7,257 results match your criteria initiation coding


Mutational mechanisms shaping the coding and noncoding genome of germinal center derived B-cell lymphomas.

Leukemia 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Clinical Immunology, Center for Child and Adolescent Health, Düsseldorf, Germany.

B cells have the unique property to somatically alter their immunoglobulin (IG) genes by V(D)J recombination, somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR). Aberrant targeting of these mechanisms is implicated in lymphomagenesis, but the mutational processes are poorly understood. By performing whole genome and transcriptome sequencing of 181 germinal center derived B-cell lymphomas (gcBCL) we identified distinct mutational signatures linked to SHM and CSR. Read More

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Propolis Extract Regulate microRNA Expression in Glioblastoma and Brain Cancer Stem Cells.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Ege University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Izmir, Turkey.

Background: Grade IV gliomas are classified as glioblastoma (GBM), which is the most malignant brain cancer type. Various genetic and epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the initiation and progression of GBM. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that are the main epigenetic regulatory RNA class. Read More

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Sequencing and analysis of the mitochondrial genome of (Bloch, 1793) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Apr 15;6(4):1389-1391. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Biotechnology, Sangmyung University, Seoul, Korea.

Donkey croaker, (Bloch, 1793) is a commercially important croaker in the Indo-Pacific region. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed the mitogenome of . The nearly complete mitochondrial genome of is 15,694 bp in size. Read More

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Read between the lines: Diversity of non-translational selection pressures on local codon usage.

Genome Biol Evol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, Université Paul Valéry Montpellier 3, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, 34000 Montpellier, France.

Protein coding genes can contain specific motifs within their nucleotide sequence that function as a signal for various biological pathways. The presence of such sequence motifs within a gene can have beneficial or detrimental effects on the phenotype and fitness of an organism, and this can lead to the enrichment or avoidance of this sequence motif. The degeneracy of the genetic code allows for the existence of alternative synonymous sequences that exclude or include these motifs, while keeping the encoded amino acid sequence intact. Read More

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Overexpression-based detection of translatable circular RNAs is vulnerable to coexistent linear RNA byproducts.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 30;558:189-195. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen Peking University - The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Medical Center, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China; Greater Bay Biomedical Innocenter, Shenzhen Bay Laboratory, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. Electronic address:

In RNA field, the demarcation between coding and non-coding has been negotiated by the recent discovery of occasionally translated circular RNAs (circRNAs). Although absent of 5' cap structure, circRNAs can be translated cap-independently. Complementary intron-mediated overexpression is one of the most utilized methodologies for circRNA research but not without bearing echoing skepticism for its poorly defined mechanism and latent coexistent side products. Read More

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Identification and Functional Prediction of Long Non-Coding RNAs in Dilated Cardiomyopathy by Bioinformatics Analysis.

Front Genet 2021 16;12:648111. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a relatively common cause of heart failure and the leading cause of heart transplantation. Aberrant changes in long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in DCM disorder; however, the detailed mechanisms underlying DCM initiation and progression require further investigation, and new molecular targets are needed. Here, we obtained lncRNA-expression profiles associated with DCM and non-failing hearts through microarray probe-sequence re-annotation. Read More

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Arteriovenous fistula cannulation in hemodialysis: A vascular access clinical practice guidelines narrative review.

J Vasc Access 2021 Apr 30:11297298211006972. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Nursing School Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

The cannulation of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) by the hemodialysis (HD) nurse is challenging. Despite it being the focus of extensive research, it is still one of the majors causes of damage making it prone to failure. A considerable number of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) for the management of vascular access (VA) have been published worldwide over the past two decades. Read More

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Long Non-Coding RNA CRNDE Is Involved in Resistance to EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor in EGFR-Mutant Lung Cancer via eIF4A3/MUC1/EGFR Signaling.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 13;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8602, Japan.

(1) Background: Acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) is an intractable problem for many clinical oncologists. The mechanisms of resistance to EGFR-TKIs are complex. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may play an important role in cancer development and metastasis. Read More

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Translational Attenuation by an Intron Retention in the 5' UTR of Causes Amelogenesis Imperfecta.

Biomedicines 2021 Apr 22;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Molecular Genetics & DRI, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Korea.

Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a collection of rare genetic conditions affecting tooth enamel. The affected enamel can be of insufficient quantity and/or altered quality, impacting structural content, surface integrity and coloration. Heterozygous mutations in result in hypoplastic AI without other syndromic phenotypes, with variable expressivity and reduced penetrance, unlike other AI-associated genes. Read More

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Characterization of Two Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) and the Phylogenetic Implications.

Insects 2021 Apr 11;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China.

The complete mitochondrial genomes of and were sequenced. The results showed that the mitogenomes of these two species are 15,621 and 15,895 bp in length, with A+T contents of 78.6% and 78. Read More

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The Anticancer Effects of Flavonoids through miRNAs Modulations in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 7;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Institute of Public Health, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA.

Triple- negative breast cancer (TNBC) incidence rate has regularly risen over the last decades and is expected to increase in the future. Finding novel treatment options with minimum or no toxicity is of great importance in treating or preventing TNBC. Flavonoids are new attractive molecules that might fulfill this promising therapeutic option. Read More

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Dysregulation of MicroRNAs in Hypertrophy and Ossification of Ligamentum Flavum: New Advances, Challenges, and Potential Directions.

Front Genet 2021 12;12:641575. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Orthopaedic Department, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Pathological changes in the ligamentum flavum (LF) can be defined as a process of chronic progressive aberrations in the nature and structure of ligamentous tissues characterized by increased thickness, reduced elasticity, local calcification, or aggravated ossification, which may cause severe myelopathy, radiculopathy, or both. Hypertrophy of ligamentum flavum (HLF) and ossification of ligamentum flavum (OLF) are clinically common entities. Though accumulated evidence has indicated both genetic and environmental factors could contribute to the initiation and progression of HLF/OLF, the definite pathogenesis remains fully unclear. Read More

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The emerging role of non-coding RNAs in the epigenetic regulation of pediatric cancers.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology & The Fred and Pamela Buffett Cancer Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA; The Children's Health Research Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA. Electronic address:

Epigenetics is a process that involves the regulation of gene expression without altering the sequence of DNA. Numerous studies have documented that epigenetic mechanisms play a critical role in cell growth, differentiation, and cancer over the past decade. The well-known epigenetic modifications are either on DNA or at the histone proteins. Read More

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The Role of non-coding RNAs in colorectal cancer, with a focus on its autophagy.

Pharmacol Ther 2021 Apr 23;226:107868. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

State Key Laboratory of Southwestern Chinese Medicine Resources, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137, China; Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137, China. Electronic address:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of malignant afflictions burdening people worldwide, mainly caused by shortages of effective medical intervention and poorly mechanistic understanding of the pathogenesis of CRC. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a type of heterogeneous transcripts without the capability of coding protein, but have the potency of regulating protein-coding gene expression. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process in which cytoplasmic contents are delivered to cellular lysosomes for degradation, resulting in the turnover of cellular components and producing energy for cell functions. Read More

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A high level of lncFGD5-AS1 inhibits epithelial-to-Mesenchymal transition by regulating the miR-196a-5p/SMAD6/BMP axis in gastric Cancer.

BMC Cancer 2021 Apr 23;21(1):453. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

The Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Background: Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) was a vital factor in the progression and initiation of human cancers. This study found a new lncRNA, FGD5-AS1, which can inhibit EMT process, proliferation, and metastasis in vitro and in vivo.

Methods: qRT-PCR was employed to test the expression of lncFGD5-AS1 in 30 gastric cancer patients' cancer tissue and para-cancer tissue. Read More

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OsIME4 gene identified as a key to meiosis initiation by RNA in situ hybridization.

Plant Biol (Stuttg) 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Plant Genetics and Breeding, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100094, PR China.

The formation of asexual seeds in plants holds great promise as a breeding system for one-line hybrid rice. Entry into meiosis is a key developmental decision in gametogenesis, especially in formation of asexual seeds in plants. Apomeiosis in the MeMCs can be achieved by identifying and manipulating meiosis-specific genes. Read More

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BC-TFdb: a database of transcription factor drivers in breast cancer.

Database (Oxford) 2021 Apr;2021

Department of Bioinformatics and Biological Statistics, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, P.R. China.

Transcription factors (TFs) are DNA-binding proteins, which regulate many essential biological functions. In several cancer types, TF function is altered by various direct mechanisms, including gene amplification or deletion, point mutations, chromosomal translocations, expression alterations, as well as indirectly by non-coding DNA mutations influencing the binding of the TF. TFs are also actively involved in breast cancer (BC) initiation and progression. Read More

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Identification and Characterization of a Cryptic Genomic Deletion-Insertion in Associated with Branchio-Otic Syndrome.

Neural Plast 2021 5;2021:5524381. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Taizhou People's Hospital, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University & Clinical Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Taizhou, Jiangsu, China.

Branchio-oto-renal spectrum disorder (BORSD) is characterized by hearing loss accompanied by ear malformations, branchial cysts, and fistulae, with (branchio-oto-renal syndrome (BORS)) or without renal abnormalities (BOS (branchio-otic syndrome)). As the most common causative gene for BORSD, dominant mutations in are responsible for approximately 40% of the cases. In a sporadic deaf patient diagnosed as BOS, we identified an apparent heterozygous genomic deletion spanning the first four coding exons and one 5' noncoding exon of by targeted next-generation sequencing of 406 known deafness genes. Read More

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Epigenetic modulation and understanding of HDAC inhibitors in cancer therapy.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 16;277:119504. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Vaddeswaram, Andhra Pradesh, India.

The role of genetic and epigenetic factors in tumor initiation and progression is well documented. Histone deacetylases (HDACs), histone methyl transferases (HMTs), and DNA methyl transferases. (DNMTs) are the main proteins that are involved in regulating the chromatin conformation. Read More

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LINC01977 Promotes Breast Cancer Progression and Chemoresistance to Doxorubicin by Targeting miR-212-3p/GOLM1 Axis.

Front Oncol 2021 31;11:657094. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Breast Surgery, General Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Long non-coding RNAs(lncRNAs) play an important role in cancer initiation and progression. However, hub lncRNAs involved in breast cancer still remain underexplored. In this study, integrated bioinformatics analysis was used to define LINC01977 as a key oncogenic driver in breast cancer. Read More

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Downregulation of MIR100HG Induces Apoptosis in Human Megakaryoblastic Leukemia Cells.

Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2021 Apr 24;37(2):232-239. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan, 81744-176 Iran.

Long noncoding ribonucleic acids (lncRNAs) are ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules longer than 200 nucleotides without protein-coding capacity. Several studies have shown that lncRNAs play a pivotal role in the initiation, maintenance, and progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which could make them a promising candidate in the diagnosis and treatment of leukemia. Acute Megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a rare form of AML with a poor prognosis and low survival. Read More

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Interplay between MAPK/ERK signaling pathway and MicroRNAs: A crucial mechanism regulating cancer cell metabolism and tumor progression.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 15;278:119499. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.. Electronic address:

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction, as a highly conserved signaling pathway, is reported to be involved in various biological events, including metabolic reprogramming, cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Mutations in key molecules involved in MAPK/ERK signaling and dysregulation of this pathway are very common events in various human malignancies, which make the MAPK signaling a crucial signaling pathway participating in the regulation of glucose uptake by malignant cells and tumorigenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), as small non-coding RNAs, are critical regulators of gene expression that play key roles in cancer initiation and progression. Read More

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Non-coding RNA in cancer.

Essays Biochem 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Key Laboratory of RNA Biology, Key Laboratory of Protein and Peptide Pharmaceutical, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

Majority of the human genome is transcribed to RNAs that do not encode proteins. These non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play crucial roles in regulating the initiation and progression of various cancers. Given the importance of the ncRNAs, the roles of ncRNAs in cancers have been reviewed elsewhere. Read More

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LncRNA signature in colorectal cancer.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Apr 7;222:153432. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Urology and Nephrology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most frequent cancers and is associated with high mortality particularly when being diagnosed in advanced stages. Although several environmental and intrinsic risk factors have been identified, the underlying cause of CRC is not clear in the majority of cases. Several studies especially in the recent decade have pointed to the role of epigenetic factors in this kind of cancer. Read More

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The RSC complex remodels nucleosomes in transcribed coding sequences and promotes transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Genetics 2021 Apr;217(4)

Department of Biological Sciences, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309, USA.

RSC (Remodels the Structure of Chromatin) is a conserved ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex that regulates many biological processes, including transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). We report that RSC contributes in generating accessible nucleosomes in transcribed coding sequences (CDSs). RSC MNase ChIP-seq data revealed that RSC-bound nucleosome fragments were very heterogenous (∼80 bp to 180 bp) compared to a sharper profile displayed by the MNase inputs (140 bp to 160 bp), supporting the idea that RSC promotes accessibility of nucleosomal DNA. Read More

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Nucleolin promotes IRES-driven translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by supporting the assembly of translation initiation complexes.

J Virol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, OIE/China National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, Gansu, P. R. China

Nucleolin (NCL), a stress-responsive RNA-binding protein, has been implicated in the translation of internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-containing mRNAs, which encode proteins involved in cell proliferation, carcinogenesis, and viral infection (Type I IRESs). However, the details of the mechanisms by which NCL participates in IRES-driven translation have not hitherto been described. Here, we identified NCL as a protein that interacts with the IRES of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which is a Type II IRES. Read More

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Long noncoding RNA LINC00641 promotes renal cell carcinoma progression via sponging microRNA-340-5p.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Apr 14;21(1):210. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Urology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background: Emerging evidences have revealed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have played critical roles in tumor occurrence and progression. LINC00641 has been reported to be involved in the initiation and development of several cancers in the recent years. However, the detailed biological role of LINC00641 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains largely unclear. Read More

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Analysis of crucial genes, pathways and construction of the molecular regulatory networks in vascular smooth muscle cell calcification.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 2;21(6):589. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Liuzhou Worker's Hospital, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Liuzhou, Guangxi 545005, P.R. China.

Vascular calcification (VC) accompanies the trans-differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into osteo/chondrocyte-like cells and resembles physiological bone mineralization. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying VC initiation and progression have remained largely elusive. The aim of the present study was to identify the genes and pathways common to VSMC and osteoblast calcification and construct a regulatory network of non-coding RNAs and transcription factors (TFs). Read More

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The role of miRNA, lncRNA and circRNA in the development of intervertebral disk degeneration (Review).

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 26;21(6):555. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Oncology Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning 116000, P.R. China.

Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is a degenerative musculoskeletal disorder with multiple causative factors, such as age, genetics, mechanics and life style. IVDD contributes to non-specific lower back pain (NLBP), which is a globally prevalent and debilitating musculoskeletal disorder. NLBP has a substantial impact on medical resources and creates an economic burden for the public. Read More

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Novel role of LINC01013/miR-6795-5p/FMNL3 axis in the regulation of hepatocellular carcinoma stem cell features.

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are major contributors to tumor initiation, recurrence, and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Some long non-coding RNAs have been reported as modulators of stem-like properties in cancer cells. However, the role of LINC01013 in liver CSCs has not yet been clarified. Read More

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