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Prevalence and Risk Factors associated with Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Household Contacts of Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis patients in South India.

Trop Med Int Health 2021 Oct 15. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Department of Preventive & Social Medicine, JIPMER, Puducherry, India.

Objective: We aimed to determine the prevalence and find the risk factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among the household contacts (HHC) of pulmonary TB patients.

Methods: This cohort study was conducted from 2014 to 2019. Pretested standardized questionnaires and tools were used for data collection. Read More

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October 2021

Expression of CD47 in the pancreatic β-cells of young people with recent-onset type 1 diabetes varies according to disease endotype.

Diabet Med 2021 Oct 15:e14724. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Islet Biology Group (IBEx), Exeter Centre of Excellence in Diabetes (EXCEED), University of Exeter College of Medicine and Health, Exeter, EX2 5DW, UK.

Aims: We are studying the dialogue between β-cells and the immune system in type 1 diabetes and have identified a cell surface receptor, Signal Regulatory Protein-alpha (SIRPα) as an important component in the regulation of β-cell survival. SIRPα interacts with another protein, CD47, to mediate signalling. In the present work, we have studied the expression and role of CD47 in human islet cells in type 1 diabetes. Read More

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October 2021

Meta-analysis of the Connection Between Alzheimer Disease and Telomeres.

Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2021 Oct 15. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu Sichuan Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Background: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. The stability of the telomere-telomerase system is closely related to AD. A previous meta-analysis indicated that AD patients had shorter telomere length (TL) than control subjects. Read More

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October 2021

Effect of a biofeedback intervention on heart rate variability in individuals with panic disorder: A randomized controlled trial.

Psychosom Med 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany Clinic for Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden, Dresden, Germany Department of Medicine I, Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Mainz, Germany Department of Psychosomatic Medicine und Psychotherapy, University Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Objective: Some individuals with panic disorder (PD) display reduced heart rate variability, which may result in an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Heart rate variability-biofeedback (HRV-BF) training has been shown to improve the modulation of the autonomic activity. Therefore, this randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effect of a four-week HRV-BF intervention in individuals with PD. Read More

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October 2021

Interpersonal emotion dynamics in couples with somatic symptom disorder: Dyadic coherence in facial temperature during emotional interactions.

Psychosom Med 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Clinical Psychology, Psychotherapy and Experimental Psychopathology, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Technical University of Munich, Germany Department of Neurosciences, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Italy Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Quantitative Psychology and Individual Differences, KU Leuven, Belgium.

Objective: Disturbances in emotional processes are commonly reported in patients with a Somatic Symptom Disorder (SSD). Although emotions usually occur in social interactions, little is known about interpersonal emotion dynamics of SSD patients during their actual emotional encounters. This study examined physiological coherence (linkage) between SSD patients and their partners, and in healthy couples during their emotional interactions. Read More

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October 2021

Cauda equina ependymomas: surgical treatment and long-term outcomes in a series of 125 patients.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Oct 15:1-12. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

1Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Borgo Trento, Verona, Italy; and.

Objective: Cauda equina ependymoma (CEE) is a rare tumor for which little information is available on the oncological and clinical outcomes of patients. In this study the authors aimed to address functional, oncological, and quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes in a large series of consecutive patients operated on at their institution during the past 20 years.

Methods: The records of 125 patients who underwent surgery between January 1998 and September 2018 were reviewed. Read More

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October 2021

Center of rotation analysis for thoracic and lumbar 3-column osteotomies in patients with sagittal plane spinal deformity: insights in geometrical changes can improve understanding of correction mechanics.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Oct 15:1-12. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

2Department for Spine Surgery, Schulthess Clinic Zurich, Switzerland.

Objective: Three-column osteotomy (3CO) is used for severe spinal deformities. Associated complications include sagittal translation (ST), which can lead to neurological symptoms. Mismatch between the surgical center of rotation (COR) and the concept of the ideal COR is a potential cause of ST. Read More

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October 2021

Neoadjuvant teriparatide therapy targeting the osteoporotic spine: influence of administration period from the perspective of bone histomorphometry.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Oct 15:1-11. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

4Niigata Bone Science Institute, Niigata, Japan; and.

Objective: Teriparatide (TPTD) is a potent promoter of early-stage osteogenesis and may be a useful adjuvant therapy to reduce complications related to bone fragility in spinal surgery patients with osteoporosis. However, effective neoadjuvant TPTD therapy regimens remain poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the effect of preoperative TPTD administration on cancellous bone with bone histomorphometry and to clarify the timing of preoperative TPTD administration for patients with spinal fusion and osteoporosis. Read More

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October 2021

Negative impact of short-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion in patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis extending to the lumbar segment.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Oct 15:1-7. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Objective: The development of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) often requires further surgery after posterior decompression without fusion because of postoperative intervertebral instability. However, there is no information on whether fusion surgery is recommended for these patients as the standard surgery. The aim of this study was to review the clinical and imaging findings in lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSS) patients with DISH affecting the lumbar segment (L-DISH) and to assess the indication for fusion surgery in patients with DISH. Read More

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October 2021

Return to play in children with shunted hydrocephalus.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Oct 15:1-9. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

3Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the relevance of shunted hydrocephalus in regard to participation by young patients in physical education (PE) classes. Students diagnosed with this condition are very often restricted in PE classes owing to the lack of official and well-defined guidelines. However, the medical literature suggests that there is no relationship between the disease and risk of sport-related injuries. Read More

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October 2021

Quality of life and satisfaction in surgical versus conservative treatment of nonsyndromic children with craniosynostosis.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Oct 15:1-6. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

1Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Alberta Children's Hospital, University of Calgary, Alberta.

Objective: Craniosynostosis represents the second most common reason for referral to pediatric neurosurgery. However, the quality of life and neurodevelopmental impact of leaving this physical disorder uncorrected is poorly understood.

Methods: This multicenter cross-sectional study identified previously managed nonsyndromic infants (< 24 months of age) with single-suture craniosynostosis at both pediatric neurosurgical centers in Alberta, Canada. Read More

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October 2021

Efficacy of prophylactic versus therapeutic administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 on the acute neurochemical response to a concussion in a rat model combining force and rotation.

J Neurosurg 2021 Oct 15:1-10. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

1Research Center, Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal; and.

Objective: Alterations in amino acid concentrations are a major contributor to the persistent neurological and behavioral effects induced by concussions and mild traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Glutamate, the most abundant excitatory amino acid in the CNS, has a major role in the pathophysiological process of concussion. The indiscriminate liberation of glutamate immediately after a concussion triggers an excitotoxic response that leads to cell death, neuronal damage, and the dysfunction of surviving neurons, largely by overactivation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamatergic receptors. Read More

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October 2021

Patient complaints in the postoperative period following spine surgery.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Oct 15:1-8. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

2Center for Spine Health, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio.

Objective: Patient complaints are associated with a number of surgical and medical outcomes. Despite high rates of patient complaints regarding spine surgeons and efforts to study patient complaints across medicine and surgery, few studies have analyzed the complaints of patients undergoing spinal surgery. The authors present a retrospective analysis that, to their knowledge, is the first study to directly investigate the complaints of spine surgery patients in the postoperative period. Read More

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October 2021

A Comparison Between Gore Cardioform and Amplatzer Septal Occluder for Percutaneous Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale Associated With Atrial Septal Aneurysm: Clinical and Echocardiographic Outcomes.

J Invasive Cardiol 2021 Oct 15. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Interventional Cardiology Unit, San Camillo Hospital, Via Circonvallazione Gianicolense n. 87, 00152 Rome, Italy.

Objectives: To evaluate the short- and long-term clinical and echocardiographic outcomes of the percutaneous closure of the patent foramen ovale (PFO) with an atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) using 2 different devices.

Methods: We enrolled 100 patients with PFO and ASA. Fifty consecutive patients had transcatheter closure of the PFO with the Gore Cardioform septal occluder (GSO) (Gore Medical) and a second group of 50 consecutive patients with the Amplatzer PFO occluder (APO) (Abbott). Read More

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October 2021

Evaluation of Bivalirudin-Associated Major Adverse Cardiac and Hemorrhagic Events in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients on Chronic Dialysis Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

J Invasive Cardiol 2021 Oct 15. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Yinghua Dongjie 2, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029, China.

Background And Aim: Patients with chronic dialysis dependency undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are at a greater risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic events. Due to their exclusion from randomized clinical trials, the optimal antithrombotic regimen for this population remains unknown. Bivalirudin has been associated with fewer hemorrhagic complications than unfractionated heparin (UFH) in patients undergoing PCI. Read More

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October 2021

Effect of hypochlorous acid nasal spray as an adjuvant therapy after functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Oct 8;43(1):103264. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Otolaryngology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 1650, Sec. 4, Taiwan Boulevard, Taichung 40705, Taiwan; School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, 110, Sec.1, Jianguo N.Rd., Taichung 40201, Taiwan; Faculty of Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, 155, Sec.2, Linong Street, Taipei 112, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) nasal spray as an adjuvant therapy after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS).

Material And Methods: Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis who had received FESS for treatment were recruited and assigned to one of two groups at random at one month post-surgery. In the HOCl group, patients received 0. Read More

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October 2021

COVID-19 in Multiple Sclerosis: Clinically reported outcomes from the UK Multiple Sclerosis Register.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Oct 8;56:103317. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: In March 2020, the United Kingdom Multiple Sclerosis Register (UKMSR) established an electronic case return form, designed collaboratively by MS neurologists, to record data about COVID-19 infections in people with MS (pwMS).

Objectives: Examine how hospital admission and mortality are affected by disability, age and disease modifying treatments (DMTs) in people with Multiple Sclerosis with COVID-19.

Methods: Anonymised data were submitted by clinical teams. Read More

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October 2021

RAPID Software to the Clinical Application Value of Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion with Endovascular Treatment.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Oct 12;30(12):106147. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Neurology, Taizhou Hospital of Zhejiang Province affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Taizhou 317000, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the clinical application value of RAPID software based on computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTP) in the endovascular treatment of acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO).

Materials And Methods: The data of patients with acute basilar artery occlusion who received endovascular treatment in Taizhou Hospital, Zhejiang Province, between January 2020 and April 2021 were retrospectively analysed. The patients were divided into a perfusion imaging and a no-perfusion imaging group based on whether the image analysis results were obtained by RAPID software. Read More

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October 2021

Role of modified TAN score in predicting prognosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke undergoing endovascular therapy.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Oct 8;210:106978. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Neurology, Osmangazi University, School of Medicine, Eskişehir, Turkey.

Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic role of modified TAN collateral score in predicting functional independence in ischemic stroke patients, who underwent endovascular therapy.

Introduction: Identifying the group of patients, who will benefit most from arterial recanalization in patients with acute ischemic stroke, is the basis of success. Collateral circulation is a physiological condition that protects the brain against ischemia and inhibits the growth of a damaged area. Read More

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October 2021

Associations between polypharmacy and physical performance measures in older adults.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2021 Oct 9;98:104553. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, Capa, 34390, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objectives: A preserved ambulation is one of the keypoints for functionality and polypharmacy, a common problem in older adults, is associated with worse functional status. Our aim was to examine the associations of polypharmacy with certain physical performance measures used to evaluate ambulation.

Methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in a geriatric outpatient clinic. Read More

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October 2021

An equivalent method of jet impact loading from collapsing near-wall acoustic bubbles: A preliminary study.

Ultrason Sonochem 2021 Sep 22;79:105760. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, No. 24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu 610065, China; College of Water Resources & Hydropower, Sichuan University, No. 24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu 610065, China.

Cavitation damage is a micro, high-speed, multi-phase complex phenomenon caused by the near-wall bubble group collapse. The current numerical simulation method of cavitation mainly focuses on the collapse impact of a single cavitation bubble. The large-scale simulation of the cavitation bubble group collapse is difficult to perform and has not been studied, to the best of our knowledge. Read More

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September 2021

A two-week running intervention reduces symptoms related to depression and increases hippocampal volume in young adults.

Cortex 2021 Sep 24;144:70-81. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Institute of Psychology, University of Graz, Austria.

This study examined the effects of a two-week running intervention on depressive symptoms and structural changes of different subfields of the hippocampus in young adults from the general population. The intervention was realized in small groups of participants in a mostly forested area and was organized into seven units of about 60 min each. The study design included two intervention groups which were tested at three time points and which received the intervention time-delayed: The first group between the first and the second time point, and the second group between the second and the third time point (waiting control group). Read More

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September 2021

Gait on slopes: Differences in temporo-spatial, kinematic and kinetic gait parameters between walking on a ramp and on a treadmill.

Gait Posture 2021 Oct 6;91:73-78. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Sport and Exercise Science, Paris Lodron University of Salzburg, Schlossalee 49, 5400, Hallein-Rif, Salzburg, Austria. Electronic address:

Background: Inclined treadmills or static ramp constructions can be used to investigate downhill gait in a standardised laboratory condition. There is a lack of information how the gait patterns are affected when walking on a ramp or an inclined treadmill during uphill and downhill walking.

Research Question: Is there a difference in temporo-spatial parameters, sagittal ankle, knee and hip joint angle as well as ground reaction force when walking uphill and downhill on a ramp and a treadmill. Read More

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October 2021

Discrimination of waterborne pathogens, Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and bacteria using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Oct 8;267(Pt 1):120475. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey; ERNAM-Nanotechnology Research and Application Center, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey; ERKAM-Clinical Engineering Research and Application Center, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey. Electronic address:

Waterborne pathogens (parasites, bacteria) are serious threats to human health. Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the protozoan parasites that can contaminate drinking water and lead to diarrhea in animals and humans. Rapid and reliable detection of these kinds of waterborne pathogens is highly essential. Read More

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October 2021

Differential expression of innate/adaptive immunity genes induced by endometrial scratching as a hopeful approach for implantation boosting in unexplained, repeated implantation failure: An RCT.

J Reprod Immunol 2021 Oct 6;148:103426. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Endocrinology and Female Infertility, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Endometrial scratching (ES) has been proposed as a potential treatment for implantation improvement in unexplained repeated implantation failure (uRIF) patients, however, little is known about its exact molecular mechanisms.

Objective: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted on twenty uRIF patients to investigate the expression of innate and adaptive immune signaling genes after ES.

Methods: Ten uRIF patients in the intervention (twice endometrial sampling in follicular and luteal phases) and 10 uRIF patients in the control group (only luteal phase sampling) were randomly enrolled. Read More

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October 2021

Vertical environmental gradient drives prokaryotic microbial community assembly and species coexistence in a stratified acid mine drainage lake.

Water Res 2021 Oct 7;206:117739. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009, China; Key Laboratory of Nanominerals and Pollution Control of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009, China. Electronic address:

Acid mine drainage (AMD) lakes are typical hydrologic features caused by open pit mining and represent extreme ecosystems and environmental challenges. Little is known about microbial distribution and community assembly in AMD lakes, especially in deep layers. Here, we investigated prokaryotic microbial diversity and community assembly along a depth profile in a stratified AMD lake using 16S rRNA gene sequencing combined with multivariate ecological and statistical methods. Read More

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October 2021

Epilepsy in "Sunflower syndrome": electroclinical features, therapeutic response, and long-term follow-up.

Seizure 2021 Oct 2;93:8-12. Epub 2021 Oct 2.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Perugia, Italy.

Background: Sunflower syndrome (SFS) is a rare childhood-onset generalized epilepsy characterized by photosensitivity, heliotropism, and drug-resistant stereotyped seizures maybe self-induced by hand-waving maneuvers. Data on the long-term prognosis are scantly and evidence over best treatment strategies is lacking.

Methods: We retrospectively describe the electroclinical features, and therapeutic response in a group of 21 patients with SFS, without intellectual disability. Read More

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October 2021

Acupuncture regulates the autophagy of ovarian granulosa cells in polycystic ovarian syndrome ovulation disorder by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway through LncMEG3.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Oct 13;144:112288. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning, Guangxi 530000, China. Electronic address:

The main features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are abnormal follicular development and ovulation dysfunction, which are caused by the excessive autophagy of ovarian granulosa cells. Acupuncture has been shown to improve ovulation dysfunction and abnormal follicular development in PCOS patients, but its mechanism is unclear. This study hypothesized that the beneficial effects of acupuncture are the result of LncMEG3-mediated effects on the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Read More

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October 2021

Acoustic characteristics of Korean-English bilingual speakers' /l/ and the relationship to their foreign accent ratings.

J Commun Disord 2021 Oct 6;94:106157. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

School of Communication Science and Disorders, Florida State University, 201W. Bloxham St; Office 509, Tallahassee, FL 32301, United States.

Purpose: The current study examined acoustic characteristics of English /l/ produced by Korean speakers who speak English as their second language (KE). Comparisons were made to patterns of their Korean /l/ and English /l/ produced by monolingual speakers of American English (AE). Vowel context and word position effects on acoustic differences among the three /l/ sounds were examined in relation to the degree of foreign accentedness of KE speakers. Read More

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October 2021

Effectiveness of local anesthetic application methods in postoperative pain control in laparoscopic cholecystectomies; a randomised controlled trial.

Int J Surg 2021 Oct 12;95:106134. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, General Surgery Department, Hastane Street No: 1/8 Icerenkoy, Istanbul, 34752 , Turkey. Electronic address:

Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a minimally invasive procedure that causes pain originating from parietal and visceral peritoneum. Many studies have been conducted to improve postoperative pain management and comfort of patients. Various methods such as local anesthetic injection (LAI) at trocar access points, intraperitoneal local anesthetic injection (IPLA), pneumoperitoneum pressure reduction, transversus abdominis plane block (TAPB), and reducing the number of trocars used during the operation were attempted to reduce postoperative pain. Read More

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October 2021