirical estimates of visual acuity loss or blindness for the US.

Objective: To produce estimates of visual acuity loss and blindness by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and US state. Read More

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Telemedicine Use in Orthopaedic Surgery Varies by Race, Ethnicity, Primary Language, and Insurance Status.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

G. Xiong, N. E. Greene, H. M. Lightsey, A. M. Crawford, B. M. Striano, Harvard Combined Orthopaedic Residency Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA A. K. Simpson, A. J. Schoenfeld, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Healthcare disparities are well documented across multiple subspecialties in orthopaedics. The widespread implementation of telemedicine risks worsening these disparities if not carefully executed, despite original assumptions that telemedicine improves overall access to care. Telemedicine also poses unique challenges such as potential language or technological barriers that may alter previously described patterns in orthopaedic disparities. Read More

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Impact of Body Weight Gain on the Incidence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Nonobese Japanese Individuals.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;116(4):733-740

1Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Center for Preventive Medicine, St. Luke's International University, Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: We aimed to investigate the effect of recent short-term weight gain on the incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in nonobese (body mass index < 25 kg/m) participants.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included nonobese individuals who participated in an annual health checkup between 2008 and 2018 in Tokyo, Japan. We estimated the multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for the development of NAFLD diagnosed via ultrasound after a 3-kg unit gain in weight measured at a 2-year landmark time point postbaseline. Read More

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Assessing the Causal Relationships between Insulin Resistance and Hyperuricemia and Gout Using Bidirectional Mendelian Randomization.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Clinical Epidemiology Program, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology, Massachusetts General Hospital Boston MA, USA.

Objective: Hyperuricemia is closely associated with insulin resistance syndrome (and its many cardiometabolic sequalae); however, whether they are causally related has long been debated. We used bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) to investigate the potential causal nature and direction between insulin resistance and hyperuricemia, along with gout.

Methods: We used genome-wide association data (N=288,649 for SU, N=763,813 for gout, N=153,525 for fasting insulin) to select genetic instruments for two-sample MR analyses, using multiple MR methods to address potential pleiotropic associations. Read More

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Post-diagnosis young-onset dementia care in the National Disability Insurance Scheme.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2021 May 13:48674211011699. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Psychiatry, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Objective: Post-diagnosis service delivery for young-onset dementia (with onset prior to 65 years) recently moved to the disability system in an attempt to address systemic barriers to best practice in aged care. The objective of this study was to examine experiences and satisfaction with disability services so far among people with young-onset dementia and their care partners and identify strategies for service and system improvement.

Methods: The 151 participating Australians living with young-onset dementia or providing informal care to a person with young-onset dementia were recruited via social media, advocacy bodies and specialist medical clinics. Read More

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High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T and Recurrent Vascular Events After First Ischemic Stroke.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 May 13:e018326. Epub 2021 May 13.

Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB) Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin Berlin Germany.

Background Recent evidence suggests cardiac troponin levels to be a marker of increased vascular risk. We aimed to assess whether levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) are associated with recurrent vascular events and death in patients with first-ever, mild to moderate ischemic stroke. Methods and Results We used data from the PROSCIS-B (Prospective Cohort With Incident Stroke Berlin) study. Read More

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NMES-Resistance Training Enhances Oxygen Uptake and Ventilatory Efficiency Independent of Mitochondrial Complexes after SCI: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Medical Service, Hunter Holmes McGuire VA Medical Center, Richmond, VA, United Statesgrid.413640.4.

The purpose of the study was to determine whether neuromuscular electrical stimulation resistance training (NMES-RT) evoked muscle hypertrophy is accompanied by increased VO peak, ventilatory efficiency and mitochondrial respiration in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Thirty-three men and women with chronic, predominantly traumatic, SCI were randomized to either NMES-RT (n=20) or passive movement training (PMT; n=13). Functional electrical stimulation-lower extremity cycling (FES-LEC) was used to test leg VO peak, VE/VCO ratio and substrate utilization prior to and post-intervention. Read More

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The Effectiveness of a 3D Virtual Tooth Identification Test as an Assessment Tool for a Dental Anatomy Course.

Eur J Dent Educ 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Dentistry, Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness, efficiency and user satisfaction of a 3D tooth identification test for a dental anatomy course that can be given remotely.

Methods: First-year dental students (n=41) enrolled in a dental anatomy course took both traditional in-person practical and virtual 3D tooth identification tests consisting of 25 test items. The test scores, average test durations, faculty time commitment and user perception were collected and analyzed. Read More

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Increasing use of intraoperative cholangiogram in Australia: is it evidence-based?

ANZ J Surg 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: The role of routine intraoperative cholangiograms (IOCs) for prevention of bile duct injury (BDI) is contentious. There are recent reports of limited utility of IOC in preventing BDI. In Australia, IOCs are used more frequently than internationally. Read More

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The preferences of people with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for self-management support: A qualitative descriptive study.

J Clin Nurs 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Nursing & Midwifery, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Aims And Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore and describe the self-management support (SMS) preferences of adults with asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Background: Self-management support interventions have had beneficial outcomes for people with asthma and people with COPD, though challenges remain in their implementation. Increased understanding of the support preferences of people with asthma/COPD can help inform the development of future interventions to address patients' preferences. Read More

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Epidemiology of physical inactivity in Nigeria: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Physical activity is crucial to preventing noncommunicable diseases. This study aimed to provide up-to-date evidence on the epidemiology of insufficient physical activity across Nigeria to increase awareness and prompt relevant policy and public health response.

Methods: A systematic literature search of community-based studies on physical inactivity was conducted. Read More

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Biofabrication of tissue engineering vascular systems.

APL Bioeng 2021 Jun 7;5(2):021507. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among persons aged 65 and older in the United States and many other developed countries. Tissue engineered vascular systems (TEVS) can serve as grafts for CVD treatment and be used as model systems to examine the role of various genetic factors during the CVD progressions. Current focus in the field is to fabricate TEVS that more closely resembles the mechanical properties and extracellular matrix environment of native vessels, which depends heavily on the advance in biofabrication techniques and discovery of novel biomaterials. Read More

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