1,046 results match your criteria initiations


Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for people with β-thalassaemia.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Apr 21;4:CD008708. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.

Background: Thalassaemia is an autosomal recessive blood disorder, caused by mutations in globin genes or their regulatory regions, resulting in a reduced rate of synthesis of one of the globin chains that make up haemoglobin. In β-thalassaemia there is an underproduction of β-globin chains combined with excess of free α-globin chains. The excess free α-globin chains precipitate in red blood cells, leading to their increased destruction (haemolysis) and ineffective erythropoiesis. Read More

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Lifestyle, Exercise and Activity Package for People living with Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (LEAP-MS): adaptions during the COVID-19 pandemic and remote delivery for improved efficiency.

Trials 2021 Apr 16;22(1):286. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Centre for Trials Research, Cardiff University, 4th floor Neuadd Meirionnydd, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK.

The LEAP-MS (Lifestyle, Exercise and Activity Package for People living with Progressive Multiple Sclerosis) study has developed an individualised supported self-management approach for physical activity for people with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) and severe disability. The intervention has been evaluated in a single-arm feasibility study with embedded process evaluation. The feasibility study was due to open to recruitment during the COVID-19 2020-2021 pandemic, 1 month into the first UK-wide lockdown. Read More

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Evaluating bowel movements, self-initiations, and problem behavior with the emergence of urinary continence.

J Appl Behav Anal 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Psychology, University of Florida.

Much of the research evaluating toilet training interventions for children with ASD has focused on urinations as the primary dependent variable. As a result, the effects that toilet training interventions targeting urinations may have on other related dependent variables remains unclear. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data obtained by Perez et al. Read More

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Access to HIV services and viral load suppression among children during the 90-90-90 strategy implementation in South Africa: A time series analysis.

South Afr J HIV Med 2021 17;22(1):1187. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Division of Community Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: During the era of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), children were shown to have less access to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services than their adult counterparts; hence the call to prioritise children in the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, South African (SA) national data in 2019 indicated that almost 3 years into the implementation of the 90-90-90 strategy, only 59% of children living with HIV had been tested for HIV compared to 90% of adults.

Objectives: To evaluate the access of children to HIV services and record the viral load (VL) suppression rates during the implementation of the 90-90-90 strategy in the City of Johannesburg (COJ), South Africa. Read More

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Virtual optimization of guideline-directed medical therapy in hospitalized patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: the IMPLEMENT-HF pilot study.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Aims: Implementation of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) remains incomplete. Non-cardiovascular hospitalization may present opportunities for GDMT optimization. We assessed the efficacy and durability of a virtual, multidisciplinary 'GDMT Team' on medical therapy prescription for HFrEF. Read More

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Joint engagement is a potential mechanism leading to increased initiations of joint attention and downstream effects on language: JASPER early intervention for children with ASD.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Social communication interventions benefit children with ASD in early childhood. However, the mechanisms behind such interventions have not been rigorously explored. This study examines the mechanism underlying a naturalistic developmental behavioral intervention, JASPER (Joint Attention, Symbolic Play, Engagement, and Regulation), delivered by educators in the community. Read More

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Incidence of antidepressant use among community dwellers with and without Parkinson's disease - a nationwide cohort study.

BMC Geriatr 2021 Mar 23;21(1):202. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211, Kuopio, Finland.

Background: Antidepressant use is more common in people with Parkinson's disease (PD), but it is unknown when this difference emerges.

Methods: We studied the incidence of antidepressant use in six-month periods from 10 years before to 15 years after PD diagnosis in the nationwide register-based Finnish Study on Parkinson's disease (FINPARK). This study included 20,456 community dwellers with clinically verified PD diagnosed during 1996-2015 and 140,291 matched comparison persons. Read More

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STARCH SYNTHASE 4 is required for normal starch granule initiation in amyloplasts of wheat endosperm.

New Phytol 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7UH, UK.

Starch granule initiation is poorly understood at the molecular level. The glucosyltransferase, STARCH SYNTHASE 4 (SS4), plays a central role in granule initiation in Arabidopsis leaves, but its function in cereal endosperms is unknown. We investigated the role of SS4 in wheat, which has a distinct spatiotemporal pattern of granule initiation during grain development. Read More

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Parent mediated intervention programmes for children and adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders in South Asia: A systematic review.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(3):e0247432. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Initiative for Non-Communicable Diseases, Health Systems and Population Studies Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Objective: Parent-mediated programmes have been found to be cost effective for addressing the needs of the children and adolescents with Neurodevelopmental Disorders (NDD) in high-income countries. We explored the impact of parent-mediated intervention programmes in South Asia, where the burden of NDD is high.

Methods: A systematic review was conducted using the following databases; PUBMED, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Google Scholar and Web of Science. Read More

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New approaches to social skills training: Blended group interventions for girls with social communication difficulties.

Autism Res 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK.

Social skills group interventions are increasing popular for children with social communication disorders but there is little evidence of their acceptability or effectiveness when delivered online. We report a feasibility study that adapted the Program for Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS) to provide an intensive 8 week online delivery to female adolescents, blended with some face-to-face group meetings. A systematic multiple-case series design with case tracking was developed, comprising a 3-month baseline, a 2-month intervention and a 3-month follow-up period. Read More

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Multi-Omics Data Analysis of Gene Expressions and Alterations, Cancer-Associated Fibroblast and Immune Infiltrations, Reveals the Onco-Immune Prognostic Relevance of STAT3/CDK2/4/6 in Human Malignancies.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Feb 25;13(5). Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan.

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/Cyclin-dependent kinases are multifunctional proteins that play an important implicative role in cancer initiations, progression, drug resistance, and metastasis, and has been extensively explored in cancer therapy. However, the genetic alterations of STAT3/CDK2/4/6 and its role in predicting immune infiltration and immunotherapeutic response are yet to be well exploited. In this study, we use in silico methods to analyze differential expression, prognostic value, genetic and epigenetic alterations, association with tumor-infiltrating immune cells, and cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) infiltrations of STAT3/CDK2/4/6 in multiple cancer types. Read More

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February 2021

COVID-19 pandemic effects in people with Autism Spectrum Disorder and their caregivers: Evaluation of social distancing and lockdown impact on mental health and general status.

Res Autism Spectr Disord 2021 May 25;83:101757. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Among the difficulties associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are those related to adaptation to changes and new situations, as well as anxious-depressive symptoms frequently related to excessive environmental requirements. The main objective of this research is to study the psychological impact of the lockdown due to the social emergency situation (COVID-19) in children/adolescents and adults diagnosed with ASD. Participants were 37 caregivers of children/adolescents with ASD, also 35 ASD adults and 32 informants. Read More

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The impact of public coverage of newer hepatitis C medications on utilization, adherence, and costs in British Columbia.

PLoS One 2021 1;16(3):e0247843. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

The Centre for Health Services and Policy Research, School of Population and Public Health, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Background: Sofosbuvir and ledipasvir-sofosbuvir are both newer direct-acting antiviral agents for the treatment of hepatitis C. The high list prices for both drugs have led to concern about the budget impact for public drug coverage programs. Therefore, we studied the impact of public prescription drug coverage for both drugs on utilization, adherence, and public and private expenditure in British Columbia, Canada. Read More

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Comparison of Facebook, Google Ads, and Reddit for the Recruitment of People Who Considered but Did Not Obtain Abortion Care in the United States: Cross-sectional Survey.

JMIR Form Res 2021 Feb 24;5(2):e22854. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Ibis Reproductive Health, Oakland, CA, United States.

Background: In the United States, abortion access is restricted by numerous logistical, financial, social, and policy barriers. Most studies on abortion-seeking experiences in the United States have recruited participants from abortion clinics. However, clinic-based recruitment strategies fail to capture the experiences of people who consider an abortion but do not make it to an abortion clinic. Read More

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February 2021

The potential effect of COVID-19-related disruptions on HIV incidence and HIV-related mortality among men who have sex with men in the USA: a modelling study.

Lancet HIV 2021 04 19;8(4):e206-e215. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK; HIV Prevention Trials Network Modelling Centre, Imperial College London, London, UK; Abdul Latif Jameel Institute for Disease and Emergency Analytics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA have reported similar or fewer sexual partners and reduced HIV testing and care access compared with before the pandemic. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use has also declined. We aimed to quantify the potential effect of COVID-19 on HIV incidence and HIV-related mortality among US MSM. Read More

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Two maize cultivars of contrasting leaf size show different leaf elongation rates with identical patterns of extension dynamics and coordination.

AoB Plants 2021 Feb 4;13(1):plaa072. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

UMR ECOSYS, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, Thiverval-Grignon, France.

Simulating leaf development from initiation to maturity opens new possibilities to model plant-environment interactions and the plasticity of plant architecture. This study analyses the dynamics of leaf production and extension along a maize () shoot to assess important modelling choices. Maize plants from two cultivars originating from the same inbred line, yet differing in the length of mature leaves were used in this study. Read More

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February 2021

Self-management of vocational skills for people with significant intellectual disabilities: A systematic review.

J Intellect Disabil 2021 Feb 18:1744629520987768. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

The Ohio State University, USA.

Access to employment opportunities is associated with increased quality of life for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities; however, many adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities struggle to find employment. One reason they may have difficulty achieving employment is an inability to work independently. Self-management interventions have been used to promote independence in the workplace for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities by involving them in changing their own behavior. Read More

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February 2021

Factors predicting statin prescribing for primary prevention: a historical cohort study.

Br J Gen Pract 2021 25;71(704):e219-e225. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham.

Background: Initiation of statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) should be based on CVD risk estimates, but their use is suboptimal.

Aim: To investigate the factors influencing statin prescribing when clinicians code and do not code estimated CVD risk (QRISK2).

Design And Setting: A historical cohort of patients who had lipid tests in a database (IQVIA Medical Research Data) of UK primary care records. Read More

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February 2021

The impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on HIV care in 65 South African primary care clinics: an interrupted time series analysis.

Lancet HIV 2021 03 4;8(3):e158-e165. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Background: The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV outcomes in low-income and middle-income countries is poorly described. We aimed to measure the impact of the 2020 national COVID-19 lockdown on HIV testing and treatment in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, where 1·7 million people are living with HIV.

Methods: In this interrupted time series analysis, we analysed anonymised programmatic data from 65 primary care clinics in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Read More

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Mothers' Knowledge of Childhood Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Indian Perspective.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2021 Jan 29;12(1):165-170. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

College of Nursing, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

 This study aims to assess the knowledge of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (CNDDs) among mothers of children younger than 5 years and to promote awareness through health education to promote early identification.  Quantitative approach, a descriptive survey in nature research design, was used. A total of 173 mothers who contented the inclusion conditions were chosen as sample on the basis of purposive sampling. Read More

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January 2021

The level and deriving factors of repeat-induced abortion in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Heliyon 2021 Jan 16;7(1):e05984. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Neonatal and Child Health Nursing, College of Health Sciences, Debre Tabor University, Debre Tabor, Ethiopia.

Background: Despite repeat induced abortion is a growing challenge for both developing as well as developed countries, abortion-related complications are found to be higher among women in developing countries. This systematic review and meta-analysis was intended to assess the level of repeat-induced abortion and its deriving factors in Ethiopia.

Methods: Different data sources such as PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and University online data bases were used to identify candidate articles for this systematic review and meta-analysis. Read More

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January 2021

Drug survival of ixekizumab, TNF inhibitors, and other IL-17 inhibitors in real-world patients with psoriasis: The Corrona Psoriasis Registry.

Dermatol Ther 2021 Mar 15;34(2):e14808. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia, USA.

To compare drug survival of ixekizumab to other IL-17 inhibitors (IL-17i) and TNF inhibitors (TNFi) among patients with psoriasis (PsO) in a real-world setting. Participants included adult PsO patients enrolled in the Corrona Psoriasis Registry who initiated ixekizumab, TNFi, or other IL-17i between 16 March 2016 to 10 August 2019 and completed ≥1 follow-up visit. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were calculated to estimate the risk for drug discontinuation in the ixekizumab group relative to the other drugs. Read More

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[Genetic basis of Cushing's disease in children and targeted therapeutic future perspectives].

Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 2020 Dec 11;66(6):39-49. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Endocrinology Research Centre.

Cushing's disease (CD) is a multisystem disorder of a cortisol excess caused by ACTH -secreting pituitary tumor (corticotropinoma). CD in children is due to somatic or germline mutations with the late onset causing multiple endocrine tumors. If not treated, hypercortisolism leads to severe decrease in quality of life and life-threating conditions. Read More

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December 2020

Distribution and Predictors of Initial Glaucoma Care among Ophthalmologists and Optometrists: A Population-based Study.

J Glaucoma 2021 Jan 13. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada Department of Ophthalmology, Kingston Health Sciences Centre, Kingston, Canada ICES, Ontario, Canada Division of Geriatric Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada Division of Geriatric Medicine, Kingston Health Sciences Centre, Kingston, Canada.

Purpose: To evaluate evolution in the distribution of new glaucoma patients between ophthalmologists and optometrists, and to examine factors predicting provider type, in the context of expansion in the scope of optometry practice.

Patients And Methods: A population-based study was undertaken using validated datasets in Ontario, Canada from 2007 to 2018, encompassing time before and after optometry practice scope expansion in 2011. All patients aged 66 and older receiving a glaucoma suspect diagnosis or first-line therapy for glaucoma from ophthalmologists or optometrists were enrolled. Read More

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January 2021

Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants in Elderly (≥85 years) Patients With Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation: Changing Clinical Practice and Outcomes for Stroke Prevention in a Nationwide Cohort Study.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 01;96(1):52-65

Institute of Clinical Medicine, and Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the influences of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) on rates of initiations of oral anticoagulants (OACs) and outcomes among elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).

Methods: From January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2015, 33,539 newly-diagnosed AF patients older than 85 years old who survived more than 180 days after AF diagnosis were studied. Temporal trends regarding OAC initiation rates after incident AF were analyzed. Read More

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January 2021

Infection risk in sarcoidosis patients treated with methotrexate compared to azathioprine: A retrospective 'target trial' emulated with Swedish real-world data.

Respirology 2021 May 4;26(5):452-460. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Clinical Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background And Objective: No clinical trial has examined the risk of infection associated methotrexate and azathioprine, two advocated treatments for sarcoidosis. We aimed to compare the 6-month risk of infection after the initiation of methotrexate or azathioprine.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective target trial emulation using Swedish pre-existing data. Read More

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Prognostic implication of risk scoring systems in patients with cardiogenic shock supported by ECMO and Impella.

J Artif Organs 2021 Jan 3. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

The Second Department of Internal Medicine, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama, Toyama, 930-0194, Japan.

We experienced two refractory cardiogenic shock patients receiving veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and Impella percutaneous left ventricular assist device (ECPELLA). TVAD score, which was originally proposed to predict one-year mortality following left ventricular assist device implantation using four objective parameters, was retrospectively calculated using data of day 3 following ECPELLA initiations. One patient with estimated intermediate risk could achieve successful explantation of ECPELLA, whereas another patient with estimated high risk was expired despite explantation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Read More

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January 2021

Parent-child interaction during the first year of life in infants at elevated likelihood of autism spectrum disorder.

Infant Behav Dev 2021 Feb 30;62:101521. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatry University Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) likely emerges from a complex interaction between pre-existing neurodevelopmental vulnerabilities and the environment. The interaction with parents forms a key aspect of an infant's social environment, but few prospective studies of infants at elevated likelihood (EL) for ASD (who have an older sibling with ASD) have examined parent-child interactions in the first year of life. As part of a European multisite network, parent-child dyads of free play were observed at 5 months (62 EL infants, 47 infants at typical likelihood (TL)) and 10 months (101 EL siblings, 77 TL siblings). Read More

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February 2021

Enhancing Social Initiations Using Naturalistic Behavioral Intervention: Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Trial for Children with Autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Jan 2. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Stanford University, 401 Quarry Road, Stanford, CA, 94305-5719, USA.

Deficits in social skills are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and there is an urgent need for effective social skills interventions, especially for improving interactions with typically developing peers. This study examined the effects of a naturalistic behavioral social skills intervention in improving social initiations to peers through a randomized controlled trial. Analyses of multimethod, multi-informant measures indicated that children in the active group (SIMI) demonstrated greater improvement in the types of initiations which were systematically prompted and reinforced during treatment (i. Read More

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January 2021

The Efficacy of Pivotal Response Treatment in Teaching Question-Asking Initiations to Young Turkish Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Jan 2. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey.

In the present study, a concurrent multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the efficacy of pivotal response treatment (PRT) on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of the question-asking initiations by four children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The researchers also examined whether the implementation of PRT resulted in collateral changes in language development and other areas of development. The results of this study indicate that PRT is highly effective in teaching question-asking initiations. Read More

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January 2021