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Diagnosis, risk factors and management of diabetes mellitus in HIV-infected persons in France: A real-life setting study.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0250676. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of infectious diseases, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôtel Dieu Hospital, Paris, France.

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major and increasing public health problem that may be underdiagnosed and undertreated among persons living with HIV (PLWH).

Objective: To describe the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of DM among PLWH.

Methods: This study was performed inside a monocentric cohort of 1494 PLWH. Read More

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Cilioretinal Arteries Influence Optic Nerve Head, Peripapillary and Macular Vessel Densities in Healthy Eyes - An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study.

Retina 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Muenster Medical Center, Muenster, Germany Department of Ophthalmology, Fulda Medical Center, Fulda, Germany.

Aim: To analyze the influence of a cilioretinal artery on macular and peripapillary vessel density in healthy eyes as measured using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).

Methods: 83 eyes of 83 patients were included in this study. Optical coherence tomography angiography was performed using the RTVue XR Avanti with AngioVue (Optovue Inc). Read More

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Evaluation of a patient-specific algorithm for predicting distribution for convection-enhanced drug delivery into the brainstem of patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 May 14:1-9. Epub 2021 May 14.

2Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York.

Objective: With increasing use of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of drugs, the need for software that can predict infusion distribution has grown. In the context of a phase I clinical trial for pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), CED was used to administer an anti-B7H3 radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, iodine-124-labeled omburtamab. In this study, the authors retrospectively evaluated a software algorithm (iPlan Flow) for the estimation of infusate distribution based on the planned catheter trajectory, infusion parameters, and patient-specific MRI. Read More

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Feasibility and Efficacy of Delivering Cognitive Behaviour Therapy through Online Psychotherapy Tool (OPTT) for Depression: Protocol.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Psychiatry, Queen's University, Hotel Dieu Hospital166 Brock Street, Kingston, CA.

Background: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a prevalent and debilitating mental health disorder. Among different therapeutic approaches (e.g. Read More

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If we build it, they will come: Caregiver decision to use an accessible outpatient psychiatric service for children and adolescents in Nigeria.

Soc Sci Med 2021 May 7;279:113972. Epub 2021 May 7.

University of Ibadan, College of Medicine, Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Ibadan, Nigeria; University College Hospital, Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Objective: If child and adolescent psychiatric (CAP) services were accessible in lower-middle-income countries (LMIC) such as Nigeria, what individual and socio-cultural factors would influence caregivers' willingness to use these services when they are needed?

Methods: To address this question, we conducted structured interviews with a stratified random sampling of 442 adult caregivers of children aged 5 to 19-years who lived within 10 km of an established CAP outpatient service in Ibadan, Nigeria.

Results: Based on structural equation modeling, our cross-sectional findings indicated that caregivers were generally willing to use the accessible outpatient CAP service for a narrow range of overtly disruptive and developmentally atypical child behavior. However, their decisions were not influenced by their recognition of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) conditions, competing life stressors, caregiver wellness, nor stigma as we had initially hypothesized. Read More

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Outcome in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma for patients treated with multimodal therapy: Results from the EUROpean Bone Over 40 Sarcoma Study.

Eur J Cancer 2021 May 11;151:150-158. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Orthopaedics and Orthopaedic Oncology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Introduction: The role of chemotherapy for patients with dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma (DDCS) is still under discussion. Here, we present the outcome in patients with DDCS treated with intensive chemotherapy from the EUROpean Bone Over 40 Sarcoma Study.

Materials And Methods: The chemotherapy regimen included doxorubicin, ifosfamide and cisplatin. Read More

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Evaluation of drug-likeness and ADME properties of sunscreens and preservatives using reversed-phase thin layer chromatographic retention data and calculated descriptors.

Authors:
Anna W Sobańska

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 May 7;201:114126. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, ul. Muszyńskiego 1, 90-151, Poland. Electronic address:

RP-18 TLC chromatography was used to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties (volume of distribution, V; plasma protein binding, %PPB; the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier expressed as log PS and log BB) of several cosmetic raw materials - sunscreen and preservatives. The majority of these compounds are intended for topical use on skin and their drug-likeness and the ability to cross biological barriers are undesired. The retention parameters R, S, PC and R obtained for mobile phases containing six organic modifiers (methanol, acetonitrile, THF, acetone, dioxane, DMF) were used as the sole descriptors or combined with calculated physicochemical properties (PSA, M, V) of studied compounds. Read More

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Ten-year assessment of a cancer fast-track programme to connect primary care with oncology: reducing time from initial symptoms to diagnosis and treatment initiation.

ESMO Open 2021 May 11;6(3):100148. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Medical Oncology, Biomedical Research Institute INCLIVA, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality worldwide. Integrating different levels of care by implementing screening programmes, extending diagnostic tools and applying therapeutic advances may increase survival. We implemented a cancer fast-track programme (CFP) to shorten the time between suspected cancer symptoms, diagnosis and therapy initiation. Read More

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Effect of synbiotic supplementation on migraine characteristics and inflammatory biomarkers in women with migraine: results of a randomised controlled trial.

Pharmacol Res 2021 May 11:105668. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Electronic address:

Literature suggests a relationship between gut microbiome and migraine headache pathogenesis. However, the effect of manipulating gut microbiome on migraine remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of synbiotics on migraine characteristics and inflammatory markers in women with migraine. Read More

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Increasing fatty acid oxidation elicits a sex-dependent response in failing mouse hearts.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Mitochondria and Metabolism Center, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington, Republican Street 850, 98109 Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Reduced fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is a hallmark of metabolic remodeling in heart failure. Enhancing mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid uptake by Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) deletion increases FAO and prevents cardiac dysfunction during chronic stresses, but therapeutic efficacy of this approach has not been determined.

Methods: Male and female ACC2f/f-MCM (ACC2KO) and their respective littermate controls were subjected to chronic pressure overload by TAC surgery. Read More

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The effect of internal limiting membrane peel for idiopathic epiretinal membrane surgery: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Kensington Vision and Research Center, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Purpose: To compare functional and anatomical outcomes after epiretinal membrane (ERM) peeling with internal limiting membrane peeling (ERM/ILM) and without (ERM) for the treatment for idiopathic ERM.

Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: A comprehensive search of Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE Ovid, and Embase Ovid for randomized controlled trials comparing ERM/ILM and ERM was performed. Read More

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Loncastuximab tesirine in relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (LOTIS-2): a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Oncology and Haematology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, IRCCS, Humanitas University, Milan, Italy.

Background: Patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who do not respond to or who have progressive disease after salvage therapies have a poor prognosis. Loncastuximab tesirine is a CD19-directed antibody-drug conjugate with encouraging phase 1 single-agent antitumour activity and acceptable safety in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We aimed to evaluate the antitumour activity and safety of loncastuximab tesirine in patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL. Read More

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Telehealth Treatment of Patients in an Intensive Acute Care Psychiatric Setting During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Comparative Safety and Effectiveness to In-Person Treatment.

J Clin Psychiatry 2021 Mar 16;82(2). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown Medical School, and Department of Psychiatry, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island.

Background: Most research evaluating telehealth psychiatric treatment has been conducted in outpatient settings. There is a great lack of research assessing the efficacy of telehealth treatment in more acute, intensive treatment settings such as a partial hospital. In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, much of behavioral health treatment has transitioned to a virtual format. Read More

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Tumor Growth Rate as a New Predictor of Progression-Free Survival After Chordoma Surgery.

Neurosurgery 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Lariboisière Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, University of Paris, Paris, France.

Background: Currently, different postoperative predictors of chordoma recurrence have been identified. Tumor growth rate (TGR) is an image-based calculation that provides quantitative information of tumor's volume changing over time and has been shown to predict progression-free survival (PFS) in other tumor types.

Objective: To explore the usefulness of TGR as a new preoperative radiological marker for chordoma recurrence. Read More

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Greater burden of risk factors and less effect of cardiac rehabilitation in elderly with low educational attainment: The Eu-CaRE study.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 May;28(5):513-519

Department of Cardiology, Bispebjerg Frederiksberg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Aims: Socioeconomic status is a strong predictor of cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to describe the immediate and long-term effects of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) across socioeconomic strata in elderly cardiac patients in Europe.

Methods And Results: The observational EU-CaRE study is a prospective study with eight CR sites in seven European countries. Read More

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Modelling geographical accessibility to urban centres in Kenya in 2019.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0251624. Epub 2021 May 14.

Population Health Unit, Kenya Medical Research Institute-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Access to major services, often located in urban centres, is key to the realisation of numerous Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In Kenya, there are no up-to-date and localised estimates of spatial access to urban centres. We estimate the travel time to urban centres and identify marginalised populations for prioritisation and targeting. Read More

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Predictors and Sequelae of Postoperative Delirium in a Geriatric Patient Population With Hip Fracture.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev 2021 May 14;5(5). Epub 2021 May 14.

From the Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (Ms. Haynes, Mr. Alder, Dr. Toombs, Dr. Rubin, and Dr. Grauer), and the Department of Orthopaedics, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire (Mr. Amakiri).

Introduction: Postoperative delirium is common for patients with hip fracture. Predictors of postoperative delirium and its association with preexisting dementia and adverse postoperative outcomes in a geriatric hip fracture population were assessed.

Methods: Patients with hip fracture aged 60 years and older were identified in the 2016 and 2017 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Procedure Targeted Databases. Read More

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Crowdsourcing the Public's Perception and Systematic Review of Nipple Inversion and Its Repair.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Keck Hospital of USC, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Nipple inversion is a common condition seen in 10% of females. Patients often present with physical insecurities and difficulty breastfeeding and would be best counseled initially by a primary care provider. We examined the body of literature and public perception of nipple inversion to provide a patient-centered perspective of the condition and its repair. Read More

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Harnessing Nutrition and Physical Activity for Breast Cancer Prevention and Control to Reduce Racial/Ethnic Cancer Health Disparities.

Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2021 Mar;41:1-17

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

There are well-known racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity, as well as breast cancer risk and survival. However, most of the current scientific evidence that serves as a foundation for nutrition and physical activity guidelines is based on studies conducted in predominantly non-Hispanic White populations. Similarly, exercise, diet, or lifestyle intervention trials for breast cancer prevention and survivorship are scarce in racial/ethnic minority populations. Read More

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Percutaneous Vertebroplasty Versus Kyphoplasty for Thoracolumbar Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures in Patients with Distant Lumbosacral Pain.

Pain Physician 2021 May;24(3):E349-E356

Department of Spinal Surgery, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: In clinical practice, we have found that the pain caused by thoracolumbar osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF) is sometimes not limited to the level of the fractured vertebrae but instead occurs in areas far away from the injured vertebrae, such as the lower back, area surrounding the iliac crest, or buttocks, and this type of pain is known as distant lumbosacral pain. The pathogenesis of pain in distant regions caused by thoracolumbar OVCF remains unclear.

Objectives: To compare the clinical efficacy and imaging outcomes of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) in the treatment of distant lumbosacral pain accompanied by thoracolumbar OVCF and to explore the possible pathogenesis of distant lumbosacral pain caused by thoracolumbar OVCF. Read More

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Full-Endoscopic Decompression with the Application of an Endoscopic-Matched Ultrasonic Osteotome for Removal of Ossification of the Thoracic Ligamentum Flavum.

Pain Physician 2021 May;24(3):275-281

Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Resection of the ossification of the thoracic ligamentum flavum (OTLF) with a high-speed burr may cause a high rate of perioperative complications, such as dural laceration and/or iatrogenic spinal cord injury.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and feasibility of the endoscopic-matched ultrasonic osteotome in full-endoscopic spinal surgery for direct removal of OTLF.

Study Design: Retrospective study. Read More

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Cross-Cutting Symptom Domains Predict Functioning in Psychotic Disorders.

J Clin Psychiatry 2021 Feb 23;82(2). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, CAMH, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: Previous research shows elevated disability in psychotic disorders. However, co-occurring symptomatology has been increasingly highlighted as predictive of clinical outcomes in the psychotic spectrum. The current study investigates how both psychotic and nonpsychotic symptom domains predict functioning across psychotic disorders. Read More

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February 2021

Efficacy and safety of topical isobutylamido thiazolyl resorcinol (Thiamidol) versus 4% hydroquinone cream for facial melasma: An evaluator-blinded, randomized controlled trial.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Departamento de Dermatologia e Radioterapia, UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

Background: Melasma can be refractory to treatment, and relapses are frequent. Thiamidol is a new potent tyrosinase inhibitor that has been found effective as a cosmeceutical for the depigmenting of melasma.

Objective: This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of topical 0. Read More

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Vismodegib for Preservation of Visual Function in Patients with Advanced Periocular Basal Cell Carcinoma: The VISORB Trial.

Oncologist 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Rogel Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a common skin cancer often curable by excision; however, for patients with BCC around the eye, excision places visual organs and function at risk. Here we test the hypothesis that use of the hedgehog inhibitor vismodegib will improve vision-related outcomes in patients with orbital and extensive periocular BCC (opBCC).

Methods: In this open label, non-randomized phase 4 trial, we enrolled patients with globe- and lacrimal drainage system-threatening opBCC. Read More

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Interobserver variability in the classification of childhood maculopapular cutaneous mastocytosis.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Hospital Virgen del Valle, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Toledo, Toledo, Spain.

Background: Maculopapular cutaneous mastocytosis (MPCM) in children is classified in two variants: 1) monomorphic variant, presenting with the small macules or papules typically seen in adult patients; and 2) polymorphic variant with larger lesions of variable size and shape, typically seen in children. The definition of polymorphic and monomorphic variants is mostly intuitive, and a validation of this classification has not been done.

Objective: To study interobserver variability in the classification of MPCM in two groups of observers: mastocytosis experts and general dermatologists. Read More

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Social media in undergraduate medical education: A systematic review.

Med Educ 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

School of Medicine, Keele University.

Introduction: There are over 3.81 billion worldwide active social media (SoMe) users. SoMe is ubiquitous in medical education, with roles across undergraduate programmes, including professionalism, blended learning, well-being and mentoring. Read More

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Enhanced Recovery After Surgery can Improve Patient Outcomes and Reduce Hospital Cost of Gastrectomy for Cancer in the West: A Propensity-Score-Based Analysis.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

General and Upper G.I. Surgery Division, University of Verona, Borgo Trento, Verona, Italy.

Background: Data on ERAS for gastrectomy are scarce, and the majority of the studies come from Eastern countries. Patients in the West are older and suffer from more advanced tumors that impair their clinical condition and often require neoadjuvant treatment. This retrospective study assessed the feasibility and safety of an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol for gastrectomy in a Western center. Read More

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Previous obstetrical history does not impact short-term mid-urethral sling outcomes.

Int Urogynecol J 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, PB 4950, Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway.

Introduction And Hypothesis: Pregnancy and delivery are known risk factors for stress and mixed urinary incontinence. The most common surgical treatment is mid-urethral sling (MUS) surgery. This study evaluated the potential impact of the obstetrical history on the short-term subjective and objective failure rates after MUS surgery. Read More

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Risk factors for post-nephrectomy hypotension in pediatric patients.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Division of Nephrology and Rheumatology, National Center for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1, Okura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 157-8535, Japan.

Background: Although hypotension is a life-threatening complication of nephrectomy in children, risk factors for its development remain unknown. We evaluated the incidence, clinical course, and associated risk factors of pediatric post-nephrectomy hypotension in an observational study.

Methods: This retrospective observational study included the clinical data of children who underwent nephrectomy in our center between 2002 and 2020. Read More

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Cost-effectiveness of Public Caseload Midwifery Compared to Standard Care in an Australian Setting: a Pragmatic Analysis to Inform Service Delivery.

Int J Qual Health Care 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Transforming Maternity Care Collaborative, Australia.

Background: Decision-makers need quantifiable data on costs and outcomes to determine the optimal mix of antenatal models of care to offer. This study aimed to examine the cost-utility of a publicly funded Midwifery Group Practice (MGP) caseload model of care compared to other models of care, and demonstrate the feasibility of conducting such an analysis to inform service decision-making.

Methods: Incremental costs and incremental utility (health gains measured in quality adjusted life years) of public MGP caseload was compared to other models of care currently offered at a large tertiary hospital in Australia. Read More

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