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Agonistic autoantibodies against ß2-adrenergic receptor influence retinal microcirculation in glaucoma suspects and patients.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0249202. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Purpose: Agonistic β2-adrenergic receptor autoantibodies (β2-agAAb) have been observed in sera of patients with ocular hypertension and open-angle glaucoma (OAG). They target the β2-receptors on trabecular meshwork, ciliary body and pericytes (Junemann et al. 2018; Hohberger et al. Read More

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Mechanoresponsive Smad5 Enhances MiR-487a Processing to Promote Vascular Endothelial Proliferation in Response to Disturbed Flow.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 20;9:647714. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan.

MicroRNAs (miRs) and bone morphogenetic protein receptor-specific Smads are mechano-responsive molecules that play vital roles in modulating endothelial cell (EC) functions in response to blood flow. However, the roles of interplay between these molecules in modulating EC functions under flows remain unclear. We elucidated the regulatory roles of the interplay between miR-487a and Smad5 in EC proliferation in response to different flow patterns. Read More

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The Relationship Between Keratoconus Stage and the Thickness of the Retinal Layers

Turk J Ophthalmol 2021 04;51(2):75-82

Kayseri City Hospital, Clinic of Ophthalmology, Kayseri, Turkey

Objectives: To examine the relationship between keratoconus (KC) stage and the thickness of the retinal layers.

Materials And Methods: Retinal layer thicknesses were compared between 85 eyes of 85 KC patients and 40 eyes of 40 controls similar in age, sex, and axial length. KC patients were staged as stage 1, 2, or 3 according to the Amsler-Krumeich staging system, and segmentation of the retinal layers was performed with spectral domain optical coherence tomography automatic segmentation program. Read More

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Chemical Imaging of Single Anisotropic Polystyrene/Poly (Methacrylate) Microspheres with Complex Hierarchical Architecture.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Process Analysis and Technology (PA&T), Reutlingen Research Institute, Reutlingen University, Alteburgstrasse 150, 72762 Reutlingen, Germany.

Monodisperse polystyrene spheres are functional materials with interesting properties, such as high cohesion strength, strong adsorptivity, and surface reactivity. They have shown a high application value in biomedicine, information engineering, chromatographic fillers, supercapacitor electrode materials, and other fields. To fully understand and tailor particle synthesis, the methods for characterization of their complex 3D morphological features need to be further explored. Read More

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Delivery of Cinnamic Aldehyde Antioxidant Response Activating nanoParticles (ARAPas) for Vascular Applications.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

Selective delivery of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activators to the injured vasculature at the time of vascular surgical intervention has the potential to attenuate oxidative stress and decrease vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hyperproliferation and migration towards the inner vessel wall. To this end, we developed a nanoformulation of cinnamic aldehyde (CA), termed Antioxidant Response Activating nanoParticles (ARAPas), that can be readily loaded into macrophages ex vivo. The CA-ARAPas-macrophage system was used to study the effects of CA on VSMC in culture. Read More

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Anatomical effects of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections on inner layers of the lesion-free retina.

Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2021 May 4:1-5. Epub 2021 May 4.

Ophthalmology Department, Sultan 2. Abdulhamid Han Training and Research Hospital, University of Health Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: The primary aim of the study was to investigate the effects of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections on the inner retinal layer anatomy of the lesion-free retina in eyes treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). The secondary aim was to compare the changes of inner retinal layers in the lesion-free region of treated eyes with the same region of the untreated, fellow eyes and, thus, to elucidate any adverse effect of anti-VEGF treatments independently of 1-year aging changes.

Methods: This was a retrospective, longitudinal, case-control study of 50 eyes of 25 patients. Read More

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Foveal configurations with disappearance of the foveal pit in eyes with macular pucker: Presumed role of Müller cells in the formation of foveal herniation.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Apr 27;207:108604. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Ophthalmology and Eye Hospital, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

Many eyes with macular pucker are characterized by a centripetal displacement of the inner foveal layers which may result in a disappearance of the foveal pit. In this retrospective case series of 90 eyes with macular pucker of 90 patients, we describe using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography different foveal configurations with ectopic inner foveal layers, document the relationship between posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) formation and spontaneous and postoperative morphological alterations of the fovea, and propose an active role of Müller cells in the development of foveal herniation. We found that ERM were formed during or after partial perifoveal PVD, or after foveal deformations caused by tissue edema. Read More

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Phenotypic Differences in a Mutation in Members of the Same Family Assessed with OCT and OCTA.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Physiology, Genetics and Microbiology, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain.

Choroidal dystrophies comprise a group of chorioretinal degenerations. However, the different findings observed among these patients make it difficult to establish a correct clinical diagnosis. The objective of this study was to characterize new clinical findings by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in these patients. Read More

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LINCking the Nuclear Envelope to Sperm Architecture.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 27;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Università degli Studi della Campania L. Vanvitelli, Via Costantinopoli 16, 80138 Napoli, Italy.

Nuclear architecture undergoes an extensive remodeling during spermatogenesis, especially at levels of spermatocytes (SPC) and spermatids (SPT). Interestingly, typical events of spermiogenesis, such as nuclear elongation, acrosome biogenesis, and flagellum formation, need a functional cooperation between proteins of the nuclear envelope and acroplaxome/manchette structures. In addition, nuclear envelope plays a key role in chromosome distribution. Read More

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Host and Viral Factors Involved in Nuclear Egress of Herpes Simplex Virus 1.

Authors:
Jun Arii

Viruses 2021 04 25;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017, Japan.

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replicates its genome and packages it into capsids within the nucleus. HSV-1 has evolved a complex mechanism of nuclear egress whereby nascent capsids bud on the inner nuclear membrane to form perinuclear virions that subsequently fuse with the outer nuclear membrane, releasing capsids into the cytosol. The viral-encoded nuclear egress complex (NEC) plays a crucial role in this vesicle-mediated nucleocytoplasmic transport. Read More

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Expression of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Marker GRP78 in the Normal Retina and Retinal Degeneration Induced by Blue LED Stimuli in Mice.

Cells 2021 Apr 23;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 06591, Korea.

Retinal degeneration is a leading cause of blindness. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response that affects cell survival and death and GRP78 forms a representative protective response. We aimed to determine the exact localization of GRP78 in an animal model of light-induced retinal degeneration. Read More

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Protective Effect of Quercetin on Sodium Iodate-Induced Retinal Apoptosis through the Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Mitochondrion-Dependent Pathway.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 14;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Optometry, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to gradual central vision loss and is the third leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The underlying mechanisms for this progressive neurodegenerative disease remain unclear and there is currently no preventive treatment for dry AMD. Sodium iodate (NaIO) has been reported to induce AMD-like retinal pathology in mice. Read More

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Conquering the Nuclear Envelope Barriers by EBV Lytic Replication.

Viruses 2021 04 18;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Graduate Institute and Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100233, Taiwan.

The nuclear envelope (NE) of eukaryotic cells has a highly structural architecture, comprising double lipid-bilayer membranes, nuclear pore complexes, and an underlying nuclear lamina network. The NE structure is held in place through the membrane-bound LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex, spanning the inner and outer nuclear membranes. The NE functions as a barrier between the nucleus and cytoplasm and as a transverse scaffold for various cellular processes. Read More

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Nano-Assemblies from Amphiphilic PnBA-b-POEGA Copolymers as Drug Nanocarriers.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 5;13(7). Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, 11635 Athens, Greece.

The focus of this study is the development of highly stable losartan potassium (LSR) polymeric nanocarriers. Two novel amphiphilic poly(n-butyl acrylate)-block-poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate) (PnBA-b-POEGA) copolymers with different molecular weight (M) of PnBA are synthesized via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, followed by the encapsulation of LSR into both PnBA-b-POEGA micelles. Based on dynamic light scattering (DLS), the PnBA-b-POEGA and PnBA-b-POEGA (where the subscripts denote wt. Read More

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Location of motor branches of tibialis posterior muscle and its relation in treatment of spastic equinovarus foot: a cadaveric study.

Braz J Anesthesiol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Hospital of Qingdao University, Department of Obstetrics, Qingdao, China. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: Nerve block or neurolysis is an important approach in the treatment of spastic equinovarus foot. To illustrate the accurate location of the nerve branch to the tibialis posterior muscle (TP) in clinical practice, 21 adult cadavers were dissected and 14 complete both lower limb specimens were obtained. A total of 28 lower limbs were included. Read More

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A unique aromatic residue modulates the redox range of a periplasmic multiheme cytochrome from Geobacter metallireducens.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 26:100711. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

UCIBIO-Requimte, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal. Electronic address:

Geobacter bacteria are able to transfer electrons to the exterior of the cell and to reduce extracellular electron acceptors including toxic/radioactive metals and electrode surfaces, with potential applications in bioremediation or electricity harvesting. The triheme c-type cytochrome PpcA from Geobacter metallireducens plays a crucial role in bridging the electron transfer from the inner to the outer membrane, ensuring an effective extracellular electron transfer. This cytochrome shares 80% identity with PpcA from Geobacter sulfurreducens but their redox properties are markedly different, thus determining the distinctive working redox potential ranges in the two bacteria. Read More

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Effects of subthreshold nanosecond laser therapy in age-related macular degeneration using artificial intelligence (STAR-AI Study).

PLoS One 2021 29;16(4):e0250609. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: To investigate changes in retinal thickness, drusen volume, and visual acuity following subthreshold nanosecond laser (SNL) treatment in patients with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD).

Design: Retrospective chart review.

Methods: Patients with intermediate ARMD treated with a single session of SNL (2RT®, Ellex R&D Pty Ltd, Adelaide, Australia) were included. Read More

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bFGF and insulin lead to migration of Müller glia to photoreceptor layer in rd1 mouse retina.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Apr 25;755:135936. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, Gurgaon, Haryana 122051, India.

Müller glia can act as endogenous stem cells and regenerate the missing neurons in the injured or degenerating retina in lower vertebrates. However, mammalian Müller glia, although can sometimes express stem cell markers and specific neuronal proteins in response to injury or degeneration, do not differentiate into functional neurons. We asked whether bFGF and insulin would stimulate the Müller glia to migrate, proliferate and differentiate into photoreceptors in rd1 mouse. Read More

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Metallobiochemistry of ultratrace levels of bismuth in the rat II. Interaction of Bi with tissue, intracellular and molecular components.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Apr 20:126752. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Physics, Università Degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, Milano, I-20133, Italy; LASA, Department of Physics, Università Degli Studi di Milano and INFN-Milano, Via F.lli Cervi 201, Segrate, MI, I-20090, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Knowledge on Bi metabolism in laboratory animals refers to studies at "extreme" exposures, i.e. pharmacologically relevant high-doses (mg kg b. Read More

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A comparative approach to understanding the ovule, seed, and fruit development in Bulbostylis (Cyperaceae: Cyperoideae: Abildgaardieae).

Protoplasma 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Corrientes, Argentina.

In the present work, we study the ovule, seed, and fruit development in six Bulbostylis species in order to characterize the genus in a comparative approach and to identify the characteristics that can be used in taxonomy and phylogeny. Flowers and fruits at different developmental stages were analyzed using LM and SEM after processing according to standard techniques. The species studied have the following: anatropous and bitegmic ovules, weak crassinucellar ovules, obturator of integumentary origin, monosporic embryo sac of the Polygonum type, nuclear endosperm, hypostase formation, seed coat formed by tanniferous endotegmen and exotesta, and Bulbostylis-type embryo. Read More

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The level, distribution and source of artificial radionuclides in surface soil from Inner Mongolia, China.

J Environ Radioact 2021 Jul 23;233:106614. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xian, 710024, China.

Mid- and long-half-life artificial radioisotopes in the earth's surface environment are of great concern to the environmental radiation risk assessment. As nuclear fuel and fission products, Pu, Pu, Am, Sr and Cs in soils from Inner Mongolia of China were analyzed with a modified systematic separation procedure combined with ICP-MS and LSC measurements, to study the level, distribution and source of artificial radionuclides in the region. The radioactivity and inventory of Cs (0. Read More

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Evaluation of the radiofrequency performance of a wide-bore 1.5 T positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging body coil for radiotherapy planning.

Phys Imaging Radiat Oncol 2021 Jan 23;17:13-19. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background And Purpose: The restricted bore diameter of current simultaneous positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) systems can be an impediment to achieving similar patient positioning during PET/MRI planning and radiotherapy. Our goal was to evaluate the B transmit (B) uniformity, B efficiency, and specific absorption rate (SAR) of a novel radiofrequency (RF) body coil design, in which RF shielded PET detectors were integrated with the specific aim of enabling a wide-bore PET/MRI system.

Materials And Methods: We designed and constructed a wide-bore PET/MRI RF body coil to be integrated with a clinical MRI system. Read More

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January 2021

Hypothermic Shock Applied After Perinatal Asphyxia Prevents Retinal Damage in Rats.

Front Pharmacol 2021 8;12:651599. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Angiogenesis Group, Oncology Area, Center for Biomedical Research of La Rioja, Logroño, Spain.

Perinatal asphyxia (PA) can cause retinopathy and different degrees of visual loss, including total blindness. In a rat model of PA, we have previously shown a protective effect of hypothermia on the retina when applied simultaneously with the hypoxic insult. In the present work, we evaluated the possible protective effect of hypothermia on the retina of PA rats when applied immediately after delivery. Read More

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Lipopolysaccharide stimulates bovine endometrium explants through toll‑like receptor 4 signaling and PGE synthesis.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2021 May 24;168:102272. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, 010018, Hohhot, China; Key Laboratory of Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment Techniques for Animal Disease, Ministry of Agriculture, 010018, Hohhot, China. Electronic address:

Bovine endometrium infection with gram-negative bacteria commonly causes uterine diseases. Previous studies indicate that prostaglandin E (PGE) is an inflammatory mediator in bacterial endometritis. However, the mechanism underlying lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response regulation in bovine endometrial explants remains elusive. Read More

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Swellable catheters based on a dynamic expanding inner diameter.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2021 Apr 23;32(5):51. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Material Science & Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA.

Intravenous (IV) fluid administration is critical for all patients undergoing care in a hospital setting. In-patient hospital practice, surgeries, and emergency care require functional IVs for fluid replacement and medication administration. Proper placement of IVs is vital to providing medical services. Read More

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C subunit of the ATP synthase is an amyloidogenic calcium dependent channel-forming peptide with possible implications in mitochondrial permeability transition.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 22;11(1):8744. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Molecular Pathobiology, New York University College of Dentistry, 345 East 24th Street, New York, NY, 10010-4086, USA.

The c subunit is an inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) protein encoded by three nuclear genes. Best known as an integral part of the F complex of the ATP synthase, the c subunit is also present in other cytoplasmic compartments in ceroid lipofuscinoses. Under physiological conditions, this 75 residue-long peptide folds into an α-helical hairpin and forms oligomers spanning the lipid bilayer. Read More

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Nuclear mA reader YTHDC1 regulates the scaffold function of LINE1 RNA in mouse ESCs and early embryos.

Protein Cell 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Shanghai East Hospital, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Signaling and Disease Research, Frontier Science Center for Stem Cell Research, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200120, China.

N-methyladenosine (mA) on chromosome-associated regulatory RNAs (carRNAs), including repeat RNAs, plays important roles in tuning the chromatin state and transcription, but the intrinsic mechanism remains unclear. Here, we report that YTHDC1 plays indispensable roles in the self-renewal and differentiation potency of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which highly depends on the mA-binding ability. Ythdc1 is required for sufficient rRNA synthesis and repression of the 2-cell (2C) transcriptional program in ESCs, which recapitulates the transcriptome regulation by the LINE1 scaffold. Read More

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β-Glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae alleviates oxidative stress in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells via Dectin-1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

Cell Stress Chaperones 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, 010018, China.

β-Glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been described to be effective antioxidants, but the specific antioxidation mechanism of β-glucan is unclear. The objectives of this research were to determine whether the β-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae could regulate oxidative stress through the Dectin-1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Read More

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Cleaved PGAM5 dephosphorylates nuclear serine/arginine-rich proteins during mitophagy.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2021 Jun 17;1868(7):119045. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Cell Regulation, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan. Electronic address:

PGAM5 is a protein phosphatase located in the inner mitochondrial membrane through its transmembrane (TM) domain and is cleaved within the TM domain upon mitochondrial dysfunction. We found previously that cleaved PGAM5 is released from mitochondria, following proteasome-mediated rupture of the outer mitochondrial membrane during mitophagy, a selective form of autophagy specific to mitochondria. Here, we examined the role of cleaved PGAM5 outside mitochondria. Read More

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The exploration of quantitative intra-tumoral metabolic heterogeneity in dual-time F-FDG PET/CT of pancreatic cancer.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

The Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhai Hospital of Navy Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Purpose: We aimed to analyze the change of quantitative intra-tumoral metabolic heterogeneity consisting of texture features and conventional metabolic parameters of pancreatic cancer (PC) in dual-time 2-deoxy-2(F) fluoro-D-glucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT).

Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted considering the texture features and conventional metabolic parameters in dual-time F-FDG PET/CT scans of PC patients. Features were extracted based on spatial distribution of F-FDG uptake in image. Read More

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