18,275 results match your criteria interference rnai

Synergistic action of the gut microbiota in environmental RNA interference in a leaf beetle.

Microbiome 2021 May 4;9(1):98. Epub 2021 May 4.

State Key Laboratory of Biocatalysis and Enzyme Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Hubei University, Wuhan, 430062, China.

Background: RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as an efficient tool to control insect pests. When insects ingest double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeted against essential genes, strong gene silencing and mortality can be induced. To exert their function, dsRNA molecules must pass through the insect's gut and enter epithelial cells and/or the hemolymph. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Roles of Cullins E3 Ubiquitin Ligases in the Lipid Biosynthesis of the Green Microalgae .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 29;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Guangdong Technology Research Center for Marine Algal Bioengineering, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Plant Epigenetics, Shenzhen Engineering Laboratory for Marine Algal Biotechnology, Longhua Innovation Institute for Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Oceanography, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.

Microalgae-based biodiesel production has many advantages over crude oil extraction and refinement, thus attracting more and more concern. Protein ubiquitination is a crucial mechanism in eukaryotes to regulate physiological responses and cell development, which is highly related to algal biodiesel production. Cullins as the molecular base of cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs), which are the largest known class of ubiquitin ligases, control the life activities of eukaryotic cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

RNAi-Mediated Silencing of the Chitinase 5 Gene for Fall Webworm () Can Inhibit Larval Molting Depending on the Timing of dsRNA Injection.

Insects 2021 Apr 30;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Key Laboratory of Forest Protection of National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China.

Chitinases, which are crucial enzymes required for chitin degradation and reconstruction, are often selectively considered to be effective molecular targets for pest control due to their critical roles in insect development. Although the chitinase gene has been reported previously, its sequence characteristics, gene function, and feasibility as a potential target for pest management were absent. In the present study, we characterized the chitinase gene and designated it . Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

siRNA Therapeutics for the Therapy of COVID-19 and Other Coronaviruses.

Mol Pharm 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Center for Targeted Drug Delivery, Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chapman University School of Pharmacy, Harry and Diane Rinker Health Science Campus, Irvine, California 92618, United States.

The ongoing pandemic of global concern has killed about three million humans and affected around 151 million people worldwide, as of April 30, 2021. Although recently approved vaccines for COVID-19 are engendering hope, finding new ways to cure the viral pandemic is still a quest for researchers worldwide. Major pandemics in history have been of viral origin, such as SARS, MERS, H1NI, Spanish flu, and so on. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Novel and emerging biotechnological crop protection approaches.

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Research Centre for Viticulture and Enology, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, CREA-VE), Via XXVIII Aprile 26, 31015, Conegliano, TV, Italy.

Traditional breeding or Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) have for a long time been the sole approaches to effectively cope with biotic and abiotic stresses and implement the quality traits of crops. However, emerging diseases as well as unpredictable climate changes affecting agriculture over the entire globe forces scientists to find alternative solutions required to quickly overcome seasonal crises. In this review, we first focus on cisgenesis and genome editing as challenging biotechnological approaches for breeding crops more tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

DNA-inspired nanomaterials for enhanced endosomal escape.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 05;118(19)

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269

To realize RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics, it is necessary to deliver therapeutic RNAs (such as small interfering RNA or siRNA) into cell cytoplasm. A major challenge of RNAi therapeutics is the endosomal entrapment of the delivered siRNA. In this study, we developed a family of delivery vehicles called Janus base nanopieces (NPs). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF


Drug Metab Dispos 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Alnylam Pharmaceuticals Inc., United States

Givosiran is a N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-conjugated RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutic that targets 5'-aminolevulinate synthase 1 () messenger RNA (mRNA) in the liver and is currently marketed for the treatment of acute hepatic porphyria (AHP). Herein, nonclinical pharmacokinetic (PK) and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties of givosiran were characterized. Givosiran was completely absorbed after subcutaneous (SC) administration with relatively short plasma elimination t (less than 4 hours). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Using the GAL4-UAS System for Functional Genetics in Anopheles gambiae.

J Vis Exp 2021 Apr 15(170). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine;

The bipartite GAL4-UAS system is a versatile and powerful tool for functional genetic analysis. The essence of the system is to cross transgenic 'driver' lines that express the yeast transcription factor GAL4 in a tissue specific manner, with transgenic 'responder' lines carrying a candidate gene/RNA interference construct whose expression is controlled by Upstream Activation Sequences (UAS) that bind GAL4. In the ensuing progeny, the gene or silencing construct is thus expressed in a prescribed spatiotemporal manner, enabling the resultant phenotypes to be assayed and gene function inferred. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tyrosine-modified linear PEIs for highly efficacious and biocompatible siRNA delivery in vitro and in vivo.

Nanomedicine 2021 Apr 28:102403. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Rudolf-Boehm-Institute for Pharmacology and Toxicology, Clinical Pharmacology, Leipzig University, Faculty of Medicine, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

Therapeutic gene silencing by RNA interference relies on the safe and efficient in vivo delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Polyethylenimines are among the most studied cationic polymers for gene delivery. For several reasons including superior tolerability, small linear PEIs would be preferable over branched PEIs, but they show poor siRNA complexation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cell-Penetrating Peptides Delivering siRNAs: An Overview.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2282:329-352

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Arrhenius Laboratories for Natural Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Cell-Penetrating Peptides (CPP) are valuable tools capable of crossing the plasma membrane to deliver therapeutic cargo inside cells. Small interfering RNAs (siRNA) are double-stranded RNA molecules capable of silencing the expression of a specific protein triggering the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, but they are unable to cross the plasma membrane and have a short half-life in the bloodstream. In this overview, we assessed the many different approaches used and developed in the last two decades to deliver siRNA through the plasma membrane through different CPPs sorted according to three different loading strategies: covalent conjugation, complex formation, and CPP-decorated (functionalized) nanocomplexes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Engineering of Solid Dosage Forms of siRNA-Loaded Lipidoid-Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticles Using a Quality-by-Design Approach.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2282:137-157

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.

Therapy based on RNA interference (RNAi), which can be mediated by exogenous small interfering RNA (siRNA), has potential for the management of diseases at the genetic level by silencing gene function(s). In all eukaryotic cells, RNAi is an endogenous regulatory mechanism, where messenger RNA (mRNA) is degraded, preventing its translation into protein. A significant advantage of RNAi therapy is that siRNA is very potent and gene silencing is highly specific, ensuring few off-target effects. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

siRNA Design and GalNAc-Empowered Hepatic Targeted Delivery.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2282:77-100

School of Life Science, Advanced Research Institute of Multidisciplinary Science, and Institute of Engineering Medicine, Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Biotherapy, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China.

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a clinically approved therapeutic modality, which has attracted widespread attention not only from basic research but also from pharmaceutical industry. As siRNA can theoretically modulate any disease-related gene's expression, plenty of siRNA therapeutic pipelines have been established by tens of biotechnology companies. The drug performance of siRNA heavily depends on the sequence, the chemical modification, and the delivery of siRNA. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Selection of Chemical Modifications in the siRNA Seed Region That Repress Off-Target Effect.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2282:17-30

Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

RNA interference mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been widely used as a procedure to knock down the expression of an intended target gene with perfect sequence complementarity. However, siRNA often exhibits off-target effects on genes with partial sequence complementarities. Such off-target effect is an undesirable adverse effect for knocking down a target gene specifically. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

RNA Interference: Story and Mechanisms.

Mouldy Sioud

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2282:1-15

Department of Cancer Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital-Radiumhospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

The discovery that gene expression can be silenced by exogenously introduced double-stranded RNAs into cells unveiled a hidden level of gene regulation by a variety of small RNA pathways, which are involved in regulating endogenous gene expression, defending against virus infections, and protecting the genome from invading transposons, both at the posttranscriptional and epigenetic levels. All endogenous RNA interference pathways share a conserved effector complex, which contains at least an argonaute protein and a short single-stranded RNA. Such argonaute-RNA complexes can repress the transcription of genes, target mRNA for site-specific cleavage, or block mRNA translation into proteins. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Characterizing the Role of Orco Gene in Detecting Aggregation Pheromone and Food Resources in Leiws (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

Front Physiol 2021 13;12:649590. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Institute of Plant Protection, Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Integrated Pest Management Center of Hebei Province, Baoding, China.

An accurate olfactory system for recognizing semiochemicals and environmental chemical signals plays crucial roles in survival and reproduction of insects. Among all olfaction-related proteins, olfactory receptors (ORs) contribute to the conversion of chemical stimuli to electric signals and thereby are vital in odorant recognition. Olfactory receptor co-receptor (Orco), one of the most conserved ORs, is extremely essential in recognizing odorants through forming a ligand-gated ion channel complex with conventional ligand-binding odorant receptors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

4E Interacting Protein as a Potential Novel Drug Target for Nucleoside Analogues in .

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 13;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Parasitology and Hygiene (LMPH), University of Antwerp, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium.

Human African trypanosomiasis is a neglected parasitic disease for which the current treatment options are quite limited. Trypanosomes are not able to synthesize purines de novo and thus solely depend on purine salvage from the host environment. This characteristic makes players of the purine salvage pathway putative drug targets. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Genome-Wide Transcriptional Analysis and Functional Validation Linked a Cluster of Epsilon Glutathione S-Transferases with Insecticide Resistance in the Major Malaria Vector across Africa.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 13;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

LSTM Research Unit, Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID), Yaoundé P.O. Box 13591, Cameroon.

Resistance is threatening the effectiveness of insecticide-based interventions in use for malaria control. Pinpointing genes associated with resistance is crucial for evidence-based resistance management targeting the major malaria vectors. Here, a combination of RNA-seq based genome-wide transcriptional analysis and RNA-silencing in vivo functional validation were used to identify key insecticide resistance genes associated with DDT and DDT/permethrin cross-resistance across Africa. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

UDP-Glycosyltransferases from the UGT344 Family Are Involved in Sulfoxaflor Resistance in Glover.

Insects 2021 Apr 16;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are major phase II detoxification enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl residues from activated nucleotide sugars to acceptor hydrophobic molecules and play very important roles in the biotransformation of various endogenous and exogenous compounds. Our previous studies demonstrated that UGTs participated in the detoxification of insecticides in . However, the potential roles of UGTs in resistance to sulfoxaflor are still unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Plasmids Expressing shRNAs Specific to the Nucleocapsid Gene Inhibit the Replication of Porcine Deltacoronavirus In Vivo.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 23;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Science and Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, China.

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel enteric coronavirus and is becoming one of the major causative agents of diarrhea in pig herds in recent years. To date, there are no commercial vaccines or antiviral pharmaceutical agents available to control PDCoV infection. Therefore, developing a reliable strategy against PDCoV is urgently needed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Down-Regulation of in Tomato Confers Abiotic Stress Tolerance.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

College of Life Sciences, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, China.

Adverse environmental factors like salt stress, drought, and extreme temperatures, cause damage to plant growth, development, and crop yield. GRAS transcription factors (TFs) have numerous functions in biological processes. Some studies have reported that the GRAS protein family plays significant functions in plant growth and development under abiotic stresses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery Systems of RNAi in Cancer Therapy.

Molecules 2021 Apr 19;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Pharmacy and Bioengineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054, China.

RNA interference (RNAi) can mediate gene-silencing by knocking down the expression of a target gene via cellular machinery with much higher efficiency in contrast to other antisense-based approaches which represents an emerging therapeutic strategy for combating cancer. Distinct characters of nanoparticles, such as distinctive size, are fundamental for the efficient delivery of RNAi therapeutics, allowing for higher targeting and safety. In this review, we present the mechanism of RNAi and briefly describe the hurdles and concerns of RNAi as a cancer treatment approach in systemic delivery. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Core RNA Interference Genes Involved in miRNA and Ta-siRNA Biogenesis in Hops and Their Expression Analysis after Challenging with .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 19;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

RNA interference is an evolutionary conserved mechanism by which organisms regulate the expression of genes in a sequence-specific manner to modulate defense responses against various abiotic or biotic stresses. Hops are grown for their use in brewing and, in recent years, for the pharmaceutical industry. Hop production is threatened by many phytopathogens, of which , the causal agent of Verticillium wilt, is a major contributor to yield losses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Inhibition of Autophagy at Different Stages by ATG5 Knockdown and Chloroquine Supplementation Enhances Consistent Human Disc Cellular Apoptosis and Senescence Induction rather than Extracellular Matrix Catabolism.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 12;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017, Japan.

The intervertebral disc is the largest avascular organ. Autophagy is an important cell survival mechanism by self-digestion and recycling damaged components under stress, primarily nutrient deprivation. Resident cells would utilize autophagy to cope with the harsh disc environment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Induction of Plant Resistance in Tobacco against Tomato Spotted Wilt Orthotospovirus through Foliar Application of dsRNA.

Viruses 2021 04 12;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99163, USA.

Thrips-transmitted tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (TSWV) continues to be a constraint to peanut, pepper, tobacco, and tomato production in Georgia and elsewhere. TSWV is being managed by an integrated disease management strategy that includes a combination of cultural practices, vector management, and growing virus-resistant varieties where available. We used a non-transgenic strategy to induce RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated resistance in tobacco () plants against TSWV. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

CRISPR-Induced Expression of N-Terminally Truncated Dicer in Mouse Cells.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 8;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institute of Molecular Genetics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague 4, Czech Republic.

RNA interference (RNAi) designates sequence-specific mRNA degradation mediated by small RNAs generated from long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by RNase III Dicer. RNAi appears inactive in mammalian cells except for mouse oocytes, where high RNAi activity exists because of an N-terminally truncated Dicer isoform, denoted Dicer. Dicer processes dsRNA into small RNAs more efficiently than the full-length Dicer expressed in somatic cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Anti-Classical Swine Fever Virus Strategies.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 6;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by CSF virus (CSFV), is a highly contagious swine disease with high morbidity and mortality, which has caused significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Biosecurity measures and vaccination are the main methods for prevention and control of CSF since no specific drug is available for the effective treatment of CSF. Although a series of biosecurity and vaccination strategies have been developed to curb the outbreak events, it is still difficult to eliminate CSF in CSF-endemic and re-emerging areas. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Molecular Analysis of in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 4;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 4.

WVU Cancer Institute, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA.

Our previous study found that zinc finger protein 71 (ZNF71) mRNA expression was associated with chemosensitivity and its protein expression was prognostic of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The Krüppel associated box (KRAB) transcriptional repression domain is commonly present in human zinc finger proteins, which are linked to imprinting, silencing of repetitive elements, proliferation, apoptosis, and cancer. This study revealed that had a significantly higher expression than the -less isoform in NSCLC tumors ( = 197) and cell lines ( = 117). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Oligonucleotides as therapeutic tools for brain disorders: Focus on major depressive disorder and Parkinson's disease.

Pharmacol Ther 2021 Apr 27;227:107873. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques de Barcelona (IIBB), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), 08036 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Investigacions August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), 08036 Barcelona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), ISCIII, Madrid, Spain.

Remarkable advances in understanding the role of RNA in health and disease have expanded considerably in the last decade. RNA is becoming an increasingly important target for therapeutic intervention; therefore, it is critical to develop strategies for therapeutic modulation of RNA function. Oligonucleotides, including antisense oligonucleotide (ASO), small interfering RNA (siRNA), microRNA mimic (miRNA), and anti-microRNA (antagomir) are perhaps the most direct therapeutic strategies for addressing RNA. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mechanism of metabolic resistance to pymetrozine in Nilaparvata lugens: Over-expression of cytochrome P450 CYP6CS1.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 / State & Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Green Pesticide Invention and Application, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Pymetrozine is commonly used for the control of Nilaparvata lugens, and its resistance had been frequently reported in the field populations in recent years. However, the resistance mechanism of brown planthopper to pymetrozine is still unknown.

Results: In this study, a pymetrozine-resistant strain (PMR) was established, and the potential biochemical resistance mechanism of N. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hepatic Lactate Dehydrogenase A: An RNA Interference Target for the Treatment of All Known Types of Primary Hyperoxaluria.

Kidney Int Rep 2021 Apr 3;6(4):1088-1098. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Introduction: Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) is a family of 3 rare genetic disorders of hepatic glyoxylate metabolism that lead to overproduction and increased renal excretion of oxalate resulting in progressive renal damage. inhibition of glyoxylate-to-oxalate conversion by RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a potential therapeutic option for all types of PH. is mainly expressed in the liver and muscles. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF