37 results match your criteria injectors illegal

Legal vs. illegal injectable fillers: The adverse effects comparison study.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2020 Jul 3;19(7):1580-1586. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Over the past decades, soft-tissue filler injections have become an essential part of cosmetic practice worldwide. Due to the increasing demand, unlicensed practitioners venture in performing this minimally invasive procedure, injecting illegal fillers that pose serious complications.

Objectives: To compare the adverse effects of legal and illegal soft-tissue fillers injected by licensed and unlicensed practitioners. Read More

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Injecting drug use: Gendered risk.

Int J Drug Policy 2018 06 31;56:81-91. Epub 2018 Mar 31.

Institute for Social Science Research, The University of Queensland, Australia.

Background: Research demonstrates gender related differences in drug-use practices and risk behaviours. Females' structural vulnerability stemming from traditional gender roles and gender-power relations may enhance their propensity to experience injecting related risk. In this paper we explore gender differences in injection practices at the initiation event, during the first year of injecting and in the most recent 12-month period, to inform more effective harm reduction strategies. Read More

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Patterns of substance use and mortality risk in a cohort of 'hard-to-reach' polysubstance users.

Addiction 2018 04 24;113(4):729-739. Epub 2017 Nov 24.

Department of Substance Use, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Aims: To examine the mortality risk in a cohort of 'hard-to-reach' polysubstance users and its putative associations with substance use. Specifically, we estimated all-cause mortality risk as a function of individual substance use indicators, and then as a function of their complex, 'real-life' patterns as identified through latent class analysis (LCA).

Design: Prospective cohort study among street- and low-threshold service-recruited polysubstance users included between September and November 2013 and followed through the National Cause of Death Registry until 31 October 2015. Read More

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Kh Todadze S Mosia

Georgian Med News 2016 May(254):56-61

Tbilisi State Medical University; Center for Mental Health and Prevention of Addiction, Tbilisi, Georgia.

Injecting drug user size estimation studies carried out in 2009, 2012 and 2015 revealed growing trends of drug abuse in Georgia:estimated number of people who inject drugs (PWID) have been increased from 40000 and 45000 to 50000. Since Soviet period the most popular injective narcotics have been opioids: home-made opium, heroine, buprenorphine and home-made desomorphine ("Krokodile") replacing each other on the black market. Self-made desomorphine typically contains big amounts of different toxic substances and causes significant somatic disorders, especially skin, bone, blood infections, liver and kidney failure; is highly addictive, associates with frequent injections that enhance injecting-related harm, including the risk of HIV transmission, in comparison with typical opioids. Read More

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Legal space for syringe exchange programs in hot spots of injection drug use-related crime.

Harm Reduct J 2016 Apr 26;13:16. Epub 2016 Apr 26.

Department of Prevention & Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health at The George Washington University, 950 New Hampshire Ave, Suite 300, Washington, DC, 20052, USA.

Background: Copious evidence indicates that syringe exchange programs (SEPs) are effective structural interventions for HIV prevention among persons who inject drugs (PWID). The efficacy of SEPs in supporting the public health needs of PWID populations is partially dependent on their accessibility and consistent utilization among injectors. Research has shown that SEP access is an important predictor of PWID retention at SEPs, yet policies exist that may limit the geographic areas where SEP operations may legally occur. Read More

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An ethnographic exploration of drug markets in Kisumu, Kenya.

Int J Drug Policy 2016 Apr 8;30:82-90. Epub 2016 Jan 8.

School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St. MS 0274, Reno, NV 89557, USA.

Background: Illegal drug markets are shaped by multiple forces, including local actors and broader economic, political, social, and criminal justice systems that intertwine to impact health and social wellbeing. Ethnographic analyses that interrogate multiple dimensions of drug markets may offer both applied and theoretical insights into drug use, particularly in developing nations where new markets and local patterns of use traditionally have not been well understood. This paper explores the emergent drug market in Kisumu, western Kenya, where our research team recently documented evidence of injection drug use. Read More

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Emergence of methadone as a street drug in St. Petersburg, Russia.

Int J Drug Policy 2016 Jan 19;27:97-104. Epub 2015 Oct 19.

NGOStellit, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Background: The syndemic of opioid addiction, HIV, hepatitis, tuberculosis, imprisonment, and overdose in Russia has been worsened by the illegality of opioid substitution therapy. As part of on-going serial studies, we sought to explore the influence of opioid availability on aspects of the syndemic as it has affected the city of St. Petersburg. Read More

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January 2016

Injection and sexual HIV/HCV risk behaviors associated with nonmedical use of prescription opioids among young adults in New York City.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2015 Jan 11;48(1):13-20. Epub 2014 Jul 11.

National Development and Research Institutes, Inc., New York, NY, USA.

Prevalence of nonmedical prescription opioid (PO) use has increased markedly in the U.S. This qualitative study explores the drug-use and sexual experiences of nonmedical PO users as they relate to risk for HIV and HCV transmission. Read More

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January 2015

Transition to injecting 3,4-methylene-dioxy-pyrovalerone (MDPV) among needle exchange program participants in Hungary.

J Psychopharmacol 2013 Jun 4;27(6):559-63. Epub 2013 Mar 4.

Doctoral Program of Health Science Research, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

In 2011, anecdotal data indicated that 3,4-methylene-dioxy-pyrovalerone (MDPV) might become popular among needle exchange program (NEP) clients in Hungary as a possible substitute for formerly used substances such as amphetamines and heroin. The aim of the study reported here was to examine how the emergence of MDPV influenced the choice of the injecting substance among NEP clients. A total of 183 injecting drug users (IDUs) participating in the largest NEP in Budapest agreed to participate in the study and report on their drug use habits. Read More

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HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among injecting drug users in six indonesian cities implications for future HIV prevention programs.

Harm Reduct J 2012 Sep 3;9:37. Epub 2012 Sep 3.

FHI Asia Pacific Regional Office, 19th floor, Tower 3, Sindhorn Building; 130-132, Wireless Road, Lumpini, Phatumwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.


Background: The HIV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Indonesia reached 50% in 2005. While drug use remains illegal in Indonesia, a needle and syringe program (NSP) was implemented in 2006.

Methods: In 2007, an integrated behavioural and biological surveillance survey was conducted among IDUs in six cities. Read More

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September 2012

HCV routes of transmission: what goes around comes around.

Miriam J Alter

Semin Liver Dis 2011 Nov 21;31(4):340-6. Epub 2011 Dec 21.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

The widespread availability of injectable therapies and increase in illicit injection drug use were responsible for the rapid emergence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the latter half of the 20th century. Iatrogenic exposures and illicit injection drug use have been the predominant risk factors for HCV transmission worldwide. In developing countries, unsafe therapeutic injection practices appear to be responsible for most infections. Read More

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November 2011

[Characteristics of intravenous drug users who share injection equipment in Catalonia (Spain)].

Gac Sanit 2012 Jan-Feb;26(1):37-44. Epub 2011 Nov 16.

Centre d'Estudis Epidemiològics sobre les ITS i Sida a Catalunya (CEEISCAT) - ICO, Badalona, Barcelona, España.

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of direct and indirect syringe sharing among intravenous drug users (IDUs) attending a harm reduction center in Catalonia (Spain) and to identify factors associated with risk behaviors.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between 2008 and 2009 in harm reduction centers. Behavioral data were collected using anonymous questionnaires administered by trained interviewers. Read More

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Methadone maintenance therapy as evidence based drug abuse planning in developed countries: can developing countries afford and learn from this experience?

East Afr J Public Health 2010 Mar;7(1):54-7

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health & Allied Sciences (MUHAS).

Use of illicit substances of abuse is a major public health problem in developed countries like the US. However, this problem of illicit substance use has spread like a tumor to include currently developing countries where most of its youths and adolescents are actively engaged in this illegal practice. This problem is even more worse in poor resource countries, as use of these substances is accompanied with a lot of HIV- risk behaviours, and for cocaine and heroin drug injectors often share injecting equipments hence increasing the chances of contracting and spreading HIV infection. Read More

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HIV in Indian prisons: risk behaviour, prevalence, prevention & treatment.

Indian J Med Res 2010 Dec;132:696-700

Program of International Research & Training, National Drug & Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Background And Objectives: HIV is a major health challenge for prison authorities. HIV in prisons has implications for HIV in the general community. The aim of this paper was to gather information on HIV risk, prevalence, prevention and treatment in prisons in India. Read More

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December 2010

Estimating the prevalence of drug injection using a multiplier method based on a register of new HIV diagnoses.

Eur J Public Health 2011 Oct 14;21(5):646-8. Epub 2010 Jun 14.

Escuela Nacional de Sanidad, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Knowledge of prevalence of illegal drug injection can aid the design and evaluation of services for problem drug users. In this study, prevalence of recent injectors in Spain was estimated with a multiplier method using the number of injectors in a population register of new HIV diagnoses, HIV incidence among injectors from cohort studies and HIV prevalence among injectors in a drug treatment register. Prevalence in 2008 was 38. Read More

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October 2011

Drug-related behaviors independently associated with syphilis infection among female sex workers in two Mexico-US border cities.

Addiction 2010 Aug 27;105(8):1448-56. Epub 2010 Apr 27.

Department of Medicine, University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0680, USA.

Aims: To identify correlates of active syphilis infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez.

Design: Cross-sectional analyses of baseline interview data. Correlates of active syphilis (antibody titers >1 : 8) were identified by logistic regression. Read More

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Feasibility of buprenorphine and methadone maintenance programmes among users of home made opioids in Ukraine.

Int J Drug Policy 2010 May 18;21(3):229-33. Epub 2009 Nov 18.

Research Institute for Public Health and Addiction, Konradstrasse 32, 8031 Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Opioid substitution therapy (OST) in the Ukraine was not provided until 2004. Methadone maintenance therapy only became available in May 2008. Injecting drug users in Ukraine are predominantly injecting self-made opioid solution ('Shirka'). Read More

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Why do the clients of Georgian needle exchange programmes inject buprenorphine?

Eur Addict Res 2010 2;16(1):1-8. Epub 2009 Nov 2.

Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

Aim: The aim of the study was to understand the prevalence and patterns of the non-medical injecting use of buprenorphine among drug injectors in Georgia.

Method: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among injecting drug users enrolled in Georgian needle exchange programmes. The questions covered topics related to drug use career, patterns (frequency, history, dosage) and reasons for the use of buprenorphine. Read More

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Needle and syringe sharing among Iranian drug injectors.

Harm Reduct J 2009 Jul 30;6:21. Epub 2009 Jul 30.

Iranian Research Center for Substance Abuse and Dependence (IRCSAD), University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: The role of needle and syringe sharing behavior of injection drug users (IDUs) in spreading of blood-borne infections - specially HIV/AIDS - is well known. However, very little is known in this regard from Iran. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and associates of needle and syringe sharing among Iranian IDUs. Read More

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[Can we stop the hepatitis C virus transmission in drug users?].

F Lert

Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 2006 Jul;54 Spec No 1:1S61-1S67

INSERM U687-IFR69, HNSM, Saint-Maurice.

Despite the effectiveness of drug treatment and harm reduction programmes aimed at reducing illegal drug use, especially heroin use, situations at risk of transmitting HCV infection are still very frequent. Among routes of drug administration, injection appears as the most dangerous mean regarding the spread of HCV infection among drug users. This practice frequently occurs within a context of a group sharing climate (equipment, substance, housing, etc. Read More

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Drugs and social exclusion in ten European cities.

Eur Addict Res 2006 ;12(1):33-41

Andalusian School of Public Health, Campus Universitario de Cartuja, Granada, Spain.

Aim: To describe social characteristics seen among socially excluded drug users in 10 cities from 9 European countries, and identify which social exclusion indicators (i.e. housing, employment, education) are most closely linked to intravenous drug use. Read More

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Predictors of HIV transmission among migrant and marginally housed Latinos.

AIDS Behav 2005 Jun;9(2):201-10

Research Department, Education, Training, Research Associates, Scotts Valley, CA 95066, USA.

This study examined predictors of HIV-related sexual risk taking in a high risk and understudied convenience sample of 366 predominantly Mexican, migrant adults without stable housing. The sample included 27% men who have sex with men, 28% injectors of illegal drugs, and 21% sex workers. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that sexual risk taking was predicted by low condom self-efficacy, high-risk behavior, and being female. Read More

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Needle sharing among southern Thai drug injectors.

Addiction 2003 Aug;98(8):1153-61

Department of Health Policy, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Aim: To examine factors associated with needle sharing among injecting drug users (IDU) in southern Thailand.

Design: Using a cross-sectional survey, 272 active IDU were interviewed about their socio-economic background, needle sharing and drug use patterns at six drug-treatment clinics in southern Thailand.

Findings: Ninety-one per cent of IDU gave a past history of ever sharing injecting equipment: of these, 23% currently injected but did not share and 68% still shared. Read More

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Rationale and cost-efficiency compared for urine or saliva testing and behavioural inquiry among UK offender populations: injectors, arrestees and prisoners.

J Cancer Epidemiol Prev 2002 ;7(1):37-47

MRC Biostatistics Unit, Institute of Public Health, Cambridge, UK.

Background: Costs, methodology and efficiency at obtaining behavioural information and biological sample to be tested for blood-borne viruses or illegal drugs are compared for UK surveys of offender populations: injectors in the community or attending drug agencies, arrestees and prisoners.

Methods: Arrestee surveys use extensive behavioural interview + urine sample and measure a key performance indicator in UK's Drugs Strategy. They have low efficiency (urine sample for drugs testing available from under 60% of eligible arrestees) at high cost (pound sterling 110-190 or 350 per urine sample and at least pound sterling 500-800 per injector). Read More

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January 2003

New syringe acquisition and multi-person use of syringes among illegal drug users.

J Public Health Policy 2002 ;23(3):324-43

Affiliated Systems Corporation, 3104 Edloe, Suite 330, Houston, Texas 77027-6022, USA.

Objectives: This study reports on characteristics associated with "new" syringes by IDUs in Houston, Texas, where acquisition to sterile syringes is largely limited to pharmacy purchase.

Methods: Data were collected from street-recruited injection drug users in Houston, Texas. "New" syringe use was defined as always injecting with syringes that were obtained brand new from a pharmacy and that were always wrapped in plastic when they were purchased. Read More

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October 2002

Audit of bloodborne virus infections in injecting drug users in general practice.

Commun Dis Public Health 2000 Dec;3(4):244-6

Edinburgh Drug Addiction Study, Muirhouse Medical Group, 1 Muirhouse Avenue, Muirhouse, Edinburgh EH4 4PL.

Two hundred and ninety patients attending a single general practice in Edinburgh were known to have used illegal drugs, 145 of whom were identified as past or present injectors. Data on bloodborne virus infections and immunisation against hepatitis B virus (HBV) were gathered during 1998, attempts were made to improve the level of testing for bloodborne viruses and immunisation against HBV, and follow up was carried out between October 1999 and February 2000. One hundred and fifteen patients were studied in detail. Read More

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December 2000

Extent and contributing factors of drug expenditure of injectors in Glasgow. Multi-site city-wide cross-sectional study.

Br J Psychiatry 2000 Feb;176:166-72

Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health, Glasgow.

Background: Recent concern about drug use has focused attention on the illegal income generated by users.

Aims: To investigate factors associated with drugs expenditure and to estimate the cost of illegal acquisitions used to pay for drugs.

Method: We collected self-report data from 954 current injectors, interviewed at multiple street, needle/syringe exchange and drug treatment sites throughout Glasgow. Read More

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February 2000

Laboratory study of the effects of citric and ascorbic acids on injections prepared with brown heroin.

Int J Drug Policy 2000 Dec;11(6):417-422

Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, BA2 7AY, Bath, UK

The addition of acidic substances to brown street heroin to facilitate the solubility of diamorphine in the injection preparation process is commonplace amongst UK injectors. Knowledge of the chemistry behind this process supports the need for this stage in the injection preparation process. It is currently illegal, under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, section 9A, to supply acidifiers and other paraphernalia to injectors in the UK. Read More

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December 2000

Age and HIV risk in a national sample of injection drug and crack cocaine users.

Subst Use Misuse 2000 Aug;35(10):1385-404

Affiliated Systems Corporation, Houston, Texas 77027-6022, USA.

A national sample of 25,106 out-of-treatment crack cocaine and injection drug users was examined to determine the effect of aging on HIV risk behavior. Injectors and crack cocaine users aged 55 and over were compared to those who were aged 18 to 54 years of age. Results showed that the behavior risk of older persons did not differ substantially from those reported by other age groups, and that injection risk rose steadily along with age for all ages represented in the sample. Read More

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Addiction and discounting.

J Health Econ 1999 Aug;18(4):393-407

National Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, Oslo, Norway.

In 1988, Becker and Murphy [Becker, G.S., Murphy, K. Read More

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