135 results match your criteria interaction projectile

Nuclear model prediction for production of medical Na, Cr, Co, Cu, Cu, Zn, Ga, Y and Mo radionuclides: Comparison of experimental and theoretical data.

F K Amanuel

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Jun 3;172:109674. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Applied Physics, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia. Electronic address:

Theoretical nuclear model predictions were carried out to calculate the production cross sections of medically important Na, Cr, Co, Cu, Cu, Zn, Ga, Y and Mo radionuclides produced in the interaction of α-projectile with Al, V, Co, Ni, Cu, Cu, Zn, Y and Zr targets respectively at energies ≈10-65 MeV. The production cross sections were predicted using ALICE/ASH and EMPIRE 3.2 nuclear model codes. Read More

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Experimental Evaluation of Low Velocity Impact Properties and Damage Progression on Bamboo/Glass Hybrid Composites Subjected to Different Impact Energy Levels.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Jun 4;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP), UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

Six impact energy values, ranging from 2.5 J to 10 J, were applied to study the impact properties of neat epoxy and bamboo composites, while six impact energy values, ranging from 10 J to 35 J, were applied on bamboo/glass hybrid composites. Woven glass fibre was embedded at the outermost top and bottom layer of bamboo powder-filled epoxy composites, producing sandwich structured hybrid composites through lay-up and molding techniques. Read More

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Development of a new code for stopping power and CSDA range calculation of incident charged particles, part A: Electron and positron.

Appl Radiat Isot 2020 Jul 26;161:109145. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street, Oshawa, Ontario, L1G 0C5, Canada.

The stopping power of targets against incident charged particles and their range through matter are commonly considered as two important parameters in radiation and health physics studies. The exact calculation of these parameters is very crucial in many applications of radiation. The main objective of this study is the development of a new code for stopping power and range calculation of incident electron and positron projectiles. Read More

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Fission of Relativistic Nuclei with Fragment Excitation and Reorientation.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Apr;124(13):132301

Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS/IN2P3, IJCLab, Orsay 91405, France.

Experimental studies of fission induced in relativistic nuclear collisions show a systematic enhancement of the excitation energy of the primary fragments by a factor of ∼2, before their decay by fission and other secondary fragments. Although it is widely accepted that by doubling the energies of the single-particle states may yield a better agreement with fission data, it does not prove fully successful, since it is not able to explain yields for light and intermediate mass fragments. State-of-the-art calculations are successful to describe the overall shape of the mass distribution of fragments, but fail within a factor of 2-10 for a large number of individual yields. Read More

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[The current state of forensic medical expertise and the experimental studies of the after-penetration guhshot wound].

Sud Med Ekspert 2019 ;62(2):61-66

Department of Forensic Medicine, N.I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Ministry of Health of the Russia, Moscow, Russia, 117997.

This article reports the results of the analysis of the literature publications illustrating the current state of forensic medical expertise of gunshot injuries formed as a consequence of the interaction of the projectile with the obstacle. Also presented are the results of the experimental studies in this field and the prospects for their further development. The completeness of the solution of the topical problems of forensic medical ballistics is estimated. Read More

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Hypervelocity cluster ion impacts on free standing graphene: Experiment, theory, and applications.

J Chem Phys 2019 Apr;150(16):160901

Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3144, USA.

We present results from experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations obtained with C and Au impacting on free-standing graphene, graphene oxide (GO), and graphene-supported molecular layers. The experiments were run on custom-built ToF reflectron mass spectrometers with C and Au-LMIS sources with acceleration potentials generating 50 keV C and 440-540 keV Au. Bombardment-detection was in the same mode as MD simulation, i. Read More

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Wound ballistics of military rifle bullets: An update on controversial issues and associated misconceptions.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2019 Sep;87(3):690-698

From the First Department of Surgery (P.K.S., G.M., D.E.P., I.N.O.), 401 Army General Hospital; Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology (N.E.T.), School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens; Section of Firearms Examination Labs (N.E.T.), Forensic Science Division of Hellenic Police, Athens, Greece; and SECRAB Security Research (B.J.), Uttran, Sweden.

The wound ballistics literature contains several misconceptions about the physical effects of penetrating projectiles in tissue and tissue simulants. These can adversely affect the proper management of gunshot injuries, particularly in view of the ongoing threat of terrorist and criminal acts using assault rifles against civilians. The understanding of the wounding effects by military rifle bullets can be founded on the concept of energy transfer to the wound as applied to high-energy missile trauma. Read More

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September 2019

Label Free Particle-by-Particle Quantification of DNA Loading on Sorted Gold Nanostars.

Anal Chem 2019 05 11;91(9):5566-5572. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Chemistry , Texas A&M University , College Station , Texas 77843 , United States.

This paper describes a label free technique for determining ligand loading on metal nanoparticles using a variant of secondary ion mass spectrometry. Au clusters bombard DNA-functionalized anisotropic gold nanostars and isotropic nanospheres with similar surface areas to determine ligand density. For each projectile impact, co-localized molecules within the emission area of a single impact (diameter of 10-15 nm) were examined for each particle. Read More

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Electron-induced molecular dissociation at a surface leads to reactive collisions at selected impact parameters.

Faraday Discuss 2019 05;214(0):89-103

Lash Miller Chemical Laboratories, Department of Chemistry and Institute of Optical Sciences, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5H 3H6, Canada.

Crossed molecular beams of gases have provided definitive information concerning the dynamics of chemical reactions. The results have, however, of necessity been averaged over collisions with impact parameters ranging from zero to infinity, thus obscuring the effect of this important variable. Here we employ a method through which impact parameter averaging is suppressed in a surface reaction. Read More

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Eley Rideal recombination of hydrogen atoms on Cu(111): Quantitative role of electronic excitation in cross sections and product distributions.

J Chem Phys 2019 Feb;150(6):061101

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at the Microscale, Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China.

Eley-Rideal (ER) reaction between a projectile and an adsorbate at a gas-surface interface represents many interesting dynamic features. Electron-hole pairs (EHPs) could play an important role in this process, given the interaction between the accelerated incident atom/molecule and the surface electrons. Here, we examine the EHP effects in a benchmark ER reaction of an impinging H/D atom and pre-covered D/H atoms on Cu(111) by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Read More

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February 2019

Plasmon excitation and subsequent isomerization dynamics in naphthalene and azulene under fast proton interaction.

J Chem Phys 2018 Nov;149(19):194303

Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, India.

The interaction of fast protons (velocity between 1.41 and 2.4 a. Read More

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November 2018

Experimental validation of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code for dose and [Formula: see text]-emitter predictions of radioactive ion beams.

Phys Med Biol 2018 10 26;63(21):215014. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva, Switzerland. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

In the context of hadrontherapy, whilst ions are capable of effectively destroying radio resistant, deep seated tumors, their treatment localization must be well assessed to ensure the sparing of surrounding healthy tissue and treatment effectiveness. Thus, range verification techniques, such as online positron-emission-tomography (PET) imaging, hold great potential in clinical practice, providing information on the in vivo beam range and consequent tumor targeting. Furthermore, [Formula: see text] emitting radioactive ions can be an asset in online PET imaging, depending on their half-life, compared to their stable counterparts. Read More

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October 2018

Fluorescent labelling of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus and Beet soil-borne mosaic virus for co- and superinfection experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana.

J Gen Virol 2018 Jul 30. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

1​Department of Phytopathology, Institute of Sugar Beet Research, 37079 Göttingen, Germany.

Infectious full-length clones of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and Beet soil-borne mosaic virus (BSBMV), both genus Benyvirus, were used for fluorescent labelling with the objective to study their interaction in coinfection and superinfection experiments. Fluorescent labelling was achieved by replacing a part of the RNA2 encoded coat protein read-through domain with either GFP or mRFP fluorescent marker proteins. This resulted in a translational fusion comprising the coat and the fluorescent protein. Read More

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Development of customised 3D printed biodegradable projectile for administrating extended-release contraceptive to wildlife.

Int J Pharm 2018 Sep 2;548(1):349-356. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Drug Delivery Research Group, School of Science, Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Level 5, WS Building, 34 St Paul St., Auckland 1010, New Zealand; School of Interprofessional Health Studies, Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Customisation of sustained and controlled release of contraceptives plays a key role in veterinary applications. A biodegradable projectile containing different doses of contraceptive progesterone was prepared using fused deposition modelling 3D printing. Three concentrations of progesterone (2, 5 and 10% w/w) with polylactic acid was prepared as a 1. Read More

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September 2018

"Trampoline" ejection of organic molecules from graphene and graphite via keV cluster ions impacts.

J Chem Phys 2018 Apr;148(14):144309

Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3144, USA.

We present the data on ejection of molecules and emission of molecular ions caused by single impacts of 50 keV C on a molecular layer of deuterated phenylalanine (D8Phe) deposited on free standing, 2-layer graphene. The projectile impacts on the graphene side stimulate the abundant ejection of intact molecules and the emission of molecular ions in the transmission direction. To gain insight into the mechanism of ejection, Molecular Dynamic simulations were performed. Read More

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Shakeoff Ionization near the Coulomb Barrier Energy.

Phys Rev Lett 2017 Nov 13;119(20):203401. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India.

We measure the projectile K x-ray spectra as a function of the beam energies around the Coulomb barrier in different collision systems. The energy is scanned in small steps around the barrier aiming to explore the nuclear effects on the elastically scattered projectile ions. The variation of the projectile x-ray energy with the ion-beam energies exhibits an unusual increase in between the interaction barrier and fusion barrier energies. Read More

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November 2017

Wound ballistics and blast injuries.

J Visc Surg 2017 Dec 21;154 Suppl 1:S9-S12. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Service de chirurgie orthopédique et traumatologique, hôpital d'instruction des armées Desgenettes, 108, boulevard Pinel, 69003 Lyon, France; École du Val-de-Grâce, 1, place Alphonse-Laveran, 75230 Paris cedex 05, France.

Wounds due to gunshot and explosions, while usually observed during battlefield combat, are no longer an exceptional occurrence in civilian practice in France. The principles of wound ballistics are based on the interaction between the projectile and the human body as well as the transfer of energy from the projectile to tissues. The treatment of ballistic wounds relies on several principles: extremity wound debridement and absence of initial closure, complementary medical treatment, routine immobilization, revision surgery and secondary closure. Read More

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December 2017

A New Mechanism of Sediment Attachment to Oil in Turbulent Flows: Projectile Particles.

Environ Sci Technol 2017 Oct 20;51(19):11020-11028. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Bedford Institute of Oceanography , Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia B2Y 4A2, Canada.

The interaction of oil and sediment in the environment determines, to a large extent, the trajectory and fate of oil. Using confocal microscope imaging techniques to obtain detailed 3D structures of oil-particle aggregates (OPAs) formed in turbulent flows, we elucidated a new mechanism of particle attachment, whereby the particles behave as projectiles penetrating the oil droplets to depths varying from ∼2 to 10 μm due to the hydrodynamic forces in the water. This mechanism results in a higher attachment of particles on oil in comparison with adsorption, as commonly assumed. Read More

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October 2017

Exploring surface landscapes with molecules: rotationally induced diffraction of H on LiF(001) under fast grazing incidence conditions.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2017 Jun;19(25):16317-16322

Departamento de Química Módulo 13, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

Atomic diffraction by surfaces under fast grazing incidence conditions has been used for almost a decade to characterize surface properties with more accuracy than with more traditional atomic diffraction methods. From six-dimensional solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we show that diffraction of H molecules under fast grazing incidence conditions could be even more informative for the characterization of ionic surfaces, due to the large anisotropic electrostatic interaction between the quadrupole moment of the molecule and the electric field created by the ionic crystal. Using the LiF(001) surface as a benchmark, we show that fast grazing incidence diffraction of H strongly depends on the initial rotational state of the molecule, while rotationally inelastic processes are irrelevant. Read More

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Ejection-ionization of molecules from free standing graphene.

J Chem Phys 2017 Feb;146(8):084308

Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3144, USA.

We present the first data on emission of C60- stimulated by single impacts of 50 keV C602+ on the self-assembled molecular layer of C deposited on free standing 2 layer graphene. The yield, Y, of C60- emitted in the transmission direction is 1.7%. Read More

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February 2017

Effects of Re-heating Tissue Samples to Core Body Temperature on High-Velocity Ballistic Projectile-tissue Interactions.

J Forensic Sci 2017 Nov 23;62(6):1466-1471. Epub 2017 Feb 23.

Biological Anthropology and Comparative Anatomy Research Unit, Medical School North, University of Adelaide, Frome Road, Adelaide, South Australia, 5005, Australia.

Damage produced by high-speed projectiles on organic tissue will depend on the physical properties of the tissues. Conditioning organic tissue samples to human core body temperature (37°C) prior to conducting ballistic experiments enables their behavior to closely mimic that of living tissues. To minimize autolytic changes after death, the tissues are refrigerated soon after their removal from the body and re-heated to 37°C prior to testing. Read More

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November 2017

The collision of a hypervelocity massive projectile with free-standing graphene: Investigation of secondary ion emission and projectile fragmentation.

J Chem Phys 2017 Feb;146(5):054305

Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3144, USA.

We present here the study of the individual hypervelocity massive projectiles (440-540 keV, 33-36 km/s Au cluster) impact on 1-layer free-standing graphene. The secondary ions were detected and recorded separately from each individual impact in the transmission direction using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. We observed C ions emitted from graphene, the projectiles which penetrated the graphene, and the Au fragment ions in mass spectra. Read More

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February 2017

The intermolecular interaction in D - CX and O - CX (X = F, Cl) systems: Molecular beam scattering experiments as a sensitive probe of the selectivity of charge transfer component.

J Chem Phys 2016 Oct;145(13):134305

Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, Via Elce di Sotto 8, Perugia 06123, Italy.

Gas phase collisions of a D projectile by CF and by CCl targets have been investigated with the molecular beam technique. The integral cross section, Q, has been measured for both collisional systems in the thermal energy range and oscillations due to the quantum "glory" interference have been resolved in the velocity dependence of Q. The analysis of the measured Q(v) data provided novel information on the anisotropic potential energy surfaces of the studied systems at intermediate and large separation distances. Read More

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October 2016

The continuous and discrete molecular orbital x-ray bands from Xe(q+) (12≤q≤29) +Zn collisions.

Sci Rep 2016 07 29;6:30644. Epub 2016 Jul 29.

Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, P.R. China.

In this paper, the x-ray emissions are measured by the interaction of 1500-3500 keV Xe(q+) (q = 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 26 and 29) ions with Zn target. When q < 29, we observe Ll, Lα, Lβ1, Lβ2 and Lγ characteristic x-rays from Xe(q+) ions and a broad M-shell molecular orbital (MO) x-ray band from the transient quasi-molecular levels. It is found that their yields quickly increase with different rates as the incident energy increases. Read More

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Vibrationally Inelastic Collision Between Li2(ν = 0) and Li: Direct and Postponed Elongation Mechanisms.

J Phys Chem A 2015 Dec 21;119(52):12945-52. Epub 2015 Dec 21.

Dipartimento di Scienza ed Alta Tecnologia, Università dell'Insubria , via Valleggio 11, 22100 Como, Italy.

The mechanism for vibrational inelastic excitation during the collision between Li2(ν = 0) and Li was investigated exploiting classical trajectory simulations over a potential energy surface generated by fitting valence full configuration interaction calculations employing a large basis set. From the trajectory results, it emerges that the vibrational excitation in noncapture collisions presents uniquely a forward-scattered projectile for the highest levels of excitation (ΔE(0 → ν') ≃ Ecoll). For lower ν', a minor contribution presenting a backward-scattered projectile appears, which, however, has its major contribution coming from a "slingshot"-like (orbiting) mechanism exploiting the attractive features of the Li3 potential energy surface rather than a direct recoil. Read More

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December 2015

H2O-CH4 and H2S-CH4 complexes: a direct comparison through molecular beam experiments and ab initio calculations.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2015 Nov;17(45):30613-23

Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123, Italy.

New molecular beam scattering experiments have been performed to measure the total (elastic plus inelastic) cross sections as a function of the velocity in collisions between water and hydrogen sulfide projectile molecules and the methane target. Measured data have been exploited to characterize the range and strength of the intermolecular interaction in such systems, which are of relevance as they drive the gas phase molecular dynamics and the clathrate formation. Complementary information has been obtained by rotational spectra, recorded for the hydrogen sulfide-methane complex, with a pulsed nozzle Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. Read More

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November 2015

Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. II. Sticking.

J Chem Phys 2015 Sep;143(12):124704

Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano, Italy.

Following our recent system-bath modeling of the interaction between a hydrogen atom and a graphene surface [Bonfanti et al., J. Chem. Read More

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September 2015

Novel experimental setup for time-of-flight mass spectrometry ion detection in collisions of anionic species with neutral gas-phase molecular targets.

EPJ Tech Instrum 2015;2(1):13. Epub 2015 Aug 21.

Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid, Spain ; Centre of Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 Australia.

We report a novel experimental setup for studying collision induced products resulting from the interaction of anionic beams with a neutral gas-phase molecular target. The precursor projectile was admitted into vacuum through a commercial pulsed valve, with the anionic beam produced in a hollow cathode discharge-induced plasma, and guided to the interaction region by a set of deflecting plates where it was made to interact with the target beam. Depending on the collision energy regime, negative and positive species can be formed in the collision region and ions were time-of-flight (TOF) mass-analysed. Read More

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