58,944 results match your criteria insulin secretion

miR-720 Regulates Insulin Secretion by Targeting Rab35.

Biomed Res Int 2021 5;2021:6662612. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Medical Center of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China.

miRNAs pose a good prospect in the diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study is aimed at investigating whether miR-720 targets Rab35 to regulate insulin secretion in MIN6 cells and its molecular mechanism and the clinical value of miR-720 as a specific biomarker of T2D. Fifty-five samples of new diagnosis T2D patients and normal control were collected. Read More

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Glucagon-like peptide 1 and its association with dipeptidyl peptidase IV in subjects with various degrees of glucose tolerance.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Nov;33(6(Supplementary)):2773-2778

Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Karachi, Pakistan.

Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) and Glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has profound effect on insulin and glucagon secretion; ultimately decreasing glucose levels. We find out the association of GLP-1 levels and DPP-4 in normal, impaired and newly diagnose type 2 diabetic glucose tolerance. Prospective case control study was conducted at Department of Physiology, Baqai Medical University by the collaboration of Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology; Karachi-Pakistan. Read More

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November 2020

Application of Nano-Insulin Pump in Children with Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 Oct;21(10):5051-5056

Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154000, Heilongjiang, PR China.

Type 1 diabetes is an insulin-dependent type of diabetes that is most common among children. Due to absolute deficiency of insulin in patients, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can easily ensue. Insulin pump can simulate the physiological secretion of islet, but increases the risk of pain and infection in children due to its traumatic effect. Read More

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October 2021

Growth hormone directly favors hepatic ketogenesis in persons with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with empagliflozin.

Endocrine 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Post-graduation Program of Health Sciences, Londrina State University, Londrina, Brazil.

Purpose: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors increase glucagon secretion by pancreatic alpha cells and the susceptibility to ketoacidosis. On the other hand, growth hormone (GH) stimulates peripheral lipolysis and provides free fatty acids (FFA) for ketogenesis; however, it remains unresolved whether GH directly impacts hepatic ketogenesis. We aimed to investigate the role of physiologic GH levels in promoting ketogenesis in prediabetic or type 2 diabetic patients under empagliflozin treatment. Read More

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Physiological responses to carbohydrate overfeeding.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Centre for Nutrition, Exercise & Metabolism, Department for Health, University of Bath, Bath, UK.

Purpose Of Review: To consider emerging research into the physiological effects of excessive dietary carbohydrate intake, with a particular focus on interactions with physical activity.

Recent Findings: A single episode of massive carbohydrate overload initiates physiological responses to stimulate additional peptide hormone secretion by the gut and the conversion of carbohydrate into lipid by the intestine, liver and adipose tissue. These acute responses maintain glycaemic control both via increased oxidation of carbohydrate (rather than lipid) and via nonoxidative disposal of surplus carbohydrate into endogenous glycogen and lipid storage depots. Read More

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Increased postprandial nonesterified fatty acid efflux from adipose tissue in prediabetes is offset by enhanced dietary fatty acid adipose trapping.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Medicine, Endocrinology department, Medicine Division,CHUS Research Center, Sherbrooke University, 3001 12th Avenue North, Sherbrooke, QC, J1H 5N4, Canada.

The mechanism of increased postprandial nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) appearance in the circulation in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is due to increased adipose tissue lipolysis but could also be contributed to by reduced adipose tissue (AT) dietary fatty acid (DFA) trapping and increased 'spillover' into the circulation. Thirty-one subjects with IGT (14 women, 17 men) and 29 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, 15 women, 14 men) underwent a meal test with oral and intravenous palmitate tracers and the oral [F]-fluoro-thia-heptadecanoic acid positron emission tomography method. Postprandial palmitate appearance (Ra) was higher in IGT vs. Read More

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Foregut Exclusion Enhances Incretin and Insulin Secretion After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Bariatric and Metabolic Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Introduction: Patients with type 2 diabetes experience resolution of hyperglycemia within days after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. This is attributed, in part, to enhanced secretion of hindgut factors following exclusion of the gastric remnant and proximal intestine during surgery. However, evidence of the mechanisms of remission remain limited due to the challenges of metabolic evaluation during the early post-operative period. Read More

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Exploring the antidiabetic potential of compounds isolated from using computational aproach: ligand-based virtual screening.

In Silico Pharmacol 2021 3;9(1):25. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Bioinformatics and Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, School of Sciences, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Diabetes mellitus is becoming an important public health challenge worldwide and especially in developing nations. About 8.8 percent of the world adult population has been reported to have diabetes. Read More

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CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated α-ENaC Knockout in a Murine Pancreatic β-Cell Line.

Front Genet 2021 1;12:664799. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Pathophysiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Many ion channels participate in controlling insulin synthesis and secretion of pancreatic β-cells. Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) expressed in human pancreatic tissue, but the biological role of ENaC in pancreatic β-cells is still unclear. Here, we applied the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technique to knockout α-ENaC gene in a murine pancreatic β-cell line (MIN6 cell). Read More

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Collagen β(1-O) galactosyltransferase 2 deficiency contributes to lipodystrophy and aggravates NAFLD related to HMW adiponectin in mice.

Metabolism 2021 Apr 15:154777. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Gastroenterology, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Department of Gastroenterology, Peking University Ditan Teaching Hospital, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Aim Our previous results showed that Colgalt1 knock-out resulted in fetal death on day E11.5, and collagen secretion was retarded. This study aimed to elucidate the role of Collagen β(1-O) galactosyltransferase 2 (Colgalt2) in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Read More

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Improvements in cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL and adiponectin contribute to mitigation in cardiovascular disease risk after bariatric surgery in a cohort with morbid obesity.

Diabetol Metab Syndr 2021 Apr 17;13(1):46. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Room No. 3044, New Delhi, 110029, India.

Background: Bariatric surgery can alleviate cardiovascular risk via effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Our study aimed to assess the cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) of HDL as a negative risk factor for CVD in individuals with obesity and identify the factors associated with improvement in CEC 3 months following bariatric surgery.

Methods: We recruited 40 control individuals (mean BMI of 22. Read More

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Influence of glucose, insulin fluctuation, and glycosylated hemoglobin on the outcome of sarcopenia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

J Diabetes Complications 2021 Apr 9:107926. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Endocrinology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Cha Zhong Road, Fuzhou, Fujian 350005, China; Diabetes Research Institute of Fujian Province, 20 Cha Zhong Road, Fuzhou, Fujian 350005, China; Metabolic Diseases Research Institute, the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Cha Zhong Road, Fuzhou, Fujian 350005, China; Fujian Province Clinical Research Center for Metabolic Diseases, 20 Cha Zhong Road, Fuzhou, Fujian 350005, China. Electronic address:

Aims: To explore the effects of glucose, insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels on the outcome of sarcopenia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: A total of 482 T2DM patients were enrolled in the follow-up study. The median follow-up time was 36 months. Read More

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Unique adaptations in neonatal hepatic transcriptome, nutrient signaling, and one-carbon metabolism in response to feeding ethyl cellulose rumen-protected methionine during late-gestation in Holstein cows.

BMC Genomics 2021 Apr 17;22(1):280. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Animal Sciences and Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA.

Background: Methionine (Met) supply during late-pregnancy enhances fetal development in utero and leads to greater rates of growth during the neonatal period. Due to its central role in coordinating nutrient and one-carbon metabolism along with immune responses of the newborn, the liver could be a key target of the programming effects induced by dietary methyl donors such as Met. To address this hypothesis, liver biopsies from 4-day old calves (n = 6/group) born to Holstein cows fed a control or the control plus ethyl-cellulose rumen-protected Met for the last 28 days prepartum were used for DNA methylation, transcriptome, metabolome, proteome, and one-carbon metabolism enzyme activities. Read More

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Periodontal Health Status of Children and Adolescents with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Aust Dent J 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Centre of Paediatric Dentistry & Orthodontic Studies, Faculty of Dentistry, UniversitiTeknologi Mara (UiTM), Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex metabolic disease characterised by hyperglycaemia resulted from defects in insulin secretion or action, or both. Various studies have reported on the bidirectional relationship between DM and periodontal disease. A systematic search of the literature was performed in several databases, EBSCO Medline Complete, PubMed, Science Direct and a manual search for articles from 2000 until 2019. Read More

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ILDR2 stabilization is regulated by its interaction with GRP78.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 16;11(1):8414. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Division of Human Genetics, Center for Molecular Medicine, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, 329-0498, Japan.

Ildr2 was initially identified as a genetic modifier of diabetes susceptibility in B6.DBA Lep congenic mice, and was associated with decreased β-cell replication rates, reduced β-cell mass, and persistent mild hypoinsulinemic hyperglycemia. However, the molecular mechanisms of how the ILDR2 protein is involved in these effects are largely unknown. Read More

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Determinants of hepatic insulin clearance - results from a Mendelian Randomization study.

Metabolism 2021 Apr 13:154776. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Internal Medicine IV, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Nephrology, University Hospital of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; Institute for Diabetes Research and Metabolic Diseases of the Helmholtz Centre Munich at the University of Tübingen (IDM), Tübingen, Germany; German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Neuherberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Aims/hypothesis: Besides insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes associates with decreased hepatic insulin clearance (HIC). We now tested for causal relationship of HIC to liver fat accumulation or features of the metabolic syndrome.

Methods: HIC was derived from oral glucose tolerance tests with the "Oral C-peptide and Insulin Minimal Models" (n = 3311). Read More

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D-Chiro-Inositol Regulates Insulin Signaling in Human Adipocytes.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 30;12:660815. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Molecular and Cellular Gynecological Endocrinology Laboratory (MCGEL), Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

D-Chiro-Inositol (D-Chiro-Ins) is a secondary messenger in the insulin signaling pathway. D-Chiro-Ins modulates insulin secretion, the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and glycogen storage. Due to these actions D-Chiro-Ins has been proposed to correct defective insulin function in a variety of conditions characterized by metabolic dysfunction, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity, gestational diabetes and fat accumulation at menopause. Read More

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Successful multidisciplinary treatment of Doege-Potter syndrome: hypoglycaemia caused by paraneoplastic IGF-2 production by a metastatic haemangiopericytoma.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 15;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Medicine, The University of British Columbia Faculty of Medicine, New Westminster, British Columbia, Canada.

Hypoglycaemia due to insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-2 secretion is a paraneoplastic complication of malignancy with significant morbidity that can often go unrecognised due to its uncommon presentation. We report on a case of a 51-year-old man with metastatic haemangiopericytoma presenting with refractory hypoglycaemia, requiring continuous dextrose 10% infusion while in hospital. IGF-2 levels were significantly elevated, in keeping with a rare entity associated with solitary fibrous tumours, known as Doege-Potter syndrome. Read More

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Neuromedin U uses Gαi2 and Gαo to suppress glucose-stimulated Ca2+ signaling and insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(4):e0250232. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Neurology, Respirology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan.

Neuromedin U (NMU), a highly conserved peptide in mammals, is involved in a wide variety of physiological processes, including impairment of pancreatic β-cell function via induction of mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, ultimately suppressing insulin secretion. NMU has two receptors, NMU receptor 1 (NMUR1) and NMUR2, both of which are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Only NMUR1 is expressed in mouse islets and β cell-derived MIN6-K8 cells. Read More

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Drug reformulation for a neglected disease. The NANOHAT project to develop a safer more effective sleeping sickness drug.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 15;15(4):e0009276. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

King's College London, Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Franklin-Wilkins Building, Stamford Street, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness) is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei sspp. The disease has two stages, a haemolymphatic stage after the bite of an infected tsetse fly, followed by a central nervous system stage where the parasite penetrates the brain, causing death if untreated. Treatment is stage-specific, due to the blood-brain barrier, with less toxic drugs such as pentamidine used to treat stage 1. Read More

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Tolerability of eptinezumab in overweight, obese or type 1 diabetes patients.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2021 Apr 2;4(2):e00217. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Alder BioPharmaceuticals, Inc. (now known as Lundbeck Seattle BioPharmaceuticals, Inc.) Bothell WA USA.

Introduction: In addition to its role in the pathogenesis of migraine, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is implicated in the regulation of insulin secretion. However, there are limited data on the use of CGRP inhibitor monoclonal antibodies in individuals who are overweight/obese and those with diabetes.

Methods: Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were conducted to assess the safety and metabolic effects of eptinezumab in non-migraine overweight/obese patients (study 1) and patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D; study 2). Read More

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Acute hyperglycaemia in cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbations.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2021 Apr 30;4(2):e00208. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Pediatrics University of Washington Seattle WA USA.

Background: Hyperglycaemia may contribute to failure to recover from pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis (CF). We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and mechanism of hyperglycaemia during and post-exacerbations.

Methods: Nine paediatric CF patients, not on insulin, hospitalized for intravenous antibiotics, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) upon admission (visit 1) and an OGTT 2 weeks (visit 2) and 6 weeks to 12 months later when at stable baseline (visit 3). Read More

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Imeglimin preserves islet β-cell mass in Type 2 diabetic ZDF rats.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2021 Apr 7;4(2):e00193. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Poxel SA Lyon France.

Objectives: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is driven by progressive dysfunction and loss of pancreatic β-cell mass. Imeglimin is a first-in-class novel drug candidate that improves glycaemia and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in preclinical models and patients. Given evidence that imeglimin can attenuate β-cell dysfunction and protect β cells , we postulated that imeglimin could also exert longer term effects to prevent pancreatic β-cell death and preserve functional β-cell mass . Read More

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Vascular Regenerative Capacity and the Obesity Paradox in Coronary Artery Disease.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2021 Apr 15:ATVBAHA120315703. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory Clinical Cardiovascular Research Institute (A. Mehta, S.J.I., D.S.D., Z.A., A.N., A.A.A., A.H., A.V., S.F.A., A. Mokhtari, I.H., L.S.S., Y.-A.K., A.A.Q.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA.

Objective: The underlying pathobiology of the paradoxical relationship between obesity and outcomes in coronary artery disease (CAD) is unclear. Our objective was to determine the association between obesity and circulating progenitor cell (CPC) counts-a measure of intrinsic regenerative capacity-in asymptomatic individuals and patients with CAD and its impact on the obesity paradox. Approach and Results: CPCs were enumerated by flow cytometry as CD45 cells expressing CD34+, CD133+, and CXCR4+ epitopes in 672 asymptomatic individuals (50 years of age; 28% obese) and 1277 CAD patients (66 years of age; 39% obese). Read More

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa T6SS-mediated molybdate transport contributes to bacterial competition during anaerobiosis.

Cell Rep 2021 Apr;35(2):108957

Key Laboratory of Resources Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an, ShaanXi 710069, China. Electronic address:

Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widely distributed in Gram-negative bacteria and functions as a versatile protein export machinery that translocates effectors into eukaryotic or prokaryotic target cells. Growing evidence indicates that T6SS can deliver several effectors to promote bacterial survival in harmful environments through metal ion acquisition. Here, we report that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa H2-T6SS mediates molybdate (MoO) acquisition by secretion of a molybdate-binding protein, ModA. Read More

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Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone Reduces Circulating Markers of Immune Activation in Parallel with Effects on Hepatic Immune Pathways in Individuals with HIV-Infection and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Metabolism Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Harvard Medical School (HMS), Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis modulates critical metabolic pathways; however, little is known regarding effects of augmenting pulsatile GH secretion on immune function in humans. This study used proteomics and gene set enrichment analysis to assess effects of a GH releasing hormone (GHRH) analog, tesamorelin, on circulating immune markers and liver tissue in people with HIV (PWH) and NAFLD.

Methods: 92 biomarkers associated with immunity, chemotaxis, and metabolism were measured in plasma samples from 61 PWH with NAFLD who participated in a double-blind, randomized trial of tesamorelin versus placebo for 12 months. Read More

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Insulin Secretion is a Strong Predictor for Need of Insulin Therapy in Patients With New Onset Diabetes and HbA1c >10%, a post hoc analysis of EDICT study.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Division of Diabetes, University of Texas Health Science Center and Texas Diabetes Institute, San Antonio, Texas.

Aim: To identify predictors of response to glucose lowering therapy in patients with new onset diabetes and very high HbA1c (>10%).

Research Design And Methods: The study included EDICT participants with initial HbA1c >10% (N = 104). All subjects received a 75-g OGTT before initiation of therapy, and then were randomized to receive: (i) initial Triple Therapy with metformin, pioglitazone, and exenatide versus (ii) stepwise Conventional Therapy with metformin followed by glipizide and then glargine insulin to reduce A1c < 6. Read More

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Diets Varying in Carbohydrate Content Differentially Alter Brain Activity in Homeostatic and Reward Regions in Adults.

J Nutr 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Obesity has one of the highest refractory rates of all chronic diseases, in part because weight loss induced by calorie restriction, the first-line treatment for obesity, elicits biological adaptations that promote weight regain. Although acute feeding trials suggest a role for macronutrient composition in modifying brain activity related to hunger and satiety, relevance of these findings to weight-loss maintenance has not been studied.

Objectives: We investigated effects of weight-loss maintenance diets varying in macronutrient content on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in brain regions involved in hunger and reward. Read More

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RhoG-Rac1 Signaling Pathway Mediates Metabolic Dysfunction of the Pancreatic Beta-Cells Under Chronic Hyperglycemic Conditions.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr;55(2):180-192

Biomedical Research Service, John D. Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA,

Background/aims: Published evidence suggests regulatory roles for small G proteins (Cdc42 and Rac1) in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic beta-cells. More recent evidence suggests novel roles for these G proteins, specifically Rac1, in the induction of metabolic dysfunction of the islet beta-cell under the duress of a variety of stress conditions. However, potential upstream regulators of sustained activation of Rac1 have not been identified in the beta-cell. Read More

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A neoclerodane orthoester and other new neoclerodane diterpenoids from Teucrium yemense chemistry and effect on secretion of insulin.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 13;11(1):8074. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box. 2457, Riyadh, 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Teucrium yemense, a medicinal plant commonly grown in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, is traditionally used to treat infections, kidney diseases, rheumatism, and diabetes. Extraction of the dried aerial parts of the plant with methanol, followed by further extraction with butanol and chromatography, gave twenty novel neoclerodanes. Their structures, relative configurations and some conformations were determined by MS and 1-D and 2-D NMR techniques. Read More

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