107 results match your criteria interactions reinforcers


Social interaction targets enhance 13-month-old infants' associative learning.

Infancy 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Comparative Cultural Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

Infants are attentive to third-party interactions, but the underlying mechanisms of this preference remain understudied. This study examined whether 13-month-old infants (N = 32) selectively learn cue-target associations guiding them to videos depicting a social interaction scene. In a visual learning task, two geometrical shapes were repeatedly paired with two kinds of target videos: two adults interacting with one another (social interaction) or the same adults acting individually (non-interactive control). Read More

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February 2021

Do common elements predict class merger: A test of Sidman's theory of equivalence.

J Exp Anal Behav 2021 Jan 15;115(1):272-283. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Behavior Analysis, University of North Texas.

The study presented here investigated the effect of common and uncommon elements on class merger as predicted by Sidman in his reconceptualization of stimulus equivalence suggesting that common elements among contingencies can facilitate emergent performances (1994, 1997, 2000). Eight adult participants were exposed to a procedure that arranged for stimulus-reinforcer correlations in Phase 1 and response-reinforcer correlations in Phase 2 of a 3-phase study. In the common element group, the visual images serving as reinforcers were the same in Phase 1 and Phase 2. Read More

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January 2021

Baseline-dependency: How genotype and signaled delays influence amphetamine's effects on delay discounting.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2020 12 2;199:173070. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Psychology, 226 Thach Hall, Auburn University, AL 36849, United States of America. Electronic address:

Rationale: Delay discounting, in which an animal chooses between a small, immediate or large, delayed reinforcer, is an experimental model of impulsivity. In previous studies, d-amphetamine has both increased and decreased preference for larger-delayed reinforcers depending on experimental conditions.

Objective: Identify genotype X environment interactions responsible for these disparate findings in a single study and assess the hypothesis that baseline-dependence unifies d-amphetamine's effects. Read More

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December 2020

The Basolateral Amygdala to Nucleus Accumbens Core Circuit Mediates the Conditioned Reinforcing Effects of Cocaine-Paired Cues on Cocaine Seeking.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 Feb 5;89(4):356-365. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Individuals addicted to cocaine spend much of their time foraging for the drug. Pavlovian drug-associated conditioned stimuli exert a major influence on the initiation and maintenance of drug seeking often long into abstinence, especially when presented response-contingently, acting as conditioned reinforcers that bridge delays to drug use. The acquisition of cue-controlled cocaine seeking has been shown to depend on functional interactions between the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC). Read More

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February 2021

Assessing preference for types of social interaction.

J Appl Behav Anal 2019 10 3;52(4):1064-1075. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

University of Florida.

To date, few researchers have evaluated methods for assessing preference for social interactions. Due to concerns that commonly used stimulus preference assessment methods may be inappropriate, or at least cumbersome, for the assessment of social reinforcers, we developed and evaluated a new method of assessing preference for social interactions. A social interaction preference assessment (SIPA) and a concurrent operant reinforcer assessment were conducted with five participants diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Read More

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October 2019

Interactions between the effects of food and water motivating operations on food- and water-reinforced responding in mice.

J Exp Anal Behav 2019 05 30;111(3):493-507. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

University of Nevada, Reno.

Two experiments examined interactions between the effects of food and water motivating operations (MOs) on the food- and water-reinforced operant behavior of mice. In Experiment 1, mice responded for sucrose pellets and then water reinforcement under four different MOs: food deprivation, water deprivation, concurrent food and water deprivation, and no deprivation. The most responding for pellets occurred under food deprivation and the most responding for water occurred under water deprivation. Read More

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An integrated bayesian theory of phenotypic flexibility.

Behav Processes 2019 Apr 8;161:54-64. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California-Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA. Electronic address:

Phenotypic flexibility includes systems such as individual learning, social learning, and the adaptive immune system. Since the evolution of genes by natural selection is a relatively slow process, mechanisms of phenotypic flexibility are evolved to adapt to contingencies on the time scales ranging from a few hundred milliseconds (e.g. Read More

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Dopamine depletion shifts behavior from activity based reinforcers to more sedentary ones and adenosine receptor antagonism reverses that shift: Relation to ventral striatum DARPP32 phosphorylation patterns.

Neuropharmacology 2018 08 27;138:349-359. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Àrea de Psicobiologia, Campus de Riu Sec, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castelló, Spain; Behavioral Neuroscience Div., University of Connecticut, Storrs, 06269-1020 CT, USA. Electronic address:

The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays a critical role in behavioral activation and effort-based decision-making. DA depletion produces anergia (shifts to low effort options) in animals tested on effort-based decision-making tasks. Caffeine, the most consumed stimulant in the world, acts as an adenosine A/A receptor antagonist, and in striatal areas DA D and D receptors are co-localized with adenosine A and A receptors respectively. Read More

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Molecular role of dopamine in anhedonia linked to reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) and anti- reward systems.

Front Biosci (Schol Ed) 2018 03 1;10:309-325. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Department of Psychiatry, Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine and Dayton VA Medical Center, Dayton, OH (IE).

Anhedonia is a condition that leads to the loss of feelings pleasure in response to natural reinforcers like food, sex, exercise, and social activities. This disorder occurs in addiction, and an array of related neuropsychiatric syndromes, including schizophrenia, depression, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Anhedonia may by due to derangements in mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways and their terminal fields (e. Read More

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An Investigation of a Video-Based Preference Assessment of Social Interactions.

Behav Modif 2018 09 14;42(5):729-746. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

1 University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA.

We examined the use of a paired-stimulus, video-based preference assessment (VPA) to identify high- and low-preference social interactions for three children with autism spectrum disorder. We conducted two VPAs with each participant: one with access to the interaction contingent on each selection and one without access. We also conducted a concurrent-operant reinforcer assessment to evaluate the accuracy of the VPAs in identifying reinforcers. Read More

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September 2018

A novel operant task to assess social reward and motivation in rodents.

J Neurosci Methods 2017 Aug 3;287:80-88. Epub 2017 Jun 3.

Neuroscience Institute, Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Social reward plays a critical role in the development of beneficial social relationships, and disorders of the mechanisms controlling social reward are involved in the etiology of many psychiatric diseases.

New Method: We present a novel operant social preference task to quantify social reward in rodents using an apparatus with three chambers separated by one-way vertical-swing doors. The experimental animal is placed in the larger chamber while the two smaller chambers either remain empty or contain a stimulus animal or other potential reward stimulus. Read More

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Cocaine Potency at the Dopamine Transporter Tracks Discrete Motivational States During Cocaine Self-Administration.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2017 Aug 31;42(9):1893-1904. Epub 2017 Jan 31.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Although the dopamine transporter (DAT) is the primary site of action for cocaine, and the dopamine system is known to mediate the reinforcing effects of cocaine, the dopaminergic variations underlying individual differences in cocaine self-administration behaviors are not fully understood. Recent advances in the application of economic principles to operant tasks in rodents have allowed for the within-subject, within-session determination of both consummatory and appetitive responding for reinforcers. Here we combined a behavioral economics approach with cocaine self-administration and ex vivo voltammetric recording of dopamine signaling in the core of the nucleus accumbens of rats to determine the relationship between dopamine signaling and discrete aspects of cocaine taking and seeking. Read More

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Engineering Online and In-Person Social Networks for Physical Activity: A Randomized Trial.

Ann Behav Med 2016 12;50(6):885-897

Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA.

Background: Social networks can influence physical activity, but little is known about how best to engineer online and in-person social networks to increase activity.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized trial based on the Social Networks for Activity Promotion model to assess the incremental contributions of different procedures for building social networks on objectively measured outcomes.

Methods: Physically inactive adults (n = 308, age, 50. Read More

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December 2016

Amphetamine alters neural response to sucrose in healthy women.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2016 Jun 4;252:19-25. Epub 2016 May 4.

Eating Disorders Research and Treatment Program, UCSD Department of Psychiatry, 4510 Executive Dr., Suite 315, San Diego, CA 92121-3021, USA. Electronic address:

Amphetamine, likely via action on the brain's dopaminergic systems, induces anorectic eating behavior and blunts dopaminergic midbrain activation to rewards. Past work has hypothesized that this blunted reward responsivity is a result of increasing tonic over phasic DA activity. We sought to extend past findings to sweet taste during fMRI following single-blind administration of dextroamphetamine and placebo in 11 healthy women. Read More

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Reward: From Basic Reinforcers to Anticipation of Social Cues.

Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2017;30:207-221

Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074, Aachen, Germany.

Reward processing plays a major role in goal-directed behavior and motivation. On the neural level, it is mediated by a complex network of brain structures called the dopaminergic reward system. In the last decade, neuroscientific researchers have become increasingly interested in aspects of social interaction that are experienced as rewarding. Read More

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Responding for a conditioned reinforcer or unconditioned sensory reinforcer in mice: interactions with environmental enrichment, social isolation, and monoamine reuptake inhibitors.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2016 Mar 22;233(6):983-93. Epub 2015 Dec 22.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Rationale: Environmental factors influence the etiology of many psychiatric disorders. Likewise, environmental factors can alter processes central to motivation. Therefore, motivational deficits present in many disorders may be influenced by early life environmental conditions. Read More

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Functional neural correlates of social approval in schizophrenia.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2016 Mar 29;11(3):445-57. Epub 2015 Oct 29.

Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montréal, QC, Canada H4H 1R3

Social approval is a reward that uses abstract social reinforcers to guide interpersonal interactions. Few studies have specifically explored social reward processing and its related neural substrates in schizophrenia. Fifteen patients with schizophrenia and fifteen healthy controls participated in a two-part study to explore the functional neural correlates of social approval. Read More

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Real-Time Motion Capture Toolbox (RTMocap): an open-source code for recording 3-D motion kinematics to study action-effect anticipations during motor and social interactions.

Behav Res Methods 2016 Mar;48(1):366-80

SCALab, UMR CNRS 9193, 59653, VVilleneuve d'ascq Cedex, France.

We present here a toolbox for the real-time motion capture of biological movements that runs in the cross-platform MATLAB environment (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA). It provides instantaneous processing of the 3-D movement coordinates of up to 20 markers at a single instant. Read More

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Prior methylphenidate self-administration alters the subsequent reinforcing effects of methamphetamine in rats.

Behav Pharmacol 2014 Dec;25(8):758-65

aDepartment of Pharmacology and Toxicology bSchool of Dentistry cInterdepartmental Program in Neuroscience, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Methylphenidate (MPD) is clinically effective in treating the symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; however, its relatively widespread availability has raised public health concerns on nonmedical use of MPD among certain adult populations. Most preclinical studies investigate whether presumed therapeutically relevant doses of MPD alter sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of other drugs, but it remains unclear whether doses of MPD likely exceeding therapeutic relevance impact the subsequent reinforcing effects of drugs. To begin to address this question, the effect of prior MPD self-administration (0. Read More

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December 2014

Functional neuroanatomy of Drosophila olfactory memory formation.

Learn Mem 2014 Oct 15;21(10):519-26. Epub 2014 Sep 15.

Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute Florida, Jupiter, Florida 33458, USA

New approaches, techniques and tools invented over the last decade and a half have revolutionized the functional dissection of neural circuitry underlying Drosophila learning. The new methodologies have been used aggressively by researchers attempting to answer three critical questions about olfactory memories formed with appetitive and aversive reinforcers: (1) Which neurons within the olfactory nervous system mediate the acquisition of memory? (2) What is the complete neural circuitry extending from the site(s) of acquisition to the site(s) controlling memory expression? (3) How is information processed across this circuit to consolidate early-forming, disruptable memories to stable, late memories? Much progress has been made and a few strong conclusions have emerged: (1) Acquisition occurs at multiple sites within the olfactory nervous system but is mediated predominantly by the γ mushroom body neurons. (2) The expression of long-term memory is completely dependent on the synaptic output of α/β mushroom body neurons. Read More

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October 2014

An assessment of fixed interval timing in free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica): an analysis of individual performance.

PLoS One 2014 1;9(7):e101262. Epub 2014 Jul 1.

Department of Psychology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, United States of America.

Interval timing is a key element of foraging theory, models of predator avoidance, and competitive interactions. Although interval timing is well documented in vertebrate species, it is virtually unstudied in invertebrates. In the present experiment, we used free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) as a model for timing behaviors. Read More

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November 2015

Rewarding, reinforcing and incentive salient events involve orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptides regulating mesolimbic dopaminergic neurotransmission.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2014 Jun 25;57:2-10. Epub 2014 Jan 25.

Center for Neurosciences C4N, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department FASC, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

The hypothalamus is an integrated energy sensing system interfacing with higher motivational structures of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system. This interconnectivity is strictly regulated by a number of orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptides, including especially ghrelin, orexins and neuropeptide Y (NPY), enabling the latter to modulate salient events of natural and chemical reinforcers. In this review we aim to analyse the current knowledge on these three orexigenic neuropeptide systems that are involved in the DAergic regulation of psychostimulant behaviours. Read More

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A review of reward processing and motivational impairment in schizophrenia.

Schizophr Bull 2014 Mar 27;40 Suppl 2:S107-16. Epub 2013 Dec 27.

*To whom correspondence should be addressed; Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Binghamton, PO Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 13902; tel: 607-777-5408, fax: 607-777-4890, e-mail:

This article reviews and synthesizes research on reward processing in schizophrenia, which has begun to provide important insights into the cognitive and neural mechanisms associated with motivational impairments. Aberrant cortical-striatal interactions may be involved with multiple reward processing abnormalities, including: (1) dopamine-mediated basal ganglia systems that support reinforcement learning and the ability to predict cues that lead to rewarding outcomes; (2) orbitofrontal cortex-driven deficits in generating, updating, and maintaining value representations; (3) aberrant effort-value computations, which may be mediated by disrupted anterior cingulate cortex and midbrain dopamine functioning; and (4) altered activation of the prefrontal cortex, which is important for generating exploratory behaviors in environments where reward outcomes are uncertain. It will be important for psychosocial interventions targeting negative symptoms to account for abnormalities in each of these reward processes, which may also have important interactions; suggestions for novel behavioral intervention strategies that make use of external cues, reinforcers, and mobile technology are discussed. Read More

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Effects of amphetamine and methylphenidate on delay discounting in rats: interactions with order of delay presentation.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2014 Jan 21;231(1):85-95. Epub 2013 Aug 21.

Departments of Pharmacology (TT, DRM, CH, CPF) and Psychiatry (CPF), University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Rationale: Drug effects on delay discounting are thought to reflect changes in sensitivity to reinforcer delay, although other behavioral mechanisms might be involved. One strategy for revealing the influence of different behavioral mechanisms is to alter features of the procedures in which they are studied.

Objective: This experiment examined whether the order of delay presentation under within-session delay discounting procedures impacts drug effects on discounting. Read More

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January 2014

A review of human drug self-administration procedures.

Behav Pharmacol 2013 Sep;24(5-6):384-95

Department of Psychiatry, Division on Substance Abuse, New York Psychiatric Institute, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Drug self-administration procedures in laboratory settings allow us to closely model drug-taking behavior in real-world settings. This review provides an overview of many of the common self-administration methods used in human laboratory research. Typically, self-administration studies provide a quantifiable measure of the reinforcing effect of a drug, which is believed to be predictive of its potential for abuse. Read More

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September 2013

A quantitative analysis of the effects of qualitatively different reinforcers on fixed ratio responding in inbred strains of mice.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2013 Mar 26;101:85-93. Epub 2013 Jan 26.

Department of Psychology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5212, USA.

Previous studies of inbred mouse strains have shown reinforcer-strain interactions that may potentially mask differences among strains in memory performance. The present research examined the effects of two qualitatively different reinforcers (heterogeneous mix of flavored pellets and sweetened-condensed milk) on responding maintained by fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement in three inbred strains of mice (BALB/c, C57BL/6, and DBA/2). Responses rates for all strains were a bitonic (inverted U) function of the size of the fixed-ratio schedule and were generally higher when responding was maintained by milk. Read More

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Learning from social rewards predicts individual differences in self-reported social ability.

Authors:
Erin A Heerey

J Exp Psychol Gen 2014 Feb 21;143(1):332-9. Epub 2013 Jan 21.

Bangor University.

The ability to adapt face-to-face social behavior in response to an interaction's changing contingencies is an important aspect of social skill. Individual differences in social ability may depend on how well people learn from social rewards and punishments. Here we relate people's social aptitude to their ability to learn from differences in the reward values of two common social reinforcers, genuine and polite smiles. Read More

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February 2014

Salience network-midbrain dysconnectivity and blunted reward signals in schizophrenia.

Psychiatry Res 2013 Feb 10;211(2):104-11. Epub 2012 Nov 10.

Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK.

Theories of schizophrenia propose that abnormal functioning of the neural reward system is linked to negative and psychotic symptoms, by disruption of reward processing and promotion of context-independent false associations. Recently, it has been argued that an insula-anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) salience network system enables switching of brain states from the default mode to a task-related activity mode. Abnormal interaction between the insula-ACC system and reward processing regions may help explain abnormal reinforcer processing and symptoms. Read More

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February 2013

Social robots as embedded reinforcers of social behavior in children with autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2013 May;43(5):1038-49

Department of Computer Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

In this study we examined the social behaviors of 4- to 12-year-old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; N = 24) during three tradic interactions with an adult confederate and an interaction partner, where the interaction partner varied randomly among (1) another adult human, (2) a touchscreen computer game, and (3) a social dinosaur robot. Children spoke more in general, and directed more speech to the adult confederate, when the interaction partner was a robot, as compared to a human or computer game interaction partner. Children spoke as much to the robot as to the adult interaction partner. Read More

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Functional analysis of inappropriate social interactions in students with Asperger's syndrome.

J Appl Behav Anal 2012 ;45(3):585-91

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

We analyzed the inappropriate social interactions of 3 students with Asperger's syndrome whose behavior was maintained by social positive reinforcement. We tested whether inappropriate social behavior was sensitive to social positive reinforcement contingencies and whether such contingencies could be reversed to increase the probability of socially appropriate responding. Our results show that social positive reinforcers can be identified for inappropriate social interactions and that appropriate social behaviors can be sensitive to reinforcement contingency reversals. Read More

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