Cytokine 2021 08 26;144:155593. Epub 2021 May 26.
Deakin University, IMPACT - the Institute for Mental and Physical Health and Clinical Translation, School of Medicine, Barwon Health, Geelong, Australia; Department of Psychiatry, King Chulalongkorn University Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Electronic address:
An analysis of published data appertaining to the cytokine storms of COVID-19, H1N1 influenza, cytokine release syndrome (CRS), and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) reveals many common immunological and biochemical abnormalities. These include evidence of a hyperactive coagulation system with elevated D-dimer and ferritin levels, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) and microthrombi coupled with an activated and highly permeable vascular endothelium. Common immune abnormalities include progressive hypercytokinemia with elevated levels of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β, proinflammatory chemokines, activated macrophages and increased levels of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB). Read More