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Utilizing Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Networks for Automatic Segmentation Of Gliomas: An Artificial Intelligence Study.

Turk Neurosurg 2020 Jul 20. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Gazi University Faculty of Engineering, Department of Computer Engineering, Ankara, Turkey.

Aim: During daily practice of neurosurgery, especially in sub-specializations such as radiosurgery, tumor segmentation is essential and time consuming. Artificial intelligence methods are getting widely used for such purposes. In this study we propose a deep convolutional generative adversarial networks (DCGAN) model which learns normal brain MRI from normal subjects than finds distortions such as a glioma from a test subject while performing a segmentation at the same time. Read More

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DR-MIL: deep represented multiple instance learning distinguishes COVID-19 from community-acquired pneumonia in CT images.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Sep 9;211:106406. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, China. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Given that the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, a method to accurately distinguish COVID-19 from community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is urgently needed. However, the spatial uncertainty and morphological diversity of COVID-19 lesions in the lungs, and subtle differences with respect to CAP, make differential diagnosis non-trivial.

Methods: We propose a deep represented multiple instance learning (DR-MIL) method to fulfill this task. Read More

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September 2021

Aromatase and non-aromatase neurons in the zebra finch secondary auditory forebrain are indistinct in their song-driven gene induction and intrinsic electrophysiological properties.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Center for Neuroendocrine Studies, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.

Estrogens support major brain functions including cognition, reproduction, neuroprotection, and sensory processing. Neuroestrogens are synthesized within some brain areas by the enzyme aromatase and can rapidly modulate local circuit functions, yet the cellular physiology and sensory-response profiles of aromatase neurons are essentially unknown. In songbirds, social and acoustic stimuli drive neuroestrogen elevations in the auditory forebrain caudomedial nidopallium (NCM). Read More

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September 2021

5-HT receptors enhance inhibitory synaptic input to principal neurons in the mouse basal amygdala.

Neuropharmacology 2021 Sep 3;198:108779. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Physiology, Maj Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smętna 12 Str., 31-343, Kraków, Poland. Electronic address:

The basal amygdala (BA) has been implicated in encoding fear and its extinction. The level of serotonin (5-HT) in the BA increases due to arousal and stress related to aversive stimuli. The effects of 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) activation and blockade on the activity of BA neurons have not yet been investigated. Read More

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September 2021

αβ Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Strongly Modulate the Excitability of VIP Neurons in the Mouse Inferior Colliculus.

Front Neural Circuits 2021 9;15:709387. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Kresge Hearing Research Institute, Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

The inferior colliculus (IC), the midbrain hub of the central auditory system, receives extensive cholinergic input from the pontomesencephalic tegmentum. Activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the IC can alter acoustic processing and enhance auditory task performance. However, how nAChRs affect the excitability of specific classes of IC neurons remains unknown. Read More

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Dedicated C-fiber vagal sensory afferent pathways to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.

Brain Res 2021 Oct 17;1769:147625. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Chemical Physiology & Biochemistry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239, United States. Electronic address:

The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) receives viscerosensory information from the vagus nerve to regulate diverse homeostatic reflex functions. The NTS projects to a wide network of other brain regions, including the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Here we examined the synaptic characteristics of primary afferent pathways to PVN-projecting NTS neurons in rat brainstem slices. Read More

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October 2021

Exploiting Shared Knowledge from Non-COVID Lesions for Annotation-Efficient COVID-19 CT Lung Infection Segmentation.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Aug 20;PP. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

The novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a highly contagious virus and has spread all over the world, posing an extremely serious threat to all countries. Automatic lung infection segmentation from computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in the quantitative analysis of COVID-19. However, the major challenge lies in the inadequacy of annotated COVID-19 datasets. Read More

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Automatic detection of image sharpening in maxillofacial radiology.

BMC Oral Health 2021 Aug 19;21(1):411. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Improvement of image quality in radiology, including the maxillofacial region, is important for diagnosis by enhancing the visual perception of the original image. One of the most used modification methods is sharpening, in which simultaneously with the improvement, due to edge enhancement, several artifacts appear. These might lead to misdiagnosis and, as a consequence, to improper treatment. Read More

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Artificial Intelligence Based Framework to Quantify the Cardiomyocyte Structural Integrity in Heart Slices.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2021 Aug 16. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

Purpose: Drug induced cardiac toxicity is a disruption of the functionality of cardiomyocytes which is highly correlated to the organization of the subcellular structures. We can analyze cellular structures by utilizing microscopy imaging data. However, conventional image analysis methods might miss structural deteriorations that are difficult to perceive. Read More

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G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 enhances excitatory synaptic responses in the entorhinal cortex.

Hippocampus 2021 Aug 16. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Department of Psychology, Concordia University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Activation of estrogen receptors is thought to modulate cognitive function in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum by affecting both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. The entorhinal cortex is a major source of cortical sensory and associational input to the hippocampus, but it is unclear whether either estrogens or progestogens may modulate cognitive function through effects on synaptic transmission in the entorhinal cortex. This study assessed the effects of the brief application of either 17-β estradiol (E2) or progesterone on excitatory glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the female rat entorhinal cortex in vitro. Read More

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A Study on Seizure Detection of EEG Signals Represented in 2D.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 29;21(15). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

School of Computer Science and Technology, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018, China.

A seizure is a neurological disorder caused by abnormal neuronal discharges in the brain, which severely reduces the quality of life of patients and often endangers their lives. Automatic seizure detection is an important research area in the treatment of seizure and is a prerequisite for seizure intervention. Deep learning has been widely used for automatic detection of seizures, and many related research works decomposed the electroencephalogram (EEG) raw signal with a time window to obtain EEG signal slices, then performed feature extraction on the slices, and represented the obtained features as input data for neural networks. Read More

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Single Prolonged Stress Reduces Intrinsic Excitability and Excitatory Synaptic Drive Onto Pyramidal Neurons in the Infralimbic Prefrontal Cortex of Adult Male Rats.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 23;15:705660. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Pharmacology and Systems Physiology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic, debilitating mental illness marked by abnormal fear responses and deficits in extinction of fear memories. The pathophysiology of PTSD is linked to decreased activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). This study aims to investigate underlying functional changes in synaptic drive and intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons in the rodent homolog of the vmPFC, the infralimbic cortex (IL), following exposure to single prolonged stress (SPS), a paradigm that mimics core symptoms of PTSD in rats. Read More

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Denoising proton therapy Monte Carlo dose distributions in multiple tumor sites: A comparative neural networks architecture study.

Phys Med 2021 Aug 3;89:93-103. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), UCLouvain, Belgium; Molecular Imaging, Radiation and Oncology (MIRO) Laboratory, UCLouvain, Belgium.

Introduction: Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms provide accurate modeling of dose calculation by simulating the delivery and interaction of many particles through patient geometry. Fast MC simulations using large number of particles are desirable as they can lead to reliable clinical decisions. In this work, we assume that faster simulations with fewer particles can approximate slower ones by denoising them with deep learning. Read More

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The Effect of Serotonin Receptor 5-HT1B on Lateral Inhibition between Spiny Projection Neurons in the Mouse Striatum.

J Neurosci 2021 Sep 4;41(37):7831-7847. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Neurobiology Research Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan

The principal neurons of the striatum, the spiny projection neurons (SPNs), make inhibitory synaptic connections with each other via collaterals of their main axon, forming a local lateral inhibition network. Serotonin, acting via the 5-HT1B receptor, modulates neurotransmitter release from SPN terminals in striatal output nuclei, but the role of 5-HT1B receptors in lateral inhibition among SPNs in the striatum is unknown. Here, we report the effects of 5-HT1B receptor activation on lateral inhibition in the mouse striatum. Read More

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September 2021

In vitro metabolism of lidocaine in subcellular post-mitochondrial fractions and precision cut slices from cattle liver.

Toxicol In Vitro 2021 Oct 24;76:105228. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Wageningen Food Safety Research, Wageningen University and Research, PO Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen, the Netherlands.

In vitro models are widely used to study the biotransformation of xenobiotics and to provide input parameters to physiologically based kinetic models required to predict the kinetic behavior in vivo. For farm animals this is not common practice yet. The use of slaughterhouse-derived tissue material may provide opportunities to study biotransformation reactions in farm animals. Read More

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October 2021

Subicular Caspase-1 Contributes to Pharmacoresistance in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

Ann Neurol 2021 Sep 11;90(3):377-390. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Key Laboratory of Neuropharmacology and Translational Medicine of Zhejiang Province, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China.

Objective: Unidentified mechanisms largely restrict the viability of effective therapies in pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Our previous study revealed that hyperactivity of the subiculum is crucial for the genesis of pharmacoresistance in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but the underlying molecular mechanism is not clear.

Methods: Here, we examined the role of subicular caspase-1, a key neural pro-inflammatory enzyme, in pharmacoresistant TLE. Read More

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September 2021

Automated Left Ventricle Ischemic Scar Detection in CT Using Deep Neural Networks.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 2;8:655252. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

The aim of this study is to develop a scar detection method for routine computed tomography angiography (CTA) imaging using deep convolutional neural networks (CNN), which relies solely on anatomical information as input and is compatible with existing clinical workflows. Identifying cardiac patients with scar tissue is important for assisting diagnosis and guiding interventions. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for scar imaging; however, there are common instances where it is contraindicated. Read More

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Rapid Ultrastructural Changes in the PSD and Surrounding Membrane after Induction of Structural LTP in Single Dendritic Spines.

J Neurosci 2021 Aug 15;41(33):7003-7014. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Neuronal Signal Transduction Group, Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience, Jupiter, Florida 33458

The structural plasticity of dendritic spines is considered to be an important basis of synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. Here, we induced input-specific structural LTP (sLTP) in single dendritic spines in organotypic hippocampal slices from mice of either sex and performed ultrastructural analyses of the spines using efficient correlative light and electron microscopy. We observed reorganization of the PSD nanostructure, such as perforation and segmentation, at 2-3, 20, and 120 min after sLTP induction. Read More

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Three-stage segmentation of lung region from CT images using deep neural networks.

BMC Med Imaging 2021 Jul 15;21(1):112. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Computer Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Gjøvik, Norway.

Background: Lung region segmentation is an important stage of automated image-based approaches for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. Manual methods executed by experts are considered the gold standard, but it is time consuming and the accuracy is dependent on radiologists' experience. Automated methods are relatively fast and reproducible with potential to facilitate physician interpretation of images. Read More

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Three-dimensional deep learning with spatial erasing for unsupervised anomaly segmentation in brain MRI.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2021 Sep 12;16(9):1413-1423. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Institute of Medical Technology and Intelligent Systems, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany.

Purpose: Brain Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs) are essential for the diagnosis of neurological diseases. Recently, deep learning methods for unsupervised anomaly detection (UAD) have been proposed for the analysis of brain MRI. These methods rely on healthy brain MRIs and eliminate the requirement of pixel-wise annotated data compared to supervised deep learning. Read More

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September 2021

Automatic linear measurements of the fetal brain on MRI with deep neural networks.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2021 Sep 29;16(9):1481-1492. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

School of Computer Science and Engineering, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Purpose: Timely, accurate and reliable assessment of fetal brain development is essential to reduce short and long-term risks to fetus and mother. Fetal MRI is increasingly used for fetal brain assessment. Three key biometric linear measurements important for fetal brain evaluation are cerebral biparietal diameter (CBD), bone biparietal diameter (BBD), and trans-cerebellum diameter (TCD), obtained manually by expert radiologists on reference slices, which is time consuming and prone to human error. Read More

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September 2021

FireMaster® 550 (FM 550) exposure during the perinatal period impacts partner preference behavior and nucleus accumbens core medium spiny neuron electrophysiology in adult male and female prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster.

Horm Behav 2021 Aug 25;134:105019. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Biological Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA; Center for Human Health and the Environment, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.

One of the most widely used flame retardant (FR) mixtures in household products is Firemaster 550 (FM 550). FM 550 leaches from items such as foam-based furniture and infant products, resulting in contamination of the household environment and biota. Previous studies indicate sex-specific behavioral deficits in rodents and zebrafish in response to developmental FM 550 exposure. Read More

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DICOM 3D viewers, virtual reality or 3D printing - a pilot usability study for assessing the preference of orthopedic surgeons.

Proc Inst Mech Eng H 2021 Jun 27:9544119211020148. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Department of Robotics and Production Systems, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania.

As standard practice in orthopedic surgery, the information gathered by analyzing Computer Tomography (CT) 2D images is used for patient diagnosis and planning surgery. Lately, these virtual slices are the input for generating 3D virtual models using DICOM viewers, facilitating spatial orientation, and diagnosis. Virtual Reality (VR) and 3D printing (3DP) technologies are also reported for use in anatomy visualization, medical training, and diagnosis. Read More

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Scn2a severe hypomorphic mutation decreases excitatory synaptic input and causes autism-associated behaviors.

JCI Insight 2021 Aug 9;6(15). Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Cardiovascular Research Institute.

SCN2A, encoding the neuronal voltage-gated Na+ channel NaV1.2, is one of the most commonly affected loci linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Most ASD-associated mutations in SCN2A are loss-of-function mutations, but studies examining how such mutations affect neuronal function and whether Scn2a mutant mice display ASD endophenotypes have been inconsistent. Read More

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Low-Cutoff Frequency Reduction in Neural Amplifiers: Analysis and Implementation in CMOS 65 nm.

Front Neurosci 2021 2;15:667846. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Polystim Neurotech. Lab., Department of Electrical Engineering, Polytechnique Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Scaling down technology demotes the parameters of AC-coupled neural amplifiers, such as increasing the low-cutoff frequency due to the short-channel effects. To improve the low-cutoff frequency, one solution is to increase the feedback capacitors' value. This solution is not desirable, as the input capacitors have to be increased to maintain the same gain, which increases the area and decreases the input impedance of the neural amplifier. Read More

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Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Neuron Potassium Currents and Excitability in Both Sexes Exhibit Minimal Changes upon Removal of Negative Feedback.

eNeuro 2021 Jul-Aug;8(4). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109.

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) drives pituitary secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, which in turn regulate gonadal functions including steroidogenesis. The pattern of GnRH release and thus fertility depend on gonadal steroid feedback. Under homeostatic (negative) feedback conditions, removal of the gonads from either females or males increases the amplitude and frequency of GnRH release and alters the long-term firing pattern of these neurons in brain slices. Read More

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Cardiac MRI segmentation with focal loss constrained deep residual networks.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jul 1;66(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

College of Optical Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, People's Republic of China.

Delineating anatomical structures for cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is crucial for various medical applications such as medical diagnoses, treatment, and pathological studies. CMRI segmentation, which aims to automatically and accurately segment the heart structures, is highly beneficial for cardiologists. However, it is non-trivial to perfectly segment the ventricles, especially for the heart apex slices, considering their small sizes compared to the input images. Read More

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Medical image recognition and segmentation of pathological slices of gastric cancer based on Deeplab v3+ neural network.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Aug 29;207:106210. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of General Surgery Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Liaoning 110004, China. Electronic address:

Objective: In order to improve the efficiency of gastric cancer pathological slice image recognition and segmentation of cancerous regions, this paper proposes an automatic gastric cancer segmentation model based on Deeplab v3+ neural network.

Methods: Based on 1240 gastric cancer pathological slice images, this paper proposes a multi-scale input Deeplab v3+ network, _and compares it with SegNet, ICNet in sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and Dice coefficient.

Results: The sensitivity of Deeplab v3+ is 91. Read More

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Efficient high cone-angle artifact reduction in circular cone-beam CT using deep learning with geometry-aware dimension reduction.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jul 1;66(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI), 1090 GB Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

High cone-angle artifacts (HCAAs) appear frequently in circular cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and can heavily affect diagnosis and treatment planning. To reduce HCAAs in CBCT scans, we propose a novel deep learning approach that reduces the three-dimensional (3D) nature of HCAAs to two-dimensional (2D) problems in an efficient way. Specifically, we exploit the relationship between HCAAs and the rotational scanning geometry by training a convolutional neural network (CNN) using image slices that were radially sampled from CBCT scans. Read More

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Dual attention multiple instance learning with unsupervised complementary loss for COVID-19 screening.

Med Image Anal 2021 08 24;72:102105. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Robotics Engineering, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu, South Korea. Electronic address:

Chest computed tomography (CT) based analysis and diagnosis of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) plays a key role in combating the outbreak of the pandemic that has rapidly spread worldwide. To date, the disease has infected more than 18 million people with over 690k deaths reported. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the current gold standard for clinical diagnosis but may produce false positives; thus, chest CT based diagnosis is considered more viable. Read More

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