37,648 results match your criteria intermediate state

A Comprehensive mechanism for 5-carboxylcytosine induced transcriptional pausing revealed by Markov state models.

J Biol Chem 2021 May 12:100735. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong; Hong Kong Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Hong Kong Science Park, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

RNA polymerase II (Pol II) surveils the genome, pausing as it encounters DNA lesions and base modifications and initiating signals for DNA repair among other important regulatory events. Recent work suggests that Pol II pauses at 5-carboxycytosine (5caC), an epigenetic modification of cytosine, due to a specific hydrogen bond between the carboxyl group of 5caC and a specific residue in fork loop 3 of Pol II. This hydrogen bond compromises productive NTP binding and slows down elongation. Read More

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Excitonic structure and charge separation in the heliobacterial reaction center probed by multispectral multidimensional spectroscopy.

Nat Commun 2021 May 14;12(1):2801. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Photochemical reaction centers are the engines that drive photosynthesis. The reaction center from heliobacteria (HbRC) has been proposed to most closely resemble the common ancestor of photosynthetic reaction centers, motivating a detailed understanding of its structure-function relationship. The recent elucidation of the HbRC crystal structure motivates advanced spectroscopic studies of its excitonic structure and charge separation mechanism. Read More

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Insights into the molecular mechanism of amyloid filament formation: Segmental folding of α-synuclein on lipid membranes.

Sci Adv 2021 May 14;7(20). Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of NMR-Based Structural Biology, Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen, Germany.

Recent advances in the structural biology of disease-relevant α-synuclein fibrils have revealed a variety of structures, yet little is known about the process of fibril aggregate formation. Characterization of intermediate species that form during aggregation is crucial; however, this has proven very challenging because of their transient nature, heterogeneity, and low population. Here, we investigate the aggregation of α-synuclein bound to negatively charged phospholipid small unilamellar vesicles. Read More

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Physiological role of the previously unexplained benzenetriol dioxygenase homolog in the sp. strain SJ98 4-nitrophenol catabolic pathway.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Joint International Research Laboratory of Metabolic & Developmental Sciences, and School of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

4-Nitrophenol, a priority pollutant, is degraded by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, via 1,2,4-benzenetriol (BT) and hydroquinone (HQ), respectively. All enzymes involved in the two pathways have been functionally identified. So far, all Gram-negative 4-nitrophenol utilizers are from genera and But it remains a mystery why , an apparently superfluous BT 1,2-dioxygenase encoding gene, always coexists in the catabolic cluster () encoding 4-nitrophenol degradation via HQ. Read More

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Direct reprogramming of somatic cells into induced hepatocytes: cracking the Enigma code.

J Hepatol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of In Vitro Toxicology and Dermato-Cosmetology, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

There is an unmet need for functional primary human hepatocytes to support the pharmaceutical and (bio)medical demand. The unique discovery, a decade ago, that somatic cells can be drawn out of their seemingly biological lockdown to acquire once again a pluripotent state, has paved a complete new avenue of possibilities to generate surrogate human hepatocytes. Since then, the number of papers reporting the direct conversion of somatic cells into induced hepatocytes (iHeps) has thrived. Read More

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-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Cyclization of Aldehydes with α-Diazo Iodonium Triflate: Facile Access to 2,5-Disubstituted 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles.

Org Lett 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Advanced Catalytic Engineering Research Center of the Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, P. R. China.

Herein, we report a novel organocatalytic process for synthesis of complex 1,3,4-oxadiazoles from readily accessible aldehydes. By exploiting the nucleophilicity of the putative Breslow intermediate and the inherent electrophilicity of α-diazo iodonium triflate, we have found that -heterocyclic carbene catalyst promotes efficient cyclization of various aldehydes and α-diazo iodonium triflates. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions with a wide range of functional group tolerance. Read More

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Pulsed Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Reveals Altered Structures and Mechanisms in the Aggregation of Familial Alzheimer's Disease Mutants.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Chemistry, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, United States.

Mutations of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, from which the amyloid β peptide Aβ42 is cleaved, are associated with familial Alzheimer's disease. The disease-relevant familial mutations include the Arctic (E22G), Iowa (D23N), Italian (E22K), Dutch (E22Q), Japanese (D7N), English (D6R), and Flemish (A21G) variants. A detailed mechanistic understanding of the aggregation behavior of the mutant peptides at the residue level is, however, still lacking. Read More

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Two Liquid-Liquid Phase Transitions in Confined Water Nanofilms.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 May 14:4786-4792. Epub 2021 May 14.

Center for Superfunctional Materials, Department of Chemistry, and Department of Physics, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 50 UNIST-gil, Ulsan 44919, Republic of Korea.

The stories behind supercooled bulk and confined water can be different. Bulk water has a metastable liquid-liquid phase transition at deeply supercooled conditions, but the existence of such a phenomenon in confined water is in question. Herein we show simulation results of first-order phase transitions between high- and low-density liquid (HDL and LDL) in confined water in both positive and negative pressures. Read More

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Impaired neuromuscular function by conjoint actions of organophosphorus insecticide metabolites omethoate and cyclohexanol with implications for treatment of respiratory failure.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 May 14:1-20. Epub 2021 May 14.

Centre for Discovery Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Background: Ingestion of agricultural organophosphorus insecticides is a significant cause of death in rural Asia. Patients often show acute respiratory failure and/or delayed, unexplained signs of neuromuscular paralysis, sometimes diagnosed as "Intermediate Syndrome". We tested the hypothesis that omethoate and cyclohexanol, circulating metabolites of one agricultural formulation, cause muscle weakness and paralysis. Read More

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Natural Killer Cell Subpopulations and Inhibitory Receptor Dynamics in Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Front Immunol 2021 27;12:665541. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Hematology Laboratory, Universitary Hospital of Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne, France.

Natural killer (NK) cells are key innate immunity effectors that play a major role in malignant cell destruction. Based on expression patterns of CD16, CD56, CD57, and CD94, three distinct NK cell maturation stages have been described, which differ in terms of cytokine secretion, tissue migration, and the ability to kill target cells. Our study addressed NK cell maturation in bone marrow under three conditions: a normal developmental environment, during pre-leukemic state (myelodysplastic syndrome, MDS), and during leukemic transformation (acute myeloblastic leukemia, AML). Read More

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Rational construction of a reversible arylazo-based NIR probe for cycling hypoxia imaging in vivo.

Nat Commun 2021 May 13;12(1):2772. Epub 2021 May 13.

State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chemistry and Biomedicine Innovation Center (ChemBIC), Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Reversible NIR luminescent probes with negligible photocytotoxicity are required for long-term tracking of cycling hypoxia in vivo. However, almost all of the reported organic fluorescent hypoxia probes reported until now were irreversible. Here we report a reversible arylazo-conjugated fluorescent probe (HDSF) for cycling hypoxia imaging. Read More

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Hydrogen atom transfer in the photochemical isomerization of hydrazones of 1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives.

Maurizio D'Auria

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Dipartimento Di Scienze, Università Della Basilicata, Viale dell'Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100, Potenza, Italy.

DFT calculations on the photoisomerization of hydrazones of 1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives to 1,2,5-triazoles have been performed showing that the reaction occurred through the first excited singlet state. The Z isomer gave the reaction through a hydrogen atom transfer of the hydrazonic nitrogen atom to the nitrogen atom in four position on the oxadiazole ring. In this case, the isomerization was a concerted reaction. Read More

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Potential Environmental Health Risk Analysis of Neonicotinoids and a Synergist.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, People's Republic of China.

The extensive use of neonicotinoid pesticides has led to their widespread presence in the environment, resulting in considerable safety risks to the ecosystem and human health. In this study, we investigated the biotransformation behavior of a cocktail of multiple neonicotinoids and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergist and their potential environmental health risk. It was found that neonicotinoids with a cyano group, such as acetamiprid and thiacloprid, tended to accumulate in liver and spleen tissues, while others with nitro groups (imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and nitenpyram) were mostly excreted in urine. Read More

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Carboxylate Ligands-Promoted Superior Electrocatalytic Performance for Oxygen Evolution Reaction and Their Mechanisms.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Sun Yat-Sen University, Xingang West Road No. 135, 510275, CHINA.

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with carboxylate ligands as co-catalysts are very efficient for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). However, the role of local adsorbed carboxylate ligands around the in situ transformed metal (oxy)hydroxides during OER is often overlooked. Here we detailedly reveal the extraordinary role and mechanism of surface adsorbed carboxylate ligands on bi/trimetallic layered double hydroxides (LDHs)/MOFs for OER electrocatalytic activity enhancement. Read More

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Advanced time-resolved absorption spectroscopy with an ultrashort visible/near IR laser and a multi-channel lock-in detector.

Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci 2021 ;97(5):236-260

Center for Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications.

Ultrashort visible-near infrared (NIR) pulse generation and its applications to ultrafast spectroscopy are discussed. Femtosecond pulses of around 800 nm from a Ti:sapphire laser are used as a pump of an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) in a non-collinear configuration to generate ultrashort visible (500-780 nm) pulses and deep-ultraviolet (DUV, 259-282 nm) pulses. The visible-NIR pulses and DUV pulses were compressed to 3. Read More

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January 2021

Cationic Heterobimetallic Mg(Zn)/Al(Ga) Combinations for Cooperative C-F Bond Cleavage.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

FAU: Friedrich-Alexander-Universitat Erlangen-Nurnberg, chemistry, GERMANY.

Low-valent ( Me BDI)Al and ( Me BDI)Ga act as Lewis bases for complexation of highly Lewis acidic cations in [( tBu BDI)M + ·C 6 H 6 ][(B(C 6 F 5 ) 4 -] (M = Mg or Zn, Me BDI = HC[C(Me)N-DIPP], tBu BDI = HC[C( t Bu)N-DIPP], DIPP = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl) yielding heterobimetallic complexes containing the cations [( tBu BDI)Mg-Al( Me BDI) + ], [( tBu BDI)Mg-Ga( Me BDI) + ] and [( tBu BDI)Zn-Ga( Me BDI) + ]. These cations do not show interaction with B(C 6 F 5 ) 4 - and feature long Mg-Al(or Ga) distances or a short Zn-Ga bond. The complex with the [( tBu BDI)Zn-Al( Me BDI) + ] cation could not be obtained but should, according to DFT calculations, be stable. Read More

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Divergent Entry to Walsucochin Nortriterpenoids: Total Syntheses of (±)-Walsucochin A and (±)-Walsucochinoids C-F.

J Org Chem 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, 3 Taicheng Road, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China.

Nortriterpenoids isolated from have attracted much attention from both synthetic and medicinal chemists, yet only recently have efficient synthetic approaches to any members appeared. Shown here is that the common intermediate with a 6/6/5/6-fused tetracyclic ring nucleus can be converted to walsucochin family members. The first total syntheses of (±)-walsucochin A, (±)-walsucochinoids C-F, and their analogues were achieved in this work. Read More

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Effectively Promoting Activity and Stability of a MnCoO-Based Cathode by Constructed Heterointerfaces for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022, China.

The development of multiphase composite electrocatalysts plays a key role in achieving the efficient and durable operation of intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). Herein, a self-assembled nanocomposite is developed as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst for IT-SOFCs through a coprecipitation method. The nanocomposite is composed of a doped (MnMg)ScCoO (MMSCO) spinel oxide (84 wt %), an orthorhombic perovskite phase (11. Read More

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A nano-integrated microfluidic biochip for enzyme-based point-of-care detection of creatinine.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 May;57(38):4726-4729

Division of Physical Biology, CAS Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800, P. R. China. and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China and Institute of Molecular Medicine, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Frontiers Science Center for Transformative Molecules, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200127, P. R. China.

A nano-integrated portable enzymatic microfluidic electrochemical biochip was developed for single-step point-of-care testing of creatinine. The biochip could automatically eliminate a lot of interferences from practical biological samples and enzymatic intermediate products. Gold nanostructure- and carbon nanotube-based screen-printed carbon electrodes were integrated into microfluidic structures to improve the detection performance for creatinine. Read More

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Factors influencing the habitat use by ocelots in one of the last large Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 13;11(9):4631-4643. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia Universidade Federal de São João del Rei São João del Rei Brazil.

Ocelots () are widely distributed throughout the Americas, being dependent on forested areas to survive. Although ocelot ecology is broadly studied throughout the species range distribution, studies concerning factors that may affect ocelot occupancy in the Atlantic Forest are still scarce. We used camera traps to evaluate factors influencing the probabilities of detection and occupancy of ocelots in a protected area of the Atlantic Forest, the Rio Doce State Park (RDSP), southeastern Brazil. Read More

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Geomorphological characteristics of the Wabash River, USA: Influence on fish assemblages.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 18;11(9):4542-4549. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Biology Ball State University Muncie IN USA.

River hydrogeomorphology is a potential predictor of ecosystem and assemblage variation. We tested for fish assemblage variation as a function of hydrogeomorphology in a Midwestern US large river, the Wabash River. Fish data were classified by taxonomy and traits and we tested if assemblages varied with river hydrogeomorphology or river distance, defined into 10-km distinct reaches. Read More

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Ideal Cardiovascular Health Behaviours in Nationally Representative School-Based Samples of Adolescents in the Caribbean.

Vasc Health Risk Manag 2021 4;17:187-194. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

Background: Ideal cardiovascular health behaviour (CVHB) measures four ideal health behaviours (non-smoking, body mass index <85th Percentile, healthy diet, and physical activity). This study aimed to determine the prevalence, distribution, and correlates of ideal CVHB among adolescents in the Caribbean.

Methods: Nationally representative cross-sectional data of 2016 or 2017 with complete CVHB measurements were analysed from 7556 school adolescents from four Caribbean countries. Read More

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Neural network aided approximation and parameter inference of non-Markovian models of gene expression.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2618. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.

Non-Markovian models of stochastic biochemical kinetics often incorporate explicit time delays to effectively model large numbers of intermediate biochemical processes. Analysis and simulation of these models, as well as the inference of their parameters from data, are fraught with difficulties because the dynamics depends on the system's history. Here we use an artificial neural network to approximate the time-dependent distributions of non-Markovian models by the solutions of much simpler time-inhomogeneous Markovian models; the approximation does not increase the dimensionality of the model and simultaneously leads to inference of the kinetic parameters. Read More

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A coordinated progression of progenitor cell states initiates urinary tract development.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2627. Epub 2021 May 11.

Goodman Cancer Research Centre and Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

The kidney and upper urinary tract develop through reciprocal interactions between the ureteric bud and the surrounding mesenchyme. Ureteric bud branching forms the arborized collecting duct system of the kidney, while ureteric tips promote nephron formation from dedicated progenitor cells. While nephron progenitor cells are relatively well characterized, the origin of ureteric bud progenitors has received little attention so far. Read More

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Bilin-dependent regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis by GUN4.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(20)

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, 430070 Wuhan, China;

Biosyntheses of chlorophyll and heme in oxygenic phototrophs share a common trunk pathway that diverges with insertion of magnesium or iron into the last common intermediate, protoporphyrin IX. Since both tetrapyrroles are pro-oxidants, it is essential that their metabolism is tightly regulated. Here, we establish that heme-derived linear tetrapyrroles (bilins) function to stimulate the enzymatic activity of magnesium chelatase (MgCh) via their interaction with GENOMES UNCOUPLED 4 (GUN4) in the model green alga A key tetrapyrrole-binding component of MgCh found in all oxygenic photosynthetic species, GUN4, also stabilizes the bilin-dependent accumulation of protoporphyrin IX-binding CHLH1 subunit of MgCh in light-grown cells by preventing its photooxidative inactivation. Read More

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Subdivision of de-novo metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on tumor burden and pretreatment EBV DNA for therapeutic guidance of locoregional radiotherapy.

BMC Cancer 2021 May 11;21(1):534. Epub 2021 May 11.

Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Diagnosis and Therapy, 651 Dongfeng Road East, Guangzhou, 510060, People's Republic of China.

Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignancy predominantly associated with infection by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Approximately 12,900 new cases of NPC occur each year, with more than 70% of cases occurring in the east and southeast Asia. NPC is different from ordinary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma due to its particular biological properties and it is highly sensitive to radiotherapy. Read More

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Experimental and Computational Studies of Palladium-Catalyzed Spirocyclization via a Narasaka-Heck/C(sp or sp)-H Activation Cascade Reaction.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.

The first synthesis of highly strained spirocyclobutane-pyrrolines via a palladium-catalyzed tandem Narasaka-Heck/C(sp or sp)-H activation reaction is reported here. The key step in this transformation is the activation of a δ-C-H bond via an in situ generated σ-alkyl-Pd(II) species to form a five-membered spiro-palladacycle intermediate. The concerted metalation-deprotonation (CMD) process, rate-determining step, and energy barrier of the entire reaction were explored by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Read More

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Interhemispheric Auditory Cortical Synchronization in Asymmetric Hearing Loss.

Ear Hear 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

1Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA 2Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.

Objectives: Auditory cortical activation of the two hemispheres to monaurally presented tonal stimuli has been shown to be asynchronous in normal hearing (NH) but synchronous in the extreme case of adult-onset asymmetric hearing loss (AHL) with single-sided deafness. We addressed the wide knowledge gap between these two anchoring states of interhemispheric temporal organization. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to map the trajectory of interhemispheric temporal reorganization from asynchrony to synchrony using magnitude of interaural threshold difference as the independent variable in a cross-sectional study and (2) to evaluate reversibility of interhemispheric synchrony in association with hearing in noise performance by amplifying the aidable poorer ear in a repeated measures, longitudinal study. Read More

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Mixed Mott-Hubbard and charge transfer nature of 4H-SrMnOthin film on Si (100).

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 May 10;33(23). Epub 2021 May 10.

UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore-452001, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Room temperature electronic structure of polycrystalline 4H-SrMnOthin film grown on Si (100) substrate has been studied using resonance photo emission spectroscopy and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements. Presence of charge transfer screen Mn 3final state along with the 3final state at the valence band edge of 4H-SrMnOthin film confirms that the ground state is strongly mixed between Mn 3and O 2states. The estimated equivalent values of on-site Coulomb interaction energy () and O 2to Mn 3- charge transfer energy (Δ) (≈ Δ ≈ 4. Read More

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Insights into the Role of Dual-Interfacial Sites in Cu/ZrO Catalysts in 5-HMF Hydrogenolysis with Isopropanol.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China.

In this work, we synthesized a series of Cu/ZrO catalysts with tunable V-Cu (oxygen vacancy adjacent to Cu metal) and V-Cu (zirconium vacancy adjacent to electron-deficient Cu species) dual-interface sites and investigated the role of the dual-interface sites in the 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) hydrogenolysis reaction with isopropanol as the hydrogen source. By combining a series of infrared characterization and catalytic performance analysis, it is identified that V-Cu interface sites were responsible for activating isopropanol dehydrogenation and C═O dissociation of 5-HMF, while the V-Cu interface sites were responsible for the dehydroxylation of an intermediate product 5-methyl-2-furfuryl alcohol (5-MFA). Specifically, C-OH was first deprotonated on the V at the V-Cu interface site to reduce the activation energy of 5-MFA dehydroxylation and then adjacent Cu promoted the dissociation of the C-O bond by enhancing the adsorption energy while elongating the C-O bond, as confirmed by the density functional theory calculations. Read More

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