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Atomic-scale insights into quantum-order parameters in bismuth-doped iron garnet.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(20)

National Center for Electron Microscopy in Beijing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing, People's Republic of China;

Bismuth and rare earth elements have been identified as effective substituent elements in the iron garnet structure, allowing an enhancement in magneto-optical response by several orders of magnitude in the visible and near-infrared region. Various mechanisms have been proposed to account for such enhancement, but testing of these ideas is hampered by a lack of suitable experimental data, where information is required not only regarding the lattice sites where substituent atoms are located but also how these atoms affect various order parameters. Here, we show for a Bi-substituted lutetium iron garnet how a suite of advanced electron microscopy techniques, combined with theoretical calculations, can be used to determine the interactions between a range of quantum-order parameters, including lattice, charge, spin, orbital, and crystal field splitting energy. Read More

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Prosocial and Aggressive Behavior: A Longitudinal Study.

Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 2021 Jun;86(2):7-103

School of Psychology, Cardiff University.

Developmental theorists have made strong claims about the fundamental prosocial or aggressive nature of the human infant. However, only rarely have prosocial behavior and aggression been studied together in the same sample. We charted the parallel development of both behaviors from infancy to childhood in a British community sample, using a two-construct, multimethod longitudinal design. Read More

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Identifying contextual determinants of problems in tuberculosis care provision in South Africa: a theory-generating case study.

Infect Dis Poverty 2021 May 10;10(1):67. Epub 2021 May 10.

King's Global Health Institute, King's College London, London, SE1 9NH, UK.

Background: Despite progress towards End TB Strategy targets for reducing tuberculosis (TB) incidence and deaths by 2035, South Africa remains among the top ten high-burden tuberculosis countries globally. A large challenge lies in how policies to improve detection, diagnosis and treatment completion interact with social and structural drivers of TB. Detailed understanding and theoretical development of the contextual determinants of problems in TB care is required for developing effective interventions. Read More

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It takes a village: microbiota, parainflammation, paligenosis and bystander effects in colorectal cancer initiation.

Dis Model Mech 2021 May 10;14(5). Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.

Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of worldwide cancer mortality. It arises from a complex milieu of host and environmental factors, including genetic and epigenetic changes in colon epithelial cells that undergo mutation, selection, clonal expansion, and transformation. The gut microbiota has recently gained increasing recognition as an additional important factor contributing to CRC. Read More

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On-chip perivascular supporting stemness of patient-derived glioma cells in a serum-free, flowable culture.

Lab Chip 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, UK. and The Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, UK.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and the most aggressive type of primary brain malignancy. Glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) can migrate in vascular niches within or away from the tumour mass, increasing tumour resistance to treatments and contributing to relapses. To study individual GSC migration and their interactions with the perivasculature of the tumour microenvironment, there is a need to develop a human organotypic in vitro model. Read More

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Strategic conceptualization and potential of self-healing polymers in biomedical field.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jun 16;125:112099. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S NMIMS, V. L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India. Electronic address:

Smart polymeric materials and hydrogels derived from acrylate, epoxy resins, etc. mimic the healing ability of natural organisms and biological cells by showing shape memory and tissue regenerative properties wherein, the healing ability in some of the materials is triggered by external stimuli like temperature, pH and light. This article provides an overview of various conceptual strategies and chemical and mechanical interactions involved in the different types of biomimetic self-healing materials to regain the deformed structure by repairing the cracked shape which play important role in contributing to the structural properties and functional recovery. Read More

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ILRUN downregulates ACE2 expression and blocks infection of human cells by SARS-CoV-2.

J Virol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

CSIRO Health & Biosecurity, Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness, Private bag 24, Geelong 3220, Victoria, Australia

The human protein-coding gene (inflammation and lipid regulator with UBA-like and NBR1-like domains, previously C6orf106) was identified as a proviral factor for Hendra virus infection and recently characterised to function an inhibitor of type-I interferon expression. Here, we have utilised RNA-seq to define cellular pathways regulated by ILRUN in the context of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection of Caco-2 cells. We find that inhibition of ILRUN expression by RNA interference alters transcription profile of numerous cellular pathways, including upregulation of the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor and several other members of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system. Read More

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Using next generation sequencing of alpine plants to improve fecal metabarcoding diet analysis for Dall's sheep.

BMC Res Notes 2021 May 7;14(1):173. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.

Objectives: Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) are important herbivores in the mountainous ecosystems of northwestern North America, and recent declines in some populations have sparked concern. Our aim was to improve capabilities for fecal metabarcoding diet analysis of Dall's sheep and other herbivores by contributing new sequence data for arctic and alpine plants. This expanded reference library will provide critical reference sequence data that will facilitate metabarcoding diet analysis of Dall's sheep and thus improve understanding of plant-animal interactions in a region undergoing rapid climate change. Read More

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Adenosine Kinase: An Epigenetic Modulator in Development and Disease.

Neurochem Int 2021 May 4:105054. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854; Department of Neurosurgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102; Brain Health Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854. Electronic address:

Adenosine kinase (ADK) is the key regulator of adenosine and catalyzes the metabolism of adenosine to 5'-adenosine monophosphate. The enzyme exists in two isoforms: a long isoform (ADK-long, ADK-L) and a short isoform (ADK-short, ADK-S). The two isoforms are developmentally regulated and are differentially expressed in distinct subcellular compartments with ADK-L localized in the nucleus and ADK-S localized in the cytoplasm. Read More

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Scabies Itch: An Update on Neuroimmune Interactions and Novel targets.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Dr Philip Frost Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, Miami Itch Center, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami.

Frequently described as "the worst itch" one can ever experience scabies itch is the hallmark of Sarcoptes scabiei mite infestation. Notably, the itchiness often persists for weeks despite scabicides therapy. The mechanism of scabies itch is not yet fully understood, and effective treatment modalities are still missing which can severely affect the quality of life. Read More

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Shark Antibody Variable Domains Rigidify Upon Affinity Maturation-Understanding the Potential of Shark Immunoglobulins as Therapeutics.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 20;8:639166. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of General, Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck (CMBI), University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Sharks and other cartilaginous fish are the phylogenetically oldest living organisms that have antibodies as part of their adaptive immune system. As part of their humoral adaptive immune response, they produce an immunoglobulin, the so-called immunoglobulin new antigen receptor (IgNAR), a heavy-chain only antibody. The variable domain of an IgNAR, also known as V , binds the antigen as an independent soluble domain. Read More

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scFv-Anti-LDL(-)-Metal-Complex Multi-Wall Functionalized-Nanocapsules as a Promising Tool for the Prevention of Atherosclerosis Progression.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 20;8:652137. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Atherosclerosis can be originated from the accumulation of modified cholesterol-rich lipoproteins in the arterial wall. The electronegative LDL, LDL(-), plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis once this cholesterol-rich lipoprotein can be internalized by macrophages, contributing to the formation of foam cells, and provoking an immune-inflammatory response. Herein, we engineered a nanoformulation containing highly pure surface-functionalized nanocapsules using a single-chain fragment variable (scFv) reactive to LDL(-) as a ligand and assessed whether it can affect the LDL(-) uptake by primary macrophages and the progression of atherosclerotic lesions in mice. Read More

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Native and substituted cyclodextrins as chiral selectors for capillary electrophoresis enantioseparations: Structures, features, application, and molecular modeling.

Electrophoresis 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, Tbilisi State University, Chavchavadze Ave 3, Tbilisi, 0179, Georgia.

Cyclodextrins (CD) are cyclic oligosaccharides consisting of α-D-glucopyranosyl units linked through 1,4-linkages, which are obtained from enzymatic degradation of starch. The co-existence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions in the same structure makes these macrocycles extremely versatile as complexing host with application in food, cosmetics, environmental, agriculture, textile, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Due to their inherent chirality, CDs have been also successfully used as chiral selectors in enantioseparation science, in particular for capillary electrophoresis (CE) enantioseparations. Read More

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Do women prefer caesarean sections? A qualitative evidence synthesis of their views and experiences.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0251072. Epub 2021 May 5.

UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP), Department of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Caesarean sections (CS) continue to increase worldwide. Multiple and complex factors are contributing to the increase, including non-clinical factors related to individual women, families and their interactions with health providers. This global qualitative evidence synthesis explores women's preferences for mode of birth and factors underlying preferences for CS. Read More

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Structural and functional studies of SAV1707 from Staphylococcus aureus elucidate its distinct metal-dependent activity and a crucial residue for catalysis.

Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol 2021 May 14;77(Pt 5):587-598. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.

The metallo-β-lactamase fold is the most abundant metal-binding domain found in two major kingdoms: bacteria and archaea. Despite the rapid growth in genomic information, most of these enzymes, which may play critical roles in cellular metabolism, remain uncharacterized in terms of structure and function. In this study, X-ray crystal structures of SAV1707, a hypothetical metalloenzyme from Staphylococcus aureus, and its complex with cAMP are reported at high resolutions of 2. Read More

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Immune Gene Expression Covaries with Gut Microbiome Composition in Stickleback.

mBio 2021 05 4;12(3). Epub 2021 May 4.

University of Connecticut, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Storrs, Connecticut, USA.

Commensal microbial communities have immense effects on their vertebrate hosts, contributing to a number of physiological functions, as well as host fitness. In particular, host immunity is strongly linked to microbiota composition through poorly understood bi-directional links. Gene expression may be a potential mediator of these links between microbial communities and host function. Read More

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Genetic Events Inhibiting Apoptosis in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC H4A 3J1, Canada.

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is curable with chemoimmunotherapy in ~65% of patients. One of the hallmarks of the pathogenesis and resistance to therapy in DLBCL is inhibition of apoptosis, which allows malignant cells to survive and acquire further alterations. Inhibition of apoptosis can be the result of genetic events inhibiting the intrinsic or extrinsic apoptotic pathways, as well as their modulators, such as the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, P53, and components of the NF-kB pathway. Read More

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Perineuronal net abnormalities in Slc13a4 mice are rescued by postnatal administration of N-acetylcysteine.

Exp Neurol 2021 May 1:113734. Epub 2021 May 1.

The School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia; Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

Disruptions to either sulfate supply or sulfation enzymes can affect brain development and have long-lasting effects on brain function, yet our understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing this are incomplete. Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are highly sulfated, specialized extracellular matrix structures that regulate the maturation of synaptic connections and neuronal plasticity. We have previously shown that mice heterozygous for the brain sulfate transporter Slc13a4 have abnormal social interactions, memory, exploratory behaviors, stress and anxiety of postnatal origin, pointing to potential deficits in PNN biology, and implicate SLC13A4 as a critical factor required for regulating normal synaptic connectivity and function. Read More

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Chronic stress in practice assistants: An analytic approach comparing four machine learning classifiers with a standard logistic regression model.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0250842. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of General Practice and Family Medicine, University Hospital Bonn, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Background: Occupational stress is associated with adverse outcomes for medical professionals and patients. In our cross-sectional study with 136 general practices, 26.4% of 550 practice assistants showed high chronic stress. Read More

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Interpersonal Perception of Time-Use Patterns in Romantic Relationships: Protocol for the IP-COUPLES Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 May 4;10(5):e21306. Epub 2021 May 4.

AGEIS, University Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France.

Background: Perceptual congruence has been defined as the level of agreement between partners on various aspects of their shared lives, including perceived engagement in individual and jointly performed activities. While the level of adjustment made by partners to such activities is thought to contribute to a couple's sense of mutuality, perceptions of time use concerning activity engagement has yet to be considered. As such, this study will determine the level of perceptual congruence between partners with respect to perceived time use in their respective and shared activities. Read More

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Improving gelling properties of diluted whole hen eggs with sodium chloride and sodium tripolyphosphate: Study on intermolecular forces, water state and microstructure.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 20;358:129823. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China. Electronic address:

Individual and synergistic effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) on the physicochemical and gelling properties of highly diluted liquid whole eggs were studied. Results showed that NaCl and STPP acted differently whereby NaCl addition increased the surface hydrophobicity of the egg proteins and STPP addition increased the protein solubility and the negative surface charge. When combined together, these changes led to a significant increase in a number of intermolecular forces after heat treatment, including hydrophobic interactions, disulfide bonds, and hydrogen bonds, contributing to the best structure and texture of the whole egg gels enriched with binary salts. Read More

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Landscape composition mediates the relationship between predator body size and pest control.

Ecol Appl 2021 May 3:e2365. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA.

Understanding the mechanisms contributing to positive relationships between predator diversity and natural pest control is fundamental to inform more effective management practices to support sustainable crop production. Predator body size can provide important insights to better understand and predict such predator-pest interactions. Yet, most studies exploring the link between predator body size and pest control have been conducted in species-poor communities under controlled environmental conditions, limiting our ability to generalize this relationship across heterogeneous landscapes. Read More

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Do polyproline II helix associations modulate biomolecular condensates?

FEBS Open Bio 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Departamento de Química Física Biológica, Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano, CSIC, Madrid, España.

Biomolecular condensates are microdroplets that form inside cells and serve to selectively concentrate proteins, RNAs and other molecules for a variety of physiological functions, but can contribute to cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and viral infections. The formation of these condensates is driven by weak, transient interactions between molecules. These weak associations can operate at the level of whole protein domains, elements of secondary structure or even moieties composed of just a few atoms. Read More

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The amino acid permease (AAP) genes CsAAP2A and SlAAP5A/B are required for oomycete susceptibility in cucumber and tomato.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Plant Breeding, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Cucurbit downy mildew (DM), caused by the obligate biotroph Pseudoperonospora cubensis, is a destructive disease in cucumber. A valuable source of DM resistance is the Indian cucumber accession PI 197088, which harbours several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to quantitatively inherited DM resistance. With a combination of fine-mapping and transcriptomics, we identified Amino Acid Permease 2A (CsAAP2A) as a candidate gene for QTL DM4. Read More

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Performance of an Electronic Decision Support System as a Therapeutic Intervention During a Multicenter PICU Clinical Trial: Heart and Lung Failure-Pediatric Insulin Titration trial (HALF-PINT).

Chest 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Division of Medical Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: The use of electronic clinical decision support (CDS) systems for pediatric critical care trials is rare. We sought to describe in detail the use of a CDS tool (Children's Hospital Euglycemia for Kids Spreadsheet- CHECKS), for the management of hyperglycemia during the 32 multicenter Heart And Lung Failure-Pediatric INsulin Titration (HALF-PINT) trial.

Research Question: In critically ill pediatric patients managed with CHECKS, how was user compliance associated with outcomes; and what patient and clinician factors might account for the observed differences in CHECKS compliance. Read More

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Genetic Interactions of Awnness Genes in Barley.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 20;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA.

Awns are extending structures from lemmas in grasses and are very active in photosynthesis, contributing directly to the filling of the developing grain. Barley ( L.) awns are highly diverse in shape and length and are known to be controlled by multiple awn-related genes. Read More

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Overexpression of miR-210-3p Impairs Extravillous Trophoblast Functions Associated with Uterine Spiral Artery Remodeling.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 12;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada.

Hsa-miR-210-3p has been reported to be upregulated in preeclampsia (PE); however, the functions of miR-210-3p in placental development are not fully understood, and, consequently, miR-210-3p's role in the pathogenesis of PE is still under investigation. In this study, we found that overexpression of miR-210-3p reduced trophoblast migration and invasion, extravillous trophoblast (EVT) outgrowth in first trimester explants, expression of endovascular trophoblast (enEVT) markers and the ability of trophoblast to form endothelial-like networks. In addition, miR-210-3p overexpression significantly downregulated the mRNA levels of interleukin-1B and -8, as well as CXC motif ligand 1. Read More

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A molecular single-cell lung atlas of lethal COVID-19.

Nature 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Human Immune Monitoring Core, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Respiratory failure is the leading cause of death in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, yet the host response at the lung tissue-level is poorly understood. Here, we performed single-nucleus RNA-sequencing of ~116,000 nuclei of lungs from 19 COVID-19 decedents who underwent rapid autopsy and 7 control lungs. Integrated analyses revealed significant alterations in cellular composition, transcriptional cell states, and cell-to-cell interactions, providing insights into the biology of lethal COVID-19. Read More

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The asymmetries of the biopsychosocial model of depression in lay discourses - Topic modelling online depression forums.

SSM Popul Health 2021 Jun 29;14:100785. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

ELTE Eötvös Loránd University of Budapest, Faculty of Social Sciences, Research Center for Computational Social Science, Budapest, Pázmány Péter Sétány 1/a, 1117, Hungary.

Background: One of the most comprehensive approaches to depression is the biopsychosocial model. From this wider perspective, social sciences have criticized the reductionist biomedical discourse, which has been dominating expert discourses for a long time. As these discourses determine the horizon of attributions and interventions, their lay interpretation plays a central role in the coping with depression. Read More

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Outdoor Office Work - An Interactive Research Project Showing the Way Out.

Front Psychol 2021 12;12:636091. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Division of Sociology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.

The physical boundaries of office work have become increasingly flexible. Work is conducted at multiple locations outside the office, such as at clients' premises, at home, in cafés, or when traveling. However, the boundary between indoor and outdoor environment seems to be strong and normative regarding how office work is performed. Read More

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