25,222 results match your criteria insulin release

Assessing Different Temporal Scales of Calcium Dynamics in Networks of Beta Cell Populations.

Front Physiol 2021 23;12:612233. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia.

Beta cells within the pancreatic islets of Langerhans respond to stimulation with coherent oscillations of membrane potential and intracellular calcium concentration that presumably drive the pulsatile exocytosis of insulin. Their rhythmic activity is multimodal, resulting from networked feedback interactions of various oscillatory subsystems, such as the glycolytic, mitochondrial, and electrical/calcium components. How these oscillatory modules interact and affect the collective cellular activity, which is a prerequisite for proper hormone release, is incompletely understood. Read More

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Patient Understanding of Discharge Instructions for Home Diabetes (DM) Self-Management and Risk for Hospital Readmission and Emergency Department Visits.

Endocr Pract 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Electronic address:

Objective: The primary objective of this study was to examine patient comprehension (PC) of diabetes self-management (DSM) instructions provided at hospital discharge as an associated risk for readmission.

Methods: Non-critically ill patients with diabetes completed PC questionnaires (PCQ) within 48 hours of discharge. PCQ scores were compared among patients with and without readmission, or emergency department (ED) visits at 30 and 90 days. Read More

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In pancreatic β-cells myosin 1b regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by modulating an early step in insulin granule trafficking from the Golgi.

Mol Biol Cell 2021 Apr 7:mbcE21030094. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118-2518.

Pancreatic β-cells secrete insulin, which controls blood glucose levels, and defects in insulin secretion are responsible for diabetes mellitus. The actin cytoskeleton and some myosins support insulin granule trafficking and release, although a role for the class I myosin Myo1b, an actin- and membrane-associated load-sensitive motor, in insulin biology is unknown. We found by immunohistochemistry that Myo1b is expressed in islet cells of rat pancreas. Read More

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Silencing circRNA LRP6 down-regulates PRMT1 to improve the streptozocin-induced pancreatic β-cell injury and insulin secretion by sponging miR-9-5p.

J Bioenerg Biomembr 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Endocrinology and Kidney Internal Medicine, Chonggang General Hospital, No. 1, Dayan Village 3, Dadukou District, Chongqing, 400080, China.

Due to the sedentary lifestyles of people, the number of obese people is increasing alarmingly, which leads to the high prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM). It was reported that circularRNA (circRNA) LRP6 was upregulated in HG-treated mesangial cells, and it could regulate high glucose-induced cell injury via sponging miR-205. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the underlying pathogenesis of DM. Read More

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Blood leukocytes recapitulate diabetogenic peptide-MHC-II complexes displayed in the pancreatic islets.

J Exp Med 2021 Jun;218(6)

Division of Immunobiology, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.

Assessing the self-peptides presented by susceptible major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules is crucial for evaluating the pathogenesis and therapeutics of tissue-specific autoimmune diseases. However, direct examination of such MHC-bound peptides displayed in the target organ remains largely impractical. Here, we demonstrate that the blood leukocytes from the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice presented peptide epitopes to autoreactive CD4 T cells. Read More

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Food anticipatory hormonal responses: a systematic review of animal and human studies.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Health, Medical and Neuropsychology Unit, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, Wassenaarseweg 52, 2333 AK, Leiden, the Netherlands; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA, the Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Food anticipatory hormonal responses (cephalic responses) are proactive physiological processes, that allow animals to prepare for food ingestion by modulating their hormonal levels in response to food cues. This process is important for digesting food, metabolizing nutrients and maintaining glucose levels within homeostasis. In this systematic review, we summarize the evidence from animal and human research on cephalic responses. Read More

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Toxicity Induced by Cytokines, Glucose, and Lipids Increase Apoptosis and Hamper Insulin Secretion in the 1.1E7 Beta Cell-Line.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 4;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Inflammation, Nutrition, Metabolism and Oxidative Stress Study Group (INMOX), Biomedical Research and Innovation Institute of Cádiz (INiBICA), Research Unit, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, 11009 Cádiz, Spain.

Basic research on types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus require early stage studies using beta cells or cell lines, ideally of human origin and with preserved insulin secretion in response to glucose. The 1.1E7 cells are a hybrid cell line resulting from the electrofusion of dispersed human islets and PANC-1 cells, capable of secreting insulin in response to glucose, but their survival and function under toxic conditions remains untested. Read More

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The Function of Sialidase Revealed by Sialidase Activity Imaging Probe.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 20;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan.

Sialidase cleaves sialic acid residues from glycans such as glycoproteins and glycolipids. In the brain, desorption of the sialic acid by sialidase is essential for synaptic plasticity, learning and memory and synaptic transmission. BTP3-Neu5Ac has been developed for sensitive imaging of sialidase enzyme activity in mammalian tissues. Read More

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Interaction of Full-Length Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Proteins with Serum Proteins and Their Translocation to Cells In Vitro Depend on the (Pre-)Diabetic State in Rats and Humans.

Biomedicines 2021 Mar 10;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Institute for Diabetes and Obesity (IDO), Helmholtz Diabetes Center (HDC) at Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, 85764 Oberschleissheim, Germany.

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs), which are anchored at the surface of mammalian cultured and tissue cells through a carboxy-terminal GPI glycolipid, are susceptible to release into incubation medium and (rat and human) blood, respectively, in response to metabolic stress and ageing. Those GPI-APs with the complete GPI still attached form micelle-like complexes together with (lyso)phospholipids and cholesterol and are prone to degradation by serum GPI-specific phospholipase D (GPLD1), as well as translocation to the surface of acceptor cells in vitro. In this study, the interaction of GPI-APs with GPLD1 or other serum proteins derived from metabolically deranged rat and humans and their translocation were measured by microfluidic chip- and surface acoustic wave-based sensing of micelle-like complexes reconstituted with model GPI-APs. Read More

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Leaky Gut as a Potential Culprit for the Paradoxical Dysglycemic Response to Gastric Bypass-Associated Ileal Microbiota.

Metabolites 2021 Mar 8;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 København, Denmark.

Altered host-intestinal microbiota interactions are increasingly implicated in the metabolic benefits of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. We previously found, however, that RYGB-associated ileal microbiota can paradoxically impair host glycemic control when transferred to germ-free mice. Here we present complementary evidence suggesting that this could be due to the heightened development of systemic endotoxemia. Read More

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Genetic deletion of the ghrelin receptor (GHSR) impairs growth and blunts endocrine response to fasting in Ghsr-IRES-Cre mice.

Mol Metab 2021 Mar 30:101223. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Physiology/Endocrinology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

Objective: The orexigenic hormone ghrelin exerts its physiological effects by binding to and activating the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). The recent development of a Ghsr-IRES-Cre knock-in mouse line has made it possible to genetically access GHSR-expressing neurons. Inserting a Cre construct using a knock-in strategy, even when following an upstream internal ribosome entry site (IRES) can, however, interfere with expression of a targeted gene, with consequences for the phenotype emerging. Read More

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Understanding the molecular mechanisms and role of autophagy in obesity.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab, India.

Vital for growth, proliferation, subsistence, and thermogenesis, autophagy is the biological cascade, which confers defence against aging and various pathologies. Current research has demonstrated de novo activity of autophagy in stimulation of biological events. There exists a significant association between autophagy activation and obesity, encompassing expansion of adipocytes which facilitates β cell activity. Read More

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JAK/STAT inhibitor therapy partially rescues the lipodystrophic autoimmune phenotype in Clec16a KO mice.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 1;11(1):7372. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

The Center for Applied Genomics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

CLEC16A is implicated in multiple autoimmune diseases. We generated an inducible whole-body knockout (KO), Clec16a mice to address the role of CLEC16A loss of function. KO mice exhibited loss of adipose tissue and severe weight loss in response to defective autophagic flux and exaggerated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and robust cytokine storm. Read More

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Calcium-dependent insulin resistance in hepatocytes: mathematical model.

J Theor Biol 2021 Mar 29:110684. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation. Electronic address:

Hepatocyte insulin resistance is one of the early factors of developing type II diabetes. If insulin resistance is treated early, type II diabetes could be prevented. In recent years, scientists have been conducting extensive research on the underlying issues on a cellular and molecular level. Read More

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[VNUT Is a Therapeutic Target for Type 2 Diabetes and NASH].

Yakugaku Zasshi 2021 ;141(4):517-526

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine.

ATP, used in cells as an energy currency, also acts as an extracellular signaling molecule. Studies of purinergic receptor subtypes have revealed that purinergic chemical transmission plays important roles in various cell types. The vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT), the ninth transporter in the SLC17 organic anion transporter family, is essential for vesicular ATP storage and its subsequent release. Read More

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January 2021

Effect of Rosolic acid on endothelial dysfunction under ER stress in pancreatic microenvironment.

Free Radic Res 2021 Mar 31:1-16. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

SRM Research Institute and Department of Biotechnology, School of Bioengineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, India.

Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is the underlying cause for the development of several pathologies, and the interdependency between the pancreatic β-cells and ECs has been established in the pathophysiology of diabetes. ECs release several factors that govern the expression of genes involved in the proliferation, physiology, and survival of the β-cells. Of the known factors that collapse this intricately balanced system, endothelial dysfunction is the crucial condition that manifests as the causative factor for micro and macrovascular diseases. Read More

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Pancreatic fat cells of humans with type 2 diabetes display reduced adipogenic and lipolytic activity.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD e.V.); Institute for Diabetes Research and Metabolic Diseases of the Helmholtz Center Munich at the Eberhard-KarlsUniversity of Tübingen, Neuherberg; Department of Internal Medicine IV, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Nephrology, University Hospital of Eberhard-Karls-University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Obesity, especially visceral fat accumulation, increases the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of T2D on the pancreatic fat depot. Pancreatic fat pads from 17 partial pancreatectomized patients (PPP) were collected, pancreatic preadipocytes isolated and in vitro differentiated. Read More

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[Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State (HHS) with extreme hyperglycemia and hyperglycemia-induced hyponatremia in a patient with previously known diabetes mellitus type 2].

Lakartidningen 2021 03 26;118. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

överläkare, VO internmedicin, Visby lasarett.

This case report covers a patient presenting unconscious to the emergency department with a serum glucose level of 125.6 mmol/L and an associated hyperglycemia-induced hyponatremia with a sodium level of 101 mmol/L. The glucose level is, to our knowledge, one of the most extreme values described in medical literature. Read More

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Can nanoparticles and nano‒protein interactions bring a bright future for insulin delivery?

Acta Pharm Sin B 2021 Mar 3;11(3):651-667. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Insulin therapy plays an essential role in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, frequent injections required to effectively control the glycemic levels lead to substantial inconvenience and low patient compliance. In order to improve insulin delivery, many efforts have been made, such as developing the nanoparticles (NPs)-based release systems and oral insulin. Read More

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The Effect of 6 Months' Treatment With Pasireotide LAR on Glucose Metabolism in Patients With Resistant Acromegaly in Real-World Clinical Settings.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 10;12:633944. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Isotope Therapy, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate glucose metabolism, as measured by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and the need for antidiabetic medical treatment, in patients with acromegaly resistant to first-generation somatostatin receptors ligands (SRLs) treated with pasireotide long-acting release (LAR) in real-world clinical practice. Biochemical control of acromegaly, as measured by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels, was also assessed.

Study Design: Two-center retrospective cohort of consecutive patients with acromegaly treated with first-generation SRLs at maximum doses, who had not achieved biochemical disease control. Read More

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Insulin Resistance in Type 1 Diabetes Managed with Metformin (INTIMET): study protocol of a double-blind placebo-controlled, randomised trial.

Diabet Med 2021 Mar 27:e14564. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Healthy Ageing, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia.

Background: Insulin resistance is an under-recognised metabolic defect and cardiovascular risk factor in type 1 diabetes. Whether metformin improves hepatic, muscle or adipose tissue insulin sensitivity has not been studied in adults with Type 1 diabetes. We initiated the INTIMET study (INsulin resistance in Type 1 diabetes managed with METformin), a double-blind randomised, placebo-controlled trial to measure the effect of metformin on tissue-specific insulin resistance in adults with Type 1 diabetes. Read More

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Investigation of the impacts of zamzam water on streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats. In-vivo and in-vitro study.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Mar 24;138:111474. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Modern University for Technology and Information, Cairo, Egypt; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562, Egypt.

Background: Oxidative stress is considered the main event in the pathogenesis. of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Zamzam water, being natural alkaline with exceptional characteristics, is capable of enhancing antioxidant mechanisms. Read More

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Growth hormone receptor in dopaminergic neurones regulates stress-induced prolactin release in male mice.

J Neuroendocrinol 2021 Mar;33(3):e12957

Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Arcuate nucleus (ARH) dopaminergic neurones regulate several biological functions, including prolactin secretion and metabolism. These cells are responsive to growth hormone (GH), although it is still unknown whether GH action on ARH dopaminergic neurones is required to regulate different physiological aspects. Mice carrying specific deletion of GH receptor (GHR) in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)- or dopamine transporter (DAT)-expressing cells were produced. Read More

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β-Cyclodextrin-containing chitosan-oligonucleotide nanoparticles improve insulin bioactivity, gut cellular permeation and glucose consumption.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Curtin University, Bentley,  Australia.

Objectives: The main objective of the present study was to develop a nanoparticulate drug delivery system that can protect insulin against harsh conditions in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The effects of the following employed techniques, including lyophilisation, cross-linking and nanoencapsulation, on the physicochemical properties of the formulation were investigated.

Methods: We herein developed a nanocarrier via ionotropic gelation by using positively charged chitosan and negatively charged Dz13Scr. Read More

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ZIMIR Imaging of Mouse Pancreatic Islet Cells Shows Oscillatory Insulin Secretion.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 9;12:613964. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Departments of Cell Biology and of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical, Dallas, TX, United States.

Appropriate insulin secretion is essential for maintaining euglycemia, and impairment or loss of insulin release represents a causal event leading to diabetes. There have been extensive efforts of studying insulin secretion and its regulation using a variety of biological preparations, yet it remains challenging to monitor the dynamics of insulin secretion at the cellular level in the intact pancreas of living animals, where islet cells are supplied with physiological blood circulation and oxygenation, nerve innervation, and tissue support of surrounding exocrine cells. Herein we presented our pilot efforts of ZIMIR imaging in pancreatic islet cells in a living mouse. Read More

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The Ameliorating Effects of Bushen Huatan Granules and Kunling Wan on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Induced by Dehydroepiandrosterone in Rats.

Front Physiol 2021 8;12:525145. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

Aim: To investigate the effects of Bushen Huatan Granules (BHG) and Kunling Wan (KW), the two Chinese medicines, on the regulation of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and their underlying mechanisms.

Materials And Methods: PCOS rat model was established by subcutaneous injection of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) (6 mg/100 g/day) for 20 days, followed by treatment with BHG (0.75, 1. Read More

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Apolipoprotein A5 lowers triglyceride levels via suppression of ANGPTL3/8-mediated LPL inhibition.

J Lipid Res 2021 Mar 21:100068. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Electronic address:

Triglyceride (TG) molecules represent the major storage form of fatty acids, and TG metabolism is essential to human health. However, the mechanistic details surrounding TG metabolism are complex and incompletely elucidated. While it is known that angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) increases TG through an ANGPTL3/8 complex that inhibits lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the mechanism governing apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5), which lowers TG, has remained elusive. Read More

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Antihyperglycemic Activity of TLC Isolates from the Leaves of Baker in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 15;14:1153-1166. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance, School of Pharmacy, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia.

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders that are characterized by hyperglycemia which results from defects in insulin release or its efficient use by the human body. Although significant progress has been made to manage DM and related complications, it remains a major global health problem. To this end, the search for new antidiabetic drugs from traditionally claimed medicinal plants is important. Read More

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Insulinotropic and antidiabetic properties of Eucalyptus citriodora leaves and isolation of bioactive phytomolecules.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

School of Biomedical Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, UK.

Objective: The aim of this study was to delineate the mechanisms of action of the plant Eucalyptus citriodora used traditionally for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Methods: Insulin secretion and signal transduction were measured using clonal pancreatic β-cells and mouse islets. Glucose uptake was assessed using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in vitro systems assessed additional glucose-lowering actions. Read More

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Charge-switchable zwitterionic polycarboxybetaine particle as an intestinal permeation enhancer for efficient oral insulin delivery.

Theranostics 2021 4;11(9):4452-4466. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, PR China.

Insulin, a peptide hormone, is one of the most common and effective antidiabetic drugs. Although oral administration is considered to be the most convenient and safe choice for patients, the oral bioavailability of insulin is very low due to the poor oral absorption into blood circulation. Intestinal epithelium is a major barrier for the oral absorption of insulin. Read More

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