9,769 results match your criteria intermediate filaments

[Correlation of cerebrospinal fluid amyloid β-protein 42 and neurofilament light protein levels with postoperative neurocognitive dysfunction in elderly patients].

X Zhang Q Fu

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2021 Apr;41(4):574-578

Department of Anesthesiology, General Hospital of PLA, Beijing 100853, China.

Objective: To detect cerebrospinal fluid levels of amyloid beta- protein 42 (Aβ42) and neurofilament light protein (NFL) and explore their correlation with postoperative neurocognitive dysfunction (PNCD) in elderly patients.

Objective: A total of 90 elderly patients undergoing hip or knee replacement with joint epidural anesthesia in our Hospital between January, 2017 and December, 2018 were recruited in this study. The levels of Aβ42 and NFL in the cerebrospinal fluid were detected using ELISA. Read More

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Extensive rod and cone photoreceptor-cell degeneration in rat models of giant axonal neuropathy: implications for gene therapy of human disease.

Ophthalmic Genet 2021 May 6:1-4. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; Viral Vector Facility Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.

: Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN; ORPHA: 643; OMIM# 256850) is a rare, hereditary, pediatric neurodegenerative disorder associated with intracellular accumulations of intermediate filaments (IFs). Validation of therapeutic efficacy and viral vector delivery systems with GAN knockout (KO) mouse models has provided the springboard for the development of a viral vector being delivered intrathecally in an ongoing Phase I gene therapy clinical trial for the treatment of children with GAN (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02362438). Read More

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Polymer-Like Self-Assembled Structures from Particles with Isotropic Interactions: Dependence upon the Range of the Attraction.

Langmuir 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Theoretical Chemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.

We conduct Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations on models of dilute colloidal dispersions, where the particles interact via isotropic potentials of mean force (PMFs) that display a long-ranged repulsion, combined with a short-ranged and narrow attraction. Such systems are known to form anisotropic clusters. There are two main conclusions from this work. Read More

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Cytoskeletal control of early mammalian development.

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

The cytoskeleton - comprising actin filaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments - serves instructive roles in regulating cell function and behaviour during development. However, a key challenge in cell and developmental biology is to dissect how these different structures function and interact in vivo to build complex tissues, with the ultimate aim to understand these processes in a mammalian organism. The preimplantation mouse embryo has emerged as a primary model system for tackling this challenge. Read More

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Exosomal Vimentin from Adipocyte Progenitors Protects Fibroblasts against Osmotic Stress and Inhibits Apoptosis to Enhance Wound Healing.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 28;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen 518107, China.

Mechanical stress following injury regulates the quality and speed of wound healing. Improper mechanotransduction can lead to impaired wound healing and scar formation. Vimentin intermediate filaments control fibroblasts' response to mechanical stress and lack of vimentin makes cells significantly vulnerable to environmental stress. Read More

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The Effect of the Controlled Release of Platelet Lysate from PVA Nanomats on Keratinocytes, Endothelial Cells and Fibroblasts.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 13;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Institute of Physiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, 1083, 142 20 Prague, Czech Republic.

Platelet lysate (PL) provides a natural source of growth factors and other bioactive molecules, and the local controlled release of these bioactive PL components is capable of improving the healing of chronic wounds. Therefore, we prepared composite nanofibrous meshes via the needleless electrospinning technique using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with a high molecular weight and with a high degree of hydrolysis with the incorporated PL (10% ). The morphology, wettability and protein release from the nanofibers was then assessed from the resulting composite PVA-PL nanomats. Read More

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Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Disorders Caused by Mutations in Genes Encoding Intermediate Filament Proteins.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 20;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

CNR Institute of Molecular Genetics "Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza", Unit of Bologna, 40136 Bologna, Italy.

Intermediate filaments are major components of the cytoskeleton. Desmin and synemin, cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins and A-type lamins, nuclear intermediate filament proteins, play key roles in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Desmin, encoded by the gene (OMIM *125660) and A-type lamins by the gene (OMIM *150330), have been involved in striated muscle disorders. Read More

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Structures of the ß-Keratin Filaments and Keratin Intermediate Filaments in the Epidermal Appendages of Birds and Reptiles (Sauropsids).

David A D Parry

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 17;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 17.

School of Fundamental Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.

The epidermal appendages of birds and reptiles (the sauropsids) include claws, scales, and feathers. Each has specialized physical properties that facilitate movement, thermal insulation, defence mechanisms, and/or the catching of prey. The mechanical attributes of each of these appendages originate from its fibril-matrix texture, where the two filamentous structures present, i. Read More

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Cytoskeletal Dynamics in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: Insights into Therapeutic Targets for Cancer Metastasis.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 14;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117593, Singapore.

In cancer cells, a vital cellular process during metastasis is the transformation of epithelial cells towards motile mesenchymal cells called the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The cytoskeleton is an active network of three intracellular filaments: actin cytoskeleton, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. These filaments play a central role in the structural design and cell behavior and are necessary for EMT. Read More

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Prostaglandin F2 Alpha Triggers the Disruption of Cell Adhesion with Cytokeratin and Vimentin in Bovine Luteal Theca Cells.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 9;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

Intermediate filaments (IFs) maintain cell-cell adhesions and are involved in diverse cellular processes such as cytokinesis, cell migration and the maintenance of cell structure. In this study, we investigated the influence of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2α) on cytokeratin and vimentin IFs, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), and cell-cell adhesion in bovine luteal theca cells (LTCs). The luteal cells were isolated from bovine corpus luteum (CL), and the LTCs were treated with 0, 0. Read More

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Polyelectrolyte Gels Formed by Filamentous Biopolymers: Dependence of Crosslinking Efficiency on the Chemical Softness of Divalent Cations.

Gels 2021 Apr 8;7(2). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Physiology, Institute for Medicine and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19063, USA.

Filamentous anionic polyelectrolytes are common in biological materials. Some examples are the cytoskeletal filaments that assemble into networks and bundled structures to give the cell mechanical resistance and that act as surfaces on which enzymes and other molecules can dock. Some viruses, especially bacteriophages are also long thin polyelectrolytes, and their bending stiffness is similar to those of the intermediate filament class of cytoskeletal polymers. Read More

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Circulating inflammatory cytokines alter transcriptional activity within fibrotic tissue of Dupuytren's disease patients.

J Orthop Res 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Dupuytren's disease is a benign fibroproliferative disorder of the hand that results in disabling digital contractures that impair function and diminish the quality of life. The incidence of this disease has been correlated with chronic inflammatory states, but any direct association between inflammatory cytokines and Dupuytren's disease is not known. We hypothesized that advanced fibroproliferation is associated with increased levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines. Read More

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Elevated GFAP isoform expression promotes protein aggregation and compromises astrocyte function.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21614

Institute of Molecular Medicine, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

Alexander disease (AxD) caused by mutations in the coding region of GFAP is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by astrocyte dysfunction, GFAP aggregation, and Rosenthal fiber accumulation. Although how GFAP mutations cause disease is not fully understood, Rosenthal fibers could be induced by forced overexpression of human GFAP and this could be lethal in mice implicate that an increase in GFAP levels is central to AxD pathogenesis. Our recent studies demonstrated that intronic GFAP mutations cause disease by altering GFAP splicing, suggesting that an increase in GFAP isoform expression could lead to protein aggregation and astrocyte dysfunction that typify AxD. Read More

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The Cytoskeleton and Connected Elements in Bone Cell Mechano-Transduction.

Bone 2021 Apr 20:115971. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Orthopaedics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.. Electronic address:

Bone is a mechano-responsive tissue that adapts to changes in its mechanical environment. Increases in strain lead to increased bone mass acquisition, whereas decreases in strain lead to a loss of bone mass. Given that mechanical stress is a regulator of bone mass and quality, it is important to understand how bone cells sense and transduce these mechanical cues into biological changes to identify druggable targets that can be exploited to restore bone cell mechano-sensitivity or to mimic mechanical load. Read More

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Deficiency in nebulin repeats of sarcomeric nebulette is detrimental for cardiomyocyte tolerance to exercise and biomechanical stress.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 May 16;320(5):H2130-H2146. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

The Heart Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.

The actin-binding sarcomeric nebulette (NEBL) protein provides efficient contractile flexibility via interaction with desmin intermediate filaments. gene mutations affecting the nebulin repeat (NR) domain are known to induce cardiomyopathy. The study aimed to explore the roles of NEBL in exercise and biomechanical stress response. Read More

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BBLN-1 is essential for intermediate filament organization and apical membrane morphology.

Curr Biol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Developmental Biology, Institute of Biodynamics and Biocomplexity, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Epithelial tubes are essential components of metazoan organ systems that control the flow of fluids and the exchange of materials between body compartments and the outside environment. The size and shape of the central lumen confer important characteristics to tubular organs and need to be carefully controlled. Here, we identify the small coiled-coil protein BBLN-1 as a regulator of lumen morphology in the C. Read More

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Resolving the non-papilionaceous flower of Camoensia scandens, a papilionoid legume of the core genistoid clade: development, glands and insights into the pollination and systematics of the group.

J Plant Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Instituto de Pesquisa Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, DIPEQ, Rua Pacheco Leão, 915 Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22460-030, Brazil.

Camoensia scandens is a papilionoid legume inserted in the core genistoid clade. It has large, crepuscular, scented flowers but the corolla is non-papilionaceous, which deviates from the pattern found in the subfamily. The vexillum has a folded claw, forming a tube, which is opposed to the androecium opening; all petals have yellow-gold crinkled margins. Read More

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A novel universal algorithm for filament network tracing and cytoskeleton analysis.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21582

Department of Physics, Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.

The rapid development of advanced microscopy techniques over recent decades has significantly increased the quality of imaging and our understanding of subcellular structures, such as the organization of the filaments of the cytoskeleton using fluorescence and electron microscopy. However, these recent improvements in imaging techniques have not been matched by similar development of techniques for computational analysis of the images of filament networks that can now be obtained. Hence, for a wide range of applications, reliable computational analysis of such two-dimensional methods remains challenging. Read More

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New roles for desmin in the maintenance of muscle homeostasis.

FEBS J 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Faculty of Biology, Technion Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Desmin is the primary intermediate filament (IF) of cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle. By linking the contractile myofibrils to the sarcolemma and cellular organelles, desmin IF contributes to muscle structural and cellular integrity, force transmission, and mitochondrial homeostasis. Mutations in desmin cause myofibril misalignment, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired mechanical integrity leading to cardiac and skeletal myopathies in humans, often characterized by the accumulation of protein aggregates. Read More

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Progesterone alters human cervical epithelial and stromal cell transition and migration: Implications in cervical remodeling during pregnancy and parturition.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2021 Jun 3;529:111276. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine and Perinatal Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

The cervix undergoes extensive remodeling throughout pregnancy and parturition. This process involves both ECM collagen degradation and cellular remodeling, which includes cell proliferation, transition and migration. Progesterone (P4) has been used clinically to delay cervical ripening and prevent preterm birth (PTB). Read More

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Selective association of desmin intermediate filaments with a phospholipid layer in droplets.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 1;555:109-114. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Bio-Systems Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jyonan, Yonezawa, 992-8510, Japan. Electronic address:

Desmin, an intermediate filament protein expressed in muscle cells, plays a key role in the integrity and regulation of the contractile system. Furthermore, the distribution of desmin in cells and its interplay with plasma and organelle membranes are crucial for cell functions; however, the fundamental properties of lipid-desmin interactions remain unknown. Using a water-in-oil method for a limited space system in vitro, we examined the distribution of desmin in three types of phospholipid droplets: 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE), and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (DOPS). Read More

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Plasma neurofilament light chain levels predict improvement in late phase after stroke.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Laboratory of Regenerative Neuroimmunology, Center for Brain Repair, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background And Purpose: Although functional recovery is most pronounced in the first 6 months after stroke, improvement is possible also in the late phase. The value of plasma neurofilament light chain (NfL), a biomarker of axonal injury and secondary neurodegeneration, was explored for the prediction of functional improvement in the late phase after stroke.

Methods: Baseline plasma NfL levels were measured in 115 participants of a trial on the efficacy of multimodal rehabilitation in the late phase after stroke. Read More

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Mechanical Nociceptive Threshold, Tissue Alterations and Horn Growth in Calves after Injection of Isoeugenol or Clove Oil under the Horn Bud.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 15;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Institute of Animal Welfare Science, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria.

Disbudding of calves is a common, painful intervention. Due to cytotoxic and anesthetic properties, the injection of clove oil or its component isoeugenol may be less detrimental to animal welfare. We investigated mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT), possible tissue alterations and horn growth for up to 12 weeks after injection of 1. Read More

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Acrylamide inhibits vaccinia virus through vimentin-independent anti-viral granule formation.

Cell Microbiol 2021 Mar 31:e13334. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London, UK.

The replication and assembly of vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypic poxvirus, occurs exclusively in the cytoplasm of host cells. While the role of cellular cytoskeletal components in these processes remains poorly understood, vimentin-a type III intermediate filament-has been shown to associate with viral replication sites and to be incorporated into mature VACV virions. Here, we employed chemical and genetic approaches to further investigate the role of vimentin during the VACV lifecycle. Read More

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The trilobite upper limb branch is a well-developed gill.

Sci Adv 2021 Mar 31;7(14). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Paleontology (Invertebrates), American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024, USA.

Whether the upper limb branch of Paleozoic "biramous" arthropods, including trilobites, served a respiratory function has been much debated. Here, new imaging of the trilobite shows that dumbbell-shaped filaments in the upper limb branch are morphologically comparable with gill structures in crustaceans that aerate the hemolymph. In , the upper limb's partial articulation to the body via an extended arthrodial membrane is morphologically comparable to the junction of the respiratory book gill of and differentiates it from the typically robust exopod junction in Chelicerata or Crustacea. Read More

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Discovery, characterization and functional improvement of kumamonamide as a novel plant growth inhibitor that disturbs plant microtubules.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 23;11(1):6077. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kurokami 2-39-1, Kumamoto, 860-8555, Japan.

The discovery and useful application of natural products can help improve human life. Chemicals that inhibit plant growth are broadly utilized as herbicides to control weeds. As various types of herbicides are required, the identification of compounds with novel modes of action is desirable. Read More

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Neurofilament light chain as a potential biomarker for monitoring neurodegeneration in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

Nat Commun 2021 03 22;12(1):1816. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Pathobiology of the Nervous System, Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), the most frequent monogenetic disorder of brain white matter, is highly variable, ranging from slowly progressive adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) to life-threatening inflammatory brain demyelination (CALD). In this study involving 94 X-ALD patients and 55 controls, we tested whether plasma/serum neurofilament light chain protein (NfL) constitutes an early distinguishing biomarker. In AMN, we found moderately elevated NfL with increased levels reflecting higher grading of myelopathy-related disability. Read More

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The structure of the native cardiac thin filament at systolic Ca levels.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(13)

Department of Physiological Sciences, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA 23507;

Every heartbeat relies on cyclical interactions between myosin thick and actin thin filaments orchestrated by rising and falling Ca levels. Thin filaments are comprised of two actin strands, each harboring equally separated troponin complexes, which bind Ca to move tropomyosin cables away from the myosin binding sites and, thus, activate systolic contraction. Recently, structures of thin filaments obtained at low (pCa ∼9) or high (pCa ∼3) Ca levels revealed the transition between the Ca-free and Ca-bound states. Read More

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