1,821 results match your criteria interneurons located

Neural stem cells in the adult olfactory bulb core generate mature neurons in vivo.

Stem Cells 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Instituto Cajal-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.

Although previous studies suggest that neural stem cells (NSCs) exist in the adult olfactory bulb (OB), their location, identity and capacity to generate mature neurons in vivo has been little explored. Here, we injected EGFP-expressing retroviral particles into the OB core of adult mice to label dividing cells and to track the differentiation/maturation of any neurons they might generate. EGFP labelled cells initially expressed adult NSC markers on days 1-3 post injection (dpi), including Nestin, GLAST, Sox2, Prominin-1 and GFAP. Read More

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Glutamate and microglia activation as a driver of dendritic apoptosis: a core pathophysiological mechanism to understand schizophrenia.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 May 6;11(1):271. Epub 2021 May 6.

Barcelona Clínic Schizophrenia Unit (BCSU). Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clínic of Barcelona, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Schizophrenia disorder remains an unsolved puzzle. However, the integration of recent findings from genetics, molecular biology, neuroimaging, animal models and translational clinical research offers evidence that the synaptic overpruning hypothesis of schizophrenia needs to be reassessed. During a critical period of neurodevelopment and owing to an imbalance of excitatory glutamatergic pyramidal neurons and inhibitory GABAergic interneurons, a regionally-located glutamate storm might occur, triggering excessive dendritic pruning with the activation of local dendritic apoptosis machinery. Read More

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Anatomical organization of the lateral cervical nucleus in Artiodactyls.

Vet Res Commun 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, Ozzano dell'Emilia, BO, Italy.

The presence of the lateral cervical nucleus (LCN) in different mammals, including humans, has been established in a number of anatomical research works. The LCN receives its afferent inputs from the spinocervical tract, and conveys this somatosensory information to the various brain areas, especially the thalamus. In the present study, the organization of the calf and pig LCN was examined through the use of thionine staining and immunohistochemical methods combined with morphometrical analyses. Read More

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Extrasynaptic δ-subunit containing GABA receptors.

Ayla Arslan

J Integr Neurosci 2021 Mar;20(1):173-184

School of Advanced Studies, University of Tyumen, 9 Marta Street 2k1, 625000 Tyumen, Russia.

γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABARs) are GABA gated heteropentameric chloride channels responsible for the adult brain's primary inhibition. In specific brain cells, such as in the hippocampus, one of the subtypes of GABARs, the δ subunit containing GABARs (δ-GABARs), is predominantly expressed and located in extrasynaptic or perisynaptic positions. δ-GABARs mediate a slow constant inhibitory current called tonic inhibition. Read More

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Keeping it simple: Zebrafish directly sense spinal cord stretch to regulate swimming.

Neuron 2021 04;109(7):1072-1074

Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address:

Picton et al. show that in zebrafish, a class of neurons located in the spinal cord sense spinal cord stretch during the lateral bends of undulatory swimming and provide inhibition to the swimming motor patterning generating network, thus acting as both mechanosensors and inhibitory interneurons. Read More

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[Functional Analysis of an Unexplored Brain Region: the Claustrum].

Brain Nerve 2021 Mar;73(3):267-272

Laboratory for Systems Molecular Ethology, RIKEN Center for Brain Science.

The claustrum is a thin, sheet-like neural structure located beneath the cerebral neocortex, and has reciprocal connections with nearly all neocortical areas. It has been hypothesized to play roles in higher brain functions, such as consciousness, multisensory integration, salience detection, and attentional load allocation. However, its roles in brain physiology have not been precisely elucidated, as only a few experimental studies on claustrum function exist. Read More

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How predictive learning influences choice: Evidence for a GPCR-based memory process necessary for Pavlovian-instrumental transfer.

J Neurochem 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Decision Neuroscience Laboratory, School of Psychology, UNSW SYDNEY, Randwick, NSW, Australia.

Predictive learning endows stimuli with the capacity to signal both the sensory-specific and general motivational properties of their associated rewards or outcomes. These two signals can be distinguished behaviorally by their influence on the selection and performance of instrumental actions, respectively. This review focuses on how sensory-specific predictive learning guides choice between actions that earn otherwise equally desirable outcomes. Read More

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Rapid multi-directed cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system.

Nat Commun 2021 03 2;12(1):1374. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Biology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada.

In many parts of the central nervous system, including the retina, it is unclear whether cholinergic transmission is mediated by rapid, point-to-point synaptic mechanisms, or slower, broad-scale 'non-synaptic' mechanisms. Here, we characterized the ultrastructural features of cholinergic connections between direction-selective starburst amacrine cells and downstream ganglion cells in an existing serial electron microscopy data set, as well as their functional properties using electrophysiology and two-photon acetylcholine (ACh) imaging. Correlative results demonstrate that a 'tripartite' structure facilitates a 'multi-directed' form of transmission, in which ACh released from a single vesicle rapidly (~1 ms) co-activates receptors expressed in multiple neurons located within ~1 µm of the release site. Read More

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Differential Contribution of V0 Interneurons to Execution of Rhythmic and Nonrhythmic Motor Behaviors.

J Neurosci 2021 Apr 26;41(15):3432-3445. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden

Locomotion, scratching, and stabilization of the body orientation in space are basic motor functions which are critically important for animal survival. Their execution requires coordinated activity of muscles located in the left and right halves of the body. Commissural interneurons (CINs) are critical elements of the neuronal networks underlying the left-right motor coordination. Read More

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Recent Insights into the Rhythmogenic Core of the Locomotor CPG.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 30;22(3). Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Physiology, University of Alberta, 3-020D Katz Building, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.

In order for locomotion to occur, a complex pattern of muscle activation is required. For more than a century, it has been known that the timing and pattern of stepping movements in mammals are generated by neural networks known as central pattern generators (CPGs), which comprise multiple interneuron cell types located entirely within the spinal cord. A genetic approach has recently been successful in identifying several populations of spinal neurons that make up this neural network, as well as the specific role they play during stepping. Read More

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January 2021

Organization of Neuropeptide Y-Immunoreactive Cells in the Mongolian gerbil () Visual Cortex.

Cells 2021 Feb 3;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Biology, School of Life Sciences, BK21 FOUR KNU Creative BioResearch Group, College of Natural Sciences, and Brain Science and Engineering Institute, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea.

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is found throughout the central nervous system where it appears to be involved in the regulation of a wide range of physiological effects. The Mongolian gerbil, a member of the rodent family Muridae, is a diurnal animal and has been widely used in various aspects of biomedical research. This study was conducted to investigate the organization of NPY-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the gerbil visual cortex using NPY immunocytochemistry. Read More

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February 2021

Complex effects of eslicarbazepine on inhibitory micro networks in chronic experimental epilepsy.

Epilepsia 2021 02 16;62(2):542-556. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Medical Faculty, Institute for Experimental Epileptology and Cognition Research, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Objective: Many antiseizure drugs (ASDs) act on voltage-dependent sodium channels, and the molecular basis of these effects is well established. In contrast, how ASDs act on the level of neuronal networks is much less understood.

Methods: In the present study, we determined the effects of eslicarbazepine (S-Lic) on different types of inhibitory neurons, as well as inhibitory motifs. Read More

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February 2021

Adult-born granule cell mossy fibers preferentially target parvalbumin-positive interneurons surrounded by perineuronal nets.

Hippocampus 2021 Apr 12;31(4):375-388. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.

Adult-born granule cells (abGCs) integrate into the hippocampus and form connections with dentate gyrus parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons, a circuit important for modulating plasticity. Many of these interneurons are surrounded by perineuronal nets (PNNs), extracellular matrix structures known to participate in plasticity. We compared abGC projections to PV+ interneurons with negative-to-low intensity PNNs to those with high intensity PNNs using retroviral and 3R-Tau labeling in adult mice, and found that abGC mossy fibers and boutons are more frequently located near PV+ interneurons with high intensity PNNs. Read More

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Distribution and morphology of calbindin neurons in the Amygdaloid Complex of the marmoset monkey (callithrix jacchus).

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 Mar 31;112:101914. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

The location and distribution of the calcium-binding protein calbindin-D28k (CB) has been considered to be of great value as a neuronal marker for identifying distinct brain regions and discrete neuronal populations. In the amygdaloid complex (AC), the balance of excitatory and inhibitory inputs is controlled by CB immunoreactive interneurons. Alterations of inhibitory mechanisms in the AC may play a role in the emotional symptomatology of neurological diseases like Alzheimer's and psychiatric disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder. Read More

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The Entorhinal Cortical Alvear Pathway Differentially Excites Pyramidal Cells and Interneuron Subtypes in Hippocampal CA1.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Mar;31(5):2382-2401

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA 23298, USA.

The entorhinal cortex alvear pathway is a major excitatory input to hippocampal CA1, yet nothing is known about its physiological impact. We investigated the alvear pathway projection and innervation of neurons in CA1 using optogenetics and whole cell patch clamp methods in transgenic mouse brain slices. Using this approach, we show that the medial entorhinal cortical alvear inputs onto CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs) and interneurons with cell bodies located in stratum oriens were monosynaptic, had low release probability, and were mediated by glutamate receptors. Read More

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M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated inhibition of GABA release from striatal medium spiny neurons onto cholinergic interneurons.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Feb 20;53(3):796-813. Epub 2020 Dec 20.

Department of Pharmacology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Acetylcholine (ACh) modulates neurotransmitter release in the central nervous system. Although GABAergic transmission onto the striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIN) is modulated by dopamine receptors, cholinergic modulation of the same synapse is still unknown. In the present study, modulatory roles of ACh in the GABAergic transmission from striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) onto ChIN were investigated using optogenetics and whole-cell patch-clamp technique in juvenile and young-adult mice brain slices. Read More

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February 2021

Prenatal alcohol exposure is a leading cause of interneuronopathy in humans.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2020 11 30;8(1):208. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Pathology, Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, INSERM U1245 and Rouen University Hospital, Normandy Centre for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, 76000, Rouen, France.

Alcohol affects multiple neurotransmitter systems, notably the GABAergic system and has been recognised for a long time as particularly damaging during critical stages of brain development. Nevertheless, data from the literature are most often derived from animal or in vitro models. In order to study the production, migration and cortical density disturbances of GABAergic interneurons upon prenatal alcohol exposure, we performed immunohistochemical studies by means of the proliferation marker Ki67, GABA and calretinin antibodies in the frontal cortical plate of 17 foetal and infant brains antenatally exposed to alcohol, aged 15 weeks' gestation to 22 postnatal months and in the ganglionic eminences and the subventricular zone of the dorsal telencephalon until their regression, i. Read More

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November 2020

Nicotinic receptor activation induces NMDA receptor independent long-term potentiation of glutamatergic signalling in hippocampal oriens interneurons.

J Physiol 2021 01 13;599(2):667-676. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.

Key Points: Long-term potentiation of glutamatergic transmission to hippocampal interneurons in stratum oriens does not require NMDA receptors and the induction mechanisms are incompletely understood. Extracellular stimulation, conventionally used to monitor synaptic strength and induce long-term potentiation (LTP), does not exclusively recruit glutamatergic axons. We used optogenetic stimulation of either glutamatergic or cholinergic afferents to probe the relative roles of different signalling mechanisms in LTP induction. Read More

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January 2021

Localization of neurons expressing choline acetyltransferase, serotonin and/or FMRFamide in the central nervous system of the decapod shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 Mar 25;383(3):959-977. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

A.V. Zhirmunsky National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690041, Russia.

Although it is now established that neurons in crustacea contain multiple transmitter substances, little is know about patterns of expression and co-expression or about the functional effects of such co-transmission. The present study was designed to characterize the distributions and potential colocalization of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), serotonin (5-HT) and neuropeptide H-Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide) in the central nervous system (CNS) of the Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus using immunohistochemical analyses in combination with laser scanning confocal microscopy. ChAT was found to be expressed by small, medium-sized, and large neurons in all regions of the brain and ventral nerve cord (VNC). Read More

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Being superficial: a developmental viewpoint on cortical layer 1 wiring.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2021 Feb 10;66:125-134. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Institut de Biologie de l'Ecole Normale Supérieure (IBENS), Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS, INSERM, PSL Research University, 75005 Paris, France; Collège de France, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Functioning of the neocortex relies on a complex architecture of circuits, as illustrated by the causal link between neocortical excitation/inhibition imbalance and the etiology of several neurodevelopmental disorders. An important entry point to cortical circuits is located in the superficial layer 1 (L1), which contains mostly local and long-range inputs and sparse inhibitory interneurons that collectively regulate cerebral functions. While increasing evidence indicates that L1 has important physiological roles, our understanding of how it wires up during development remains limited. Read More

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February 2021

PHF24 is expressed in the inhibitory interneurons in rats.

Exp Anim 2021 Feb 29;70(1):137-143. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-58 Ourai-kita, Izumisano, Osaka 598-8531, Japan.

Noda epileptic rat (NER) is a mutant model for epilepsy that exhibits spontaneous generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Epileptogenesis of NER remains to be elucidated; but it is detected an insertion of an endogenous retrovirus sequence in intron 2 of the PHD finger protein 24 (Phf24) gene, encoding Gαi-interacting protein (GINIP). Phf24 is a strong candidate gene for epileptogenesis in NER. Read More

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February 2021

Modular timer networks: abdominal interneurons controlling the chirp and pulse pattern in a cricket calling song.

J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 2020 11 21;206(6):921-938. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, UK.

Chirping male crickets combine a 30 Hz pulse pattern with a 3 Hz chirp pattern to drive the rhythmic opening-closing movements of the front wings for sound production. Lesion experiments suggest two coupled modular timer-networks located along the chain of abdominal ganglia, a network in A3 and A4 generating the pulse pattern, and a network organized along with ganglia A4-A6 controlling the generation of the chirp rhythm. We analyzed neurons of the timer-networks and their synaptic connections by intracellular recordings and staining. Read More

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November 2020

Transcriptional regulation of MGE progenitor proliferation by PRDM16 controls cortical GABAergic interneuron production.

Development 2020 11 16;147(22). Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA

The mammalian cortex is populated by neurons derived from neural progenitors located throughout the embryonic telencephalon. Excitatory neurons are derived from the dorsal telencephalon, whereas inhibitory interneurons are generated in its ventral portion. The transcriptional regulator PRDM16 is expressed by radial glia, neural progenitors present in both regions; however, its mechanisms of action are still not fully understood. Read More

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November 2020

Ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells density in the retina of the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu).

PLoS One 2020 1;15(10):e0239719. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Pará, Brasil.

In the present study, we investigated the topographical distribution of ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells in the retina of the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), a diurnal neotropical mammal of the suborder Suina (Order Artiodactyla) widely distributed across central and mainly South America. Retinas were prepared and processed following the Nissl staining method. The number and distribution of retinal ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells were determined in six flat-mounted retinas from three animals. Read More

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November 2020

Descending Dopaminergic Inputs to Reticulospinal Neurons Promote Locomotor Movements.

J Neurosci 2020 10 30;40(44):8478-8490. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Neuroscience, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7, Canada

Meso-diencephalic dopaminergic neurons are known to modulate locomotor behaviors through their ascending projections to the basal ganglia, which in turn project to the mesencephalic locomotor region, known to control locomotion in vertebrates. In addition to their ascending projections, dopaminergic neurons were found to increase locomotor movements through direct descending projections to the mesencephalic locomotor region and spinal cord. Intriguingly, fibers expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme of dopamine synthesis, were also observed around reticulospinal neurons of lampreys. Read More

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October 2020

Molecular targets for endogenous glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor modulation in striatal parvalbumin interneurons.

Brain Commun 2020 27;2(2):fcaa105. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, CSIC, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain.

Administration of recombinant glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor into the putamen has been tested in preclinical and clinical studies to evaluate its neuroprotective effects on the progressive dopaminergic neuronal degeneration that characterizes Parkinson's disease. However, intracerebral glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor infusion is a challenging therapeutic strategy, with numerous potential technical and medical limitations. Most of these limitations could be avoided if the production of endogenous glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor could be increased. Read More

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Biological data questions the support of the self inhibition required for pattern generation in the half center model.

PLoS One 2020 11;15(9):e0238586. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Locomotion control in mammals has been hypothesized to be governed by a central pattern generator (CPG) located in the circuitry of the spinal cord. The most common model of the CPG is the half center model, where two pools of neurons generate alternating, oscillatory activity. In this model, the pools reciprocally inhibit each other ensuring alternating activity. Read More

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October 2020

Repeated phencyclidine disrupts nicotinic acetylcholine regulation of dopamine release in nucleus accumbens: Implications for models of schizophrenia.

Neurochem Int 2020 11 24;140:104836. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Neuroscience, Psychology & Behaviour, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester, LE2 9HN, UK. Electronic address:

Dopaminergic dysregulation in nucleus accumbens has been implicated in the origin of schizophrenia. Accumbal cholinergic interneurons exert powerful modulatory control of local dopamine function, through nicotinic receptors located on dopamine terminals. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in rat brain slices in vitro was used to measure dopamine release evoked by high-frequency electrical stimulation, mimicking phasic dopamine activity. Read More

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November 2020

Communication Among Photoreceptors and the Central Clock Affects Sleep Profile.

Front Physiol 2020 11;11:993. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Cell Biology and Imaging, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland.

Light is one of the most important factors regulating rhythmical behavior of . It is received by different photoreceptors and entrains the circadian clock, which controls sleep. The retina is known to be essential for light perception, as it is composed of specialized light-sensitive cells which transmit signal to deeper parts of the brain. Read More

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Targeting spinal neuropeptide Y1 receptor-expressing interneurons to alleviate chronic pain and itch.

Prog Neurobiol 2021 01 7;196:101894. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Center for Neuroscience, Pittsburgh Center for Pain Research, Pittsburgh Project to End Opioid Misuse, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

An accelerating basic science literature is providing key insights into the mechanisms by which spinal neuropeptide Y (NPY) inhibits chronic pain. A key target of pain inhibition is the G-coupled neuropeptide Y1 receptor (Y1). Y1 is located in key sites of pain transmission, including the peptidergic subpopulation of primary afferent neurons and a dense subpopulation of small, excitatory, glutamatergic/somatostatinergic interneurons (Y1-INs) that are densely expressed in the dorsal horn, particularly in superficial lamina I-II. Read More

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January 2021