137,523 results match your criteria intervention allocation

Orthopaedic Trauma Research Priorities in Latin America: Developing Consensus Through a Modified Delphi Approach.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Background: Despite a substantial burden of musculoskeletal injury, orthopaedic trauma studies in Latin America are lacking. The purpose of the present study was to identify research priorities among orthopaedic trauma surgeons in Latin America.

Methods: Research questions were solicited from members of the Asociación de Cirujanos Traumatólogos de las Américas. Read More

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September 2021

Pulmonary rehabilitation for interstitial lung disease.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Feb 1;2:CD006322. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Institute for Breathing and Sleep, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is characterised by reduced functional capacity, dyspnoea and exercise-induced hypoxia. Pulmonary rehabilitation is often used to improve symptoms, health-related quality of life and functional status in other chronic lung conditions. There is accumulating evidence for comparable effects of pulmonary rehabilitation in people with ILD. Read More

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February 2021

mHealth Interventions for Lifestyle and Risk Factor Modification in Coronary Heart Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 Sep 24;9(9):e29928. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Prevention and Management, School of Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Inha University, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Self-management of lifestyle and cardiovascular disease risk factors is challenging in older patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). SMS text messaging could be a potential support tool for self-management and the most affordable and accessible method through a mobile phone. High-quality evidence had been lacking, and previous studies evaluated the effects of SMS text messaging on the subjective measures of short-term outcomes. Read More

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September 2021

What and how much do the community health officers and auxiliary nurse midwives do in health and wellness centres in a block in Punjab? A time-motion study.

Indian J Public Health 2021 Jul-Sep;65(3):275-279

Professor, Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Health, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Background: The Government of India introduced a new cadre of Community Health Officers (CHOs) in the primary health-care system through the Ayushman Bharat Health and Wellness Centres (HWCs) program.

Objectives: The study aimed to assess the activities performed and time spent by the existing and new primary health-care team members at the HWC level.

Methods: A time and motion study was undertaken in four HWCs in Punjab over a period of 3 months, to assess the time spent by auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) and CHOs on different services and activities. Read More

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September 2021

A Bibliometric Analysis of 8,276 Publications During the Past 25 Years on Cholangiocarcinoma by Machine Learning.

Front Oncol 2021 7;11:687904. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Introduction: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the second most common hepatic malignancy. Progress and developments have also been made in the field of CCA management along with increasing scientific publications during the past decades, which reflect topics of general interest and suggest the future direction of studies. The purpose of this bibliometric study is to summarize scientific publications during the past 25 years in the field of CCA using a machine learning method. Read More

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September 2021

Determinants of Common Mental Disorders Among People Living with HIV/AIDS Attending ART Service in Southern Ethiopia.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2021 16;13:917-925. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Psychiatry, Dilla University, Dilla, Ethiopia.

Background: Worldwide, the rates of psychological problems have been shown to have a dramatic increase, particularly among people living with chronic diseases. Besides the known clinical factors, it is important to address an individual's level of resilience as an included factor for mental health outcome for people living with HIV/AIDS.

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess determinants of common mental disorders among people living with human immune virus/acquired immune deficiency virus (HIV/AIDS). Read More

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September 2021

Chewing gum as a non-pharmacological alternative for orthodontic pain relief: A randomized clinical trial using an intention-to-treat analysis.

Korean J Orthod 2021 Sep;51(5):346-354

Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Objective: To compare the effectiveness of ibuprofen, acetaminophen, and chewing gum for orthodontic pain relief and to assess if chewing gum can be a non-pharmacological alternative for orthodontic pain relief.

Methods: The study enrolled 106 patients of both sexes, aged ≥ 12 years, with body weight > 50 kg, and mild-to-moderate dental crowding in the upper arch. After randomization and allocation concealment, the intervention groups were either administered with ibuprofen (400 mg) or acetaminophen (500 mg) or chewed sugar-free chewing gum immediately after initial archwire placement and every 6 hours for 1 week if the pain persisted. Read More

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September 2021

Kraft lignin as a bio-based ingredient for Dutch asphalts: An attributional LCA.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 14;806(Pt 1):150316. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

In the last decade, lignin has received much attention as a feedstock to produce bio-based products. This study investigates the potential benefits of using lignin to mitigate the environmental impact of the road construction sector. An environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of various top-layer bio-based asphalts using kraft lignin was conducted. Read More

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September 2021

30-Year Trends in Graft Survival After Heart Transplant: Modeled Analyses of a Transplant Registry.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Medicine, 125 Paterson St, New Brunswick, NJ; Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, 1 Robert Wood Johnson Place, New Brunswick, NJ; Institute for Health, Health Care Policy and Aging Research, 112 Paterson St, New Brunswick, NJ. Electronic address:

Background: Heart failure is an epidemic in the United States, and transplantation remains the most definitive therapy. We describe multi-decade trends in post-transplant graft survival, adjusted for concurrent changes in the population, over the 30 years antecedent to the most recent heart allocation policy change.

Methods: Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data were used to identify all primary adult heart recipients 1989 through 2017. Read More

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September 2021

Parenting and childhood obesity: Validation of a new questionnaire and evaluation of treatment effects during the preschool years.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(9):e0257187. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Food Studies, Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Objectives: Parenting is an integral component of obesity treatment in early childhood. However, the link between specific parenting practices and treatment effectiveness remains unclear. This paper introduces and validates a new parenting questionnaire and evaluates mothers' and fathers' parenting practices in relation to child weight status during a 12-month childhood obesity treatment trial. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of reporting quality of randomized controlled trials in patients with COVID-19 using the CONSORT statement.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(9):e0257093. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Clinical Educational Department, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou, Gansu, China.

Objective: To evaluate the reporting quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding patients with COVID-19 and analyse the influence factors.

Methods: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases were searched to collect RCTs regarding patients with COVID-19. The retrieval time was from the inception to December 1, 2020. Read More

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September 2021

Prevalence and incidence of young onset dementia and associations with comorbidities: A study of data from the French national health data system.

PLoS Med 2021 Sep 23;18(9):e1003801. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Santé publique France, Saint-Maurice, France.

Background: Dementia onset in those aged <65 years (young onset dementia, YOD) has dramatic individual and societal consequences. In the context of population aging, data on YOD are of major importance to anticipate needs for planning and allocation of health and social resources. Few studies have provided precise frequency estimates of YOD. Read More

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September 2021

Optimal allocation to treatments in a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial.

Stat Methods Med Res 2021 Sep 23:9622802211037066. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Methodology and Statistics, Utrecht University, the Netherlands.

One of the main questions in the design of a trial is how many subjects should be assigned to each treatment condition. Previous research has shown that equal randomization is not necessarily the best choice. We study the optimal allocation for a novel trial design, the sequential multiple assignment randomized trial, where subjects receive a sequence of treatments across various stages. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of preoperative exercise in not initially candidates to native arteriovenous fistulas.

J Vasc Access 2021 Sep 23:11297298211045588. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Nephrology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Native autologous arteriovenous fistula (AVFn) is the preferred vascular access for hemodialysis due to its long term patency and low complication rate. A challenging limitation is the anatomical inability to perform AVFn and failure of maturation. Preoperative isometric exercise (PIE) can increase vascular calibers and improve the rate of distal AVF. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of Oral Sodium Bicarbonate Treatment on 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Measurements in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease and Metabolic Acidosis.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 6;8:711034. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Department of Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Sodium bicarbonate supplementation is a mainstay in the treatment of metabolic acidosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent studies showed reduction of progression of CKD and reduced all-cause mortality. However, additional sodium loading could worsen arterial hypertension, a well-known contributor to progression of CKD. Read More

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September 2021

Hepatocellular injury and the mortality risk among patients with COVID-19: A retrospective cohort study.

World J Hepatol 2021 Aug;13(8):939-948

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University-Assiut, Assiut 71524, Egypt.

Background: Clearly, infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is not limited to the lung but also affects other organs. We need predictive models to determine patients' prognoses and to improve health care resource allocation during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. While treating COVID-19, we observed differential outcome prediction weights for markers of hepatocellular injury among hospitalized patients. Read More

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Menthol-Based Topical Analgesic Induces Similar Upper and Lower Body Pain Pressure Threshold Values: A Randomized Trial.

J Sport Rehabil 2021 Sep 22:1-7. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Context: Both health professionals and consumers use menthol-based topical analgesics extensively for the temporary relief of pain from musculoskeletal ailments or injury. However, there are no reports of differences in the pain pressure threshold (PPT) or the relative effectiveness of topical analgesics to reduce pain in the upper and lower body muscles and tendons. The objective of this study was to investigate whether differences existed in PPT and relative pain attenuation associated with a menthol-based topical analgesic over a variety of upper and lower body muscles and tendons. Read More

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September 2021

Adjunctive inspiratory muscle training for patients with COVID-19 (COVIDIMT): protocol for randomised controlled double-blind trial.

BMJ Open 2021 Sep 22;11(9):e049545. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Rehabilitation Sciences and Health and Technologies in Health Sciences Program, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil.

Introduction: A significant number of patients with COVID-19 may experience dyspnoea, anxiety, depression, pain, fatigue and physical impairment symptoms, raising the need for a multidisciplinary rehabilitation approach, especially for those with advanced age, obesity, comorbidities and organ failure. Traditional pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), including exercise training, psychosocial counselling and education, has been employed to improve pulmonary function, exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with COVID-19. However, the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in PR programmes remain unclear. Read More

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September 2021

Freedom within a cage: how patriarchal gender norms limit women's use of mobile phones in rural central India.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Sep;6(Suppl 5)

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Introduction: India has one of the highest gender gaps in mobile phone access in the world. As employment opportunities, health messaging (mHealth), access to government entitlements, banking, civic participation and social engagement increasingly take place in the digital sphere, this gender gap risks further exacerbating women's disadvantage in Indian society. This study identifies the factors driving women's unequal use of phones in rural Madhya Pradesh, India. Read More

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September 2021

Avoiding health technology assessment: a global survey of reasons for not using health technology assessment in decision making.

Cost Eff Resour Alloc 2021 Sep 22;19(1):62. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

University of York, York, UK.

Introduction: Despite the documented benefits of using health technology assessments (HTA) to inform resource allocation in health care systems, HTA remains underused, especially in low- and middle-income countries. A survey of global health practitioners was conducted to reveal the top reasons ("excuses") that they had heard from colleagues, policymakers or other stakeholders for not using HTA in their settings.

Methods: There were 193 respondents to the survey. Read More

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September 2021

Role of skeletal muscle perfusion and insulin resistance in the effect of dietary sodium on heart function in overweight.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Institute of Heart Diseases, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

Aims: Weight excess and insulin resistance predispose to heart failure. High sodium consumption may contribute to the development of cardiac impairment in insulin-resistant individuals by promoting inadequate skeletal muscle microvascular perfusion response to insulin. We sought to investigate the association of dietary sodium reduction with muscle perfusion, insulin sensitivity, and cardiac function in overweight/obese insulin-resistant (O-IR) normotensive subjects. Read More

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September 2021

Global Burden of Orofacial Clefts and the World Surgical Workforce.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Oct;148(4):568e-580e

From the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Washington; Division of Craniofacial and Plastic Surgery, Seattle Children's Hospital; Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of São Paulo; Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery, Hacettepe University; Department of Surgery, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology; Division of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia; Cleft and Craniofacial Center Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital; and School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.

Background: Orofacial clefts are one of the most common congenital anomalies, but this disease burden is unevenly distributed worldwide. The authors hypothesize that this burden falls disproportionately on the countries with the smallest surgical workforce or lowest Socio-Demographic Index, rather than those with the highest prevalence of disease.

Methods: The authors estimated the prevalence and disease burden of orofacial clefting from 1990 to 2017 in 195 countries using the Global Burden of Disease methodology. Read More

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October 2021

The State of Mind of Healthcare Professionals in the Light of the COVID-19: Insights from Text Analysis of Twitter's Online Discourses.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Nursing, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, IL.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected populations worldwide, with extreme health, economic, social, and political implications. Healthcare professionals (HCPs) are at the core of pandemic response and are among the most crucial factors in maintaining coping capacities. Yet, they are also vulnerable to mental health effects, managing a long-lasting emergency under lack of resources and complicated personal concerns. Read More

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Building Primary Health Care Personnel's Support for a Patient Portal While Alleviating eHealth-Related Stress: Survey Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Sep 22;23(9):e28976. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Social and Health System Research Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Health care personnel's (HCP) engagement in patient portal implementation is necessary in embedding the use of the portal in everyday practices of a health care organization. While portal implementation may raise personnel's positive expectations of the benefits in patient care, it is often also stressful for them due to increased workloads and disruptions in clinical workflows. An understanding of social and technical factors that build personnel's support for patient portal implementation and alleviate their eHealth-related stress is therefore needed to realize the full potential of portals. Read More

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September 2021

A Second Wave? What Do People Mean by COVID Waves? - A Working Definition of Epidemic Waves.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 13;14:3775-3782. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Sociology and the Centre for Family and Population Research, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Introduction: Policymakers and researchers describe the COVID-19 epidemics by waves without a common vocabulary on what constitutes an epidemic wave, either in terms of a working definition or operationalization, causing inconsistencies and confusions. A working definition and operationalization can be helpful to characterize and communicate about epidemics.

Methods: We propose a working definition of epidemic waves in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and an operationalization based on the public data of the effective reproduction number R. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of using spirometry on clinical decision making and quality of life in children: protocol for a single centre randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2021 Sep 21;11(9):e050974. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Child Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.

Introduction: Although spirometry has been available for decades, it is underused in paediatric practice, other than in specialist clinics. This is unsurprising as there is limited evidence on the benefit of routine spirometry in improving clinical decision making and/or outcomes for children. We hypothesised that using spirometry for children being evaluated for respiratory diseases impacts on clinical decision making and/or improves patient-related outcome measures (PROMs) and/or quality of life (QoL), compared with not using spirometry. Read More

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September 2021

Lung transplantation disparities based on diagnosis for patients bridging to transplant on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York.

Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly utilized as a bridge to lung transplantation, but ECMO status is not explicitly accounted for in the Lung Allocation Score (LAS). We hypothesized that among waitlist patients on ECMO, patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) would have lower transplantation rates.

Methods: Using United Network for Organ Sharing data, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who were ≥12 years old, active on the lung transplant waitlist, and required ECMO support from June 1, 2015 through June 12, 2020. Read More

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A Multivariate Analysis to Predict Total Hip Arthroplasty Dislocation With Preoperative Diagnosis, Surgical Approach, Spinal Pathology, Cup Orientation, and Head Size.

J Arthroplasty 2021 Sep 4. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Loyola University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, Maywood, IL.

Background: There are several risk factors for dislocation after total hip arthroplasty (THA), but few studies include radiographic assessment of implants, with spine pathology and patient characteristics. This study estimates the rate of dislocation by patient gender, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, Charlson Comorbidity Index, spine pathology, prior spine fusion, levels affected, radiographic Kellgren-Lawrence score of spine osteoarthritis, THA indication, surgical approach, and femoral head size.

Methods: Seventy-six primary THA patients between January 2007 and 2020 with a dislocation were matched on age and gender to subjects without a known history of dislocation using a 2:1 allocation. Read More

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September 2021

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in addition to walking training on walking, mobility, and reduction of falls in Parkinson's disease: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial.

Trials 2021 Sep 21;22(1):647. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Center of Health Sciences, Discipline of Physical Therapy, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), 1468 Marechal Campos Avenue, Maruípe, Vitória, ES, 29043900, Brazil.

Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has the potential to modulate cortical excitability and enhance the effects of walking training in people with Parkinson's disease. This study will examine the efficacy of the addition of tDCS to a task-specific walking training to improve walking and mobility and to reduce falls in people with Parkinson's disease.

Methods: This is a two-arm, prospectively registered, randomized trial with concealed allocation, blinded assessors, participants and therapists, and intention-to-treat analysis. Read More

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September 2021