88,374 results match your criteria innate immune


Effect of cortisol on the immune-like response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) myotubes challenged with Piscirickettsia salmonis.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2021 Apr 6;237:110240. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Universidad Andres Bello, Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, 8370146, Santiago, Chile; Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), 4030000, Concepción, Chile; Universidad Andres Bello, Centro de Investigación Marina Quintay (CIMARQ), 2340000, Valparaíso, Chile. Electronic address:

Salmonids are a species of high commercial value in Chilean aquaculture, where muscle is the final product of the industry. Fish can be affected by stress during intensive cultures, increasing susceptibility to infections. Recently, we reported that muscle is an important focus of immune reactions. Read More

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Therapeutic Approaches for SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Methods 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Centre for Advanced Research (CFAR), Faculty of Medicine, King George's Medical University (KGMU), Lucknow 226003, India. Electronic address:

Therapeutic approaches to COVID-19 treatment leverage on crucial target proteins of SARS-CoV-2 replication machinery. It's been approximately 12 months of pandemic and yet there is no known specific drugs are available. However, research is progressing with time in terms of high throughput virtual screening (HTVS) and rational design of repurposed, novel synthetic and natural products drug discovery by understanding the viral life cycle, immuno-pathological and clinical outcomes in patients based on host's nutritional, metabolic and lifestyle status. Read More

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Microbial co-infections in COVID-19: Associated microbiota and underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis.

Microb Pathog 2021 May 4:104941. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, 1000, Bangladesh; Jashore University of Science and Technology, Jashore, 7408, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

The novel coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has traumatized the whole world with the ongoing devastating pandemic. A plethora of microbial domains including viruses (other than SARS-CoV-2), bacteria, archaea and fungi have evolved together and interact in complex molecular pathogenesis along with SARS-CoV-2. However, the involvement of other microbial co-pathogens and underlying molecular mechanisms leading to extortionate ailment in critically ill COVID-19 patients has yet not been extensively reviewed. Read More

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Identification and characterization of novel microRNAs in disease-resistant and disease-susceptible Penaeus monodon.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12 CIT Scheme VII-M, Kolkata, 700054, West Bengal, India. Electronic address:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), known as a translational regulator, are evolutionary conserved, small, and noncoding RNA. They have played a vital role in disease biology through the host-virus-miRNA-interaction. In this study, novel miRNAs of naturally occurring, virus-free disease-resistant and disease-susceptible Penaeus monodon were identified and characterized. Read More

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Role of innate immunity in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

Neurosci Lett 2021 May 4:135941. Epub 2021 May 4.

The Department of Pain Medicine Research, The Division of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, United States. Electronic address:

It has become increasingly clear that the innate immune system plays an essential role in the generation of many types of neuropathic pain including that which accompanies cancer treatment. In this article we review current findings of the role of the innate immune system in contributing to cancer treatment pain at the distal endings of peripheral nerve, in the nerve trunk, in the dorsal root ganglion and in the spinal dorsal horn. Read More

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AlphaB-crystallin promotes porcine circovirus type 2 replication in a cell proliferation-dependent manner.

Virus Res 2021 May 4:198435. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Avian Bioproduct Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, China; Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for the Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, China; Institutes of Agricultural Science and Technology Development, College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, China; Postgraduate Training Station of Jiangsu Province, Taizhou, Jiangsu, 225511, China. Electronic address:

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and causes heavy economic losses to the porcine industry worldwide. In this study, PK-15 cells were infected with PCV2 for 48 h, then harvested and subjected to label-free quantitative proteomic mass spectrometry. In total, 1212 proteins were differentially expressed in PCV2-infected cells compared with mock-infected cells, including 796 upregulated and 416 downregulated proteins. Read More

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METTL3 regulates viral m6A RNA modification and host cell innate immune responses during SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Cell Rep 2021 May 3:109091. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Genetics, Program in Immunology, Institute for Genomic Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive MC 0762, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive MC 0762, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. Electronic address:

It is urgent and important to understand the relationship of the widespread severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus clade 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with host immune response and study the underlining molecular mechanism. N-methylation of adenosine (m6A) in RNA regulates many physiological and disease processes. Here, we investigate m6A modification of the SARS-CoV-2 gene in regulating the host cell innate immune response. Read More

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RNA reports breaking news from mitochondria.

Mol Cell 2021 May;81(9):1863-1865

Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 N. Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address:

Using mitochondria-targeted TALENS and ionizing radiation, consequences of mtDNA double-strand (ds) breaks were investigated by Tigano et al. (2021) who uncovered mtRNA as a retrograde second messenger of this form of mtDNA stress that activates the RIG-I/MAVS innate immune signaling pathway. Read More

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To the lymph node and beyond: migratory ILC3s regulate innate and adaptive immune responses.

Immunol Cell Biol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

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Tuberculosis vaccine BCG: the magical effect of the old vaccine in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic.

Int Rev Immunol 2021 May 7:1-14. Epub 2021 May 7.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a live attenuated vaccine that was developed about 100 years ago by Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin. Many countries have been using the vaccine for decades against tuberculosis (TB). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a single dose of BCG for infants in TB endemic as well as leprosy high risk countries, and globally almost 130 million infants are vaccinated yearly. Read More

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis effector PPE36 attenuates host cytokine storm damage via inhibiting macrophage M1 polarization.

J Cell Physiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Eco-Environment and Bio-Resource of the Three Gorges Area, Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Institute of Modern Biopharmaceuticals, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a serious global public health threat. Macrophage polarization is crucial for the innate immunity against M. tuberculosis. Read More

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M1 Macrophages Are More Susceptible to Necroptosis.

J Cell Immunol 2021 ;3(2):97-102

Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Tyler, Texas, USA.

Macrophages play a crucial role in host innate immune defense against infection and tissue injury. Although macrophage activation and polarization has been well studied, we know less regarding the role of macrophage activation/polarization in inflammation-associated necrotic cell death. By using bone marrow-derived macrophages, we have recently demonstrated that M1 macrophages are much more susceptible than M0 and M2 subtypes of macrophages to necrotic cell death. Read More

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January 2021

Defining functional variants associated with Alzheimer's disease in the induced immune response.

Brain Commun 2021 19;3(2):fcab083. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 4HQ, UK.

Defining the mechanisms involved in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease from genome-wide association studies alone is challenging since Alzheimer's disease is polygenic and most genetic variants are non-coding. Non-coding Alzheimer's disease risk variants can influence gene expression by affecting miRNA binding and those located within enhancers and within CTCF sites may influence gene expression through alterations in chromatin states. In addition, their function can be cell-type specific. Read More

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Mechanisms of Action of the PGLYRP1/Tag7 Protein in Innate and Acquired Immunity.

Acta Naturae 2021 Jan-Mar;13(1):91-101

Institute of Gene Biology RAS, Moscow, 119334 Russia.

One of the promising fields of modern molecular biology is the search for new proteins that regulate the various stages of the immune response and the investigation of the molecular mechanisms of action of these proteins. Such proteins include the multifunctional protein PGLYRP1/Tag7, belonging to the PGRP-S protein family, whose gene was discovered in mice at the Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 1996. PGLYRP1/Tag7 is classified as a protein of innate immunity; however, it can also participate in the regulation of acquired immunity mechanisms. Read More

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CAR-NK cells: the next wave of cellular therapy for cancer.

Clin Transl Immunology 2021 28;10(4):e1274. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston TX USA.

T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have revolutionised the field of cellular therapy for cancer. Despite its success, this strategy has some recognised limitations and toxicities. Hence, there is growing interest in developing novel cellular therapies based on non-αβ T-cell immune effector cells, including NK cells that offer clear advantages in cancer immunotherapy. Read More

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Vaccine Inoculation Route Modulates Early Immunity and Consequently Antigen-Specific Immune Response.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:645210. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

UMR1184 IMVA-HB, IDMIT Department, Université Paris-Saclay - INSERM U1184 - CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France.

Vaccination is one of the most efficient public healthcare measures to fight infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the immune mechanisms induced by vaccination are still unclear. The route of administration, an important vaccination parameter, can substantially modify the quality of the response. Read More

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Correction to: SNX8 modulates the innate immune response to RNA viruses by regulating the aggregation of VISA.

Cell Mol Immunol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Medical Research Institute, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

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Robust microbe immune recognition in the intestinal mucosa.

Genes Immun 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

The mammalian mucosal immune system acts as a multitasking mediator between bodily function and a vast diversity of microbial colonists. Depending on host-microbial interaction type, mucosal immune responses have distinct functions. Immunity to pathogen infection functions to limit tissue damage, clear or contain primary infection, and prevent or lower the severity of a secondary infection by conferring specific long-term adaptive immunity. Read More

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Expression of VEGFA-mRNA in classical and MSX2-mRNA in non-classical monocytes in patients with spondyloarthritis is associated with peripheral arthritis.

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9693. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Institute of Pediatrics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Wielicka 265 Str., 30-663, Kraków, Poland.

Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is characterized by chronic inflammation and structural damage involving spine and peripheral joints. Monocytes, as part of innate immune system, following migration into affected tissue, may play a role in the pathogenesis of SpA. Here, potential associations between osteogenesis-linked gene expression profile in particular monocyte subpopulations and clinical signs of SpA were investigated. Read More

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Innate allorecognition in transplantation.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute, Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Successful allogeneic transplantation has been made possible by suppressing activation of the adaptive immune system. Current immunosuppressive therapy prevents rejection by targeting T and B cells. Despite this effective treatment, it is the innate immune system, which includes dendritic cells, monocytes, natural killer cells, that is responsible for the initiation of the adaptive immune response. Read More

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Conditional knockout of Tsc1 in RORγt-expressing cells induces brain damage and early death in mice.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 May 6;18(1):107. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Materia Medica, College of Pharmacy, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), Chongqing, 400038, China.

Background: Tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (Tsc1) is known to regulate the development and function of various cell types, and RORγt is a critical transcription factor in the immune system. However, whether Tsc1 participates in regulating RORγt-expressing cells remains unknown.

Methods: We generated a mouse model in which Tsc1 was conditionally deleted from RORγt-expressing cells (Tsc1) to study the role of RORγt-expressing cells with Tsc1 deficiency in brain homeostasis. Read More

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Modulating innate immune activation states impacts the efficacy of specific Aβ immunotherapy.

Mol Neurodegener 2021 May 6;16(1):32. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neuroscience and Neurology, Center for Translational Research in Neurodegenerative Disease, and McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, FL, 32611, Gainesville, USA.

Introduction: Passive immunotherapies targeting Aβ continue to be evaluated as Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutics, but there remains debate over the mechanisms by which these immunotherapies work. Besides the amount of preexisting Aβ deposition and the type of deposit (compact or diffuse), there is little data concerning what factors, independent of those intrinsic to the antibody, might influence efficacy. Here we (i) explored how constitutive priming of the underlying innate activation states by Il10 and Il6 might influence passive Aβ immunotherapy and (ii) evaluated transcriptomic data generated in the AMP-AD initiative to inform how these two cytokines and their receptors' mRNA levels are altered in human AD and an APP mouse model. Read More

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Type 2 and type 3 innate lymphoid cells at the maternal-fetal interface: implications in preterm birth.

BMC Immunol 2021 May 6;22(1):28. Epub 2021 May 6.

Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), University of Coimbra, Polo III - Health Sciences Campus, Azinhaga Santa Comba, Celas, 3000-548, Coimbra, Portugal.

Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is one of the major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is commonly accepted that the act of giving birth is the final step in a proinflammatory signaling cascade, orchestrated by an intrauterine milieu coupled to hormonal cues. Consequently, the inflammatory process plays a pivotal role during the pathogenesis of human labor, both in term and preterm deliveries. Read More

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A fibrinogen-related protein mediates the recognition of various bacteria and haemocyte phagocytosis in oyster Crassostrea gigas.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Liaoning Key Laboratory of Marine Animal Immunology, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, 116023, China; Southern Laboratory of Ocean Science and Engineering (Guangdong, Zhuhai), Zhuhai, 519000, China; Laboratory of Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266235, China; Liaoning Key Laboratory of Marine Animal Immunology & Disease Control, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, 116023, China; Dalian Key Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Disease Prevention and Control, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, 116023, China.

The family of fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) is a group of proteins with fibrinogen-like (FBG) domains, which play important roles as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in the innate immune responses. In the present study, a fibrinogen-like protein was identified from the oyster Crassostrea gigas (defined as CgFREP1). The open reading frame of CgFREP1 was of 966 bp that encoded a predicted polypeptide of 321 amino acids comprising a signal peptide and a fibrinogen-like domain. Read More

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Physiological processes and lipidome dynamics in the soft coral Sinularia heterospiculata under experimental bleaching.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2021 May 3:110609. Epub 2021 May 3.

A.V. Zhirmunsky National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russian Federation.

Coral polyps host intracellular symbiotic dinoflagellates (SD). The loss of SD (referred as bleaching) under stressful environmental conditions is the main reason of coral reef destruction, and therefore, intensively studied over the world. Lipids are the structural base of biomembranes and energy reserve of corals and are directly involved in the coral bleaching. Read More

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Toll-like receptor 4 signaling is critical for the adaptive cellular stress response effects induced by intermittent fasting in the mouse brain.

Neuroscience 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-900, Brazil. Electronic address:

Among different kinds of dietary energy restriction, intermittent fasting (IF) has been considered a dietary regimen which causes a mild stress to the organism. IF can stimulate proteins and signaling pathways related to cell stress that can culminate in the increase of the body resistance to severe stress conditions. Energy intake reduction induced by IF can induce modulation of receptors, kinases, and phosphatases, which in turn can modulate the activation of transcription factors such as NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and cAMP response element-binding (CREB) which regulate the transcription of genes related to the translation of proteins such as growth factors: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), chaperone proteins: heat shock proteins (HSP), and so on. Read More

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50 Years of Structural Immunology.

J Biol Chem 2021 May 3:100745. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

Fifty years ago, the first landmark structures of antibodies heralded the dawn of structural immunology. Momentum then started to build towards understanding how antibodies could recognize the vast universe of potential antigens and how antibody combining sites could be tailored to engage antigens with high specificity and affinity through recombination of germline genes (V,D,J) and somatic mutation. Equivalent groundbreaking structures in the cellular immune system appeared some 15-20 years later and illustrated how processed protein antigens in the form of peptides are presented by MHC molecules to T cell receptors. Read More

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MyD88 oligomer size functions as a physical threshold to trigger IL1R Myddosome signaling.

J Cell Biol 2021 Jul 6;220(7). Epub 2021 May 6.

Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany.

A recurring feature of innate immune receptor signaling is the self-assembly of signaling proteins into oligomeric complexes. The Myddosome is an oligomeric complex that is required to transmit inflammatory signals from TLR/IL1Rs and consists of MyD88 and IRAK family kinases. However, the molecular basis for how Myddosome proteins self-assemble and regulate intracellular signaling remains poorly understood. Read More

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EBV miRNAs are potent effectors of tumor cell transcriptome remodeling in promoting immune escape.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 6;17(5):e1009217. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pathology, Tulane University School of Medicine, Tulane Cancer Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America.

The Epstein Barr virus (EBV) contributes to the tumor phenotype through a limited set of primarily non-coding viral RNAs, including 31 mature miRNAs. Here we investigated the impact of EBV miRNAs on remodeling the tumor cell transcriptome. Strikingly, EBV miRNAs displayed exceptionally abundant expression in primary EBV-associated Burkitt's Lymphomas (BLs) and Gastric Carcinomas (GCs). Read More

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The methyltransferase domain of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus L protein catalyzes cap N7 and 2'-O-methylation.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 6;17(5):e1009562. Epub 2021 May 6.

Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, AFMB UMR 7257, Marseille, France.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a negative sense single-stranded RNA virus and one of the main causes of severe lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. RSV RNA replication/transcription and capping are ensured by the viral Large (L) protein. The L protein contains a polymerase domain associated with a polyribonucleotidyl transferase domain in its N-terminus, and a methyltransferase (MTase) domain followed by the C-terminal domain (CTD) enriched in basic amino acids at its C-terminus. Read More

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