231,424 results match your criteria inhibition growth


Pairing denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms with anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria for simultaneous N and P removal.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 5;787:147521. Epub 2021 May 5.

University of Washington, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, 616 Northlake Place, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Electronic address:

Coupling of denitrifying polyphosphate accumulating organisms (DPAO) with anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (Anammox) bacteria in a single treatment scheme has so far been unsuccessful but could offer substantial energy savings, minimize sludge production, while achieving simultaneous carbon, nitrogen and phosphate removal. However, both organisms compete for nitrite and have vastly different growth rates and therefore the goal of this study was to uncouple their solid retention time (SRT) by growing them in different sludge fractions and to determine their biomass specific kinetic properties. Anammox bacteria were grown in a biofilm for longer SRTs and DPAO in flocs to allow shorter SRTs. Read More

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Delivery of oxaliplatin to colorectal cancer cells by folate-targeted UiO-66-NH.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 May 12:115573. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Metabolic syndrome Research center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Oxaliplatin is being used in different malignancies and several side effects are reported for patients taking Oxaliplatin, including peripheral neuropathy, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, mouth sores, low blood counts, fatigue, loss of appetite, etc. Here we have developed a targeted anticancer drug delivery system based on folate-conjugated amine-functionalized UiO-66 for the delivery of oxaliplatin (OX). UiO-66-NH (U) and UiO-66-NH-FA(FU) were pre-functionalized by the incorporation of folic acid (FA) into the structure via coordination of the carboxylate group of FA. Read More

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Inhibiting xCT/SLC7A11 induces ferroptosis of myofibroblastic hepatic stellate cells but exacerbates chronic liver injury.

Liver Int 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background & Aims: The outcome of liver injury is dictated by factors that control accumulation of myofibroblastic (activated) hepatic stellate cells (MF-HSCs) but therapies that specifically block this process have not been discovered. We evaluated the hypothesis that MF-HSCs and liver fibrosis could be safely reduced by inhibiting the cysteine/glutamate antiporter xCT.

Methods: xCT activity was disrupted in both HSC lines and primary mouse HSCs to determine its effect on HSC biology. Read More

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Effect of exogenous silicon and methyl jasmonate on the alleviation of cadmium-induced phytotoxicity in tomato plants.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi'an, 710021, People's Republic of China.

In the present study, a hydroponic experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of exogenous silicon (Si) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the mitigation of Cd toxicity in tomato seedlings. The results revealed that Cd-stressed plants exhibited growth inhibition, increased lipid peroxidation, and impaired photosynthetic pigment accumulation. However, Si and MeJA applied alone or in combination significantly ameliorated the above-mentioned adverse effects induced by Cd. Read More

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Bispecific antibody simultaneously targeting PD1 and HER2 inhibits tumor growth via direct tumor cell killing in combination with PD1/PDL1 blockade and HER2 inhibition.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Sunshine Guojian Pharmaceutical (Shanghai) Co. Ltd., 3SBio Inc. Company, Shanghai, 201203, China.

Immune checkpoint blockade has shown significant clinical benefit in multiple cancer indications, but many patients are either refractory or become resistant to the treatment over time. HER2/neu oncogene overexpressed in invasive breast cancer patients associates with more aggressive diseases and poor prognosis. Anti-HER2 mAbs, such as trastuzumab, are currently the standard of care for HER2-overexpressing cancers, but the response rates are below 30% and patients generally suffer relapse within a year. Read More

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Alternative regulatory mechanism for the maintenance of bone homeostasis via STAT5-mediated regulation of the differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes.

Exp Mol Med 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Pharmacology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, 61469, Republic of Korea.

STAT5 is a transcription factor that is activated by various cytokines, hormones, and growth factors. Activated STAT5 is then translocated to the nucleus and regulates the transcription of target genes, affecting several biological processes. Several studies have investigated the role of STAT5 in adipogenesis, but unfortunately, its role in adipogenesis remains controversial. Read More

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The arachidonic acid metabolite 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid alleviates pulmonary fibrosis.

Exp Mol Med 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Institute of Convergence Science and Technology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are metabolites of arachidonic acid that are rapidly metabolized into diols by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). sEH inhibition has been shown to increase the biological activity of EETs, which are known to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, the role of EETs in pulmonary fibrosis remains unexplored. Read More

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HNF1A regulates colorectal cancer progression and drug resistance as a downstream of POU5F1.

Sci Rep 2021 May 14;11(1):10363. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita-City, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.

POU5F1-expressing cells can self-renew and differentiate, contributing to metastasis formation in colorectal cancer (CRC), but it plays an important role in normal pluripotent stem cells. Here, we identified the CRC-specific gene, HNF1A, which is the downstream of POU5F1. HNF1A associates with fatty acid and glucose metabolism, and CRC cells highly expressed it. Read More

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Interplay between transforming growth factor-β and Nur77 in dual regulations of inhibitor of differentiation 1 for colonic tumorigenesis.

Nat Commun 2021 May 14;12(1):2809. Epub 2021 May 14.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Innovative Drug Target Research, High Throughput Drug Screening Platform, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China.

The paradoxical roles of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling and nuclear receptor Nur77 in colon cancer development are known but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Inhibitor of differentiation 1 (ID1) is a target gene of TGFβ and a key promoter for colon cancer progression. Here, we show that Nur77 enhances TGFβ/Smad3-induced ID1 mRNA expression through hindering Smurf2-mediated Smad3 mono-ubiquitylation, resulting in ID1 upregulation. Read More

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Monocytic MDSC mobilization promotes tumor recurrence after liver transplantation via CXCL10/TLR4/MMP14 signaling.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 14;12(5):489. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Surgery, HKU-SZH & Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Tumor recurrence is the major obstacle for pushing the envelope of liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. The inflammatory cascades activated by acute liver graft injury promote tumor recurrence. We aimed to explore the role and mechanism of myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) mobilization induced by liver graft injury on tumor recurrence. Read More

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Cephalomannine inhibits hypoxia-induced cellular function via the suppression of APEX1/HIF-1α interaction in lung cancer.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 14;12(5):490. Epub 2021 May 14.

School of Pharmacy, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710061, P.R. China.

Lung cancer (LC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. As one of the key features of tumor microenvironment, hypoxia conditions are associated with poor prognosis in LC patients. Upregulation of hypoxic-induced factor-1α (HIF-1α) leads to the activation of various factors that contribute to the increased drug resistance, proliferation, and migration of tumor cells. Read More

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Circ_CHFR promotes PDGF-BB-induced proliferation, invasion and migration in VSMCs via miR-149-5p/NRP2 axis.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Medical University, Xi'an, 710077, Shaanxi, China Department of General Practice, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Medical University, Xi'an, 710077, Shaanxi, China.

Abstract: Circular RNA Checkpoint With Forkhead And Ring Finger Domains (circ_CHFR) was reported to regulate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction during atherosclerosis (AS). However, the molecule mechanism of circ_CHFR in AS remains largely unclear. Human VSMCs (HVSMCs) were exposed to platelet-derived growth factor-bb (PDGF-BB) in vitro. Read More

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Mol Pharmacol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, INSERM UMRS1138, France

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The multi-target inhibitor sorafenib is a first-line treatment for patients with advanced unresectable HCC. Recent clinical studies have evidenced that patients treated with sorafenib together with the anti-diabetic drug metformin have a survival disadvantage compared to patients receiving sorafenib only. Read More

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Inhibition of DEC2 is necessary for exiting cell dormancy in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 May 14;40(1):169. Epub 2021 May 14.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Department of Oral Pathology, West China Hospital of Stomatology (Sichuan University), No.14, Sec. 3, Renminnan Road, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Background: Patients were prone to have poor prognosis once dormant tumor cells being reactivated. However, the molecular mechanism of tumor cell dormancy remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the function of DEC2 in the dormancy of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) in vitro and vivo. Read More

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Role of lysosomes in physiological activities, diseases, and therapy.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 May 14;14(1):79. Epub 2021 May 14.

Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 17, Block 3, Southern Renmin Road, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Long known as digestive organelles, lysosomes have now emerged as multifaceted centers responsible for degradation, nutrient sensing, and immunity. Growing evidence also implicates role of lysosome-related mechanisms in pathologic process. In this review, we discuss physiological function of lysosomes and, more importantly, how the homeostasis of lysosomes is disrupted in several diseases, including atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune disorders, pancreatitis, lysosomal storage disorders, and malignant tumors. Read More

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Overexpression of SlGSNOR impairs in vitro shoot proliferation and developmental architecture in tomato but confers enhanced disease resistance.

J Plant Physiol 2021 Apr 30;261:153433. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Faculty of Crop and Food Sciences, PMAS Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi, 46300, Pakistan. Electronic address:

The pervasive presence of nitric oxide (NO) in cells and its role in modifying cystein residues through protein S-nitrosylation is a remarkable redox based signalling mechanism regulating a variety of cellular processes. S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE (GSNOR) governs NO bioavailability by the breakdown of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), fine-tunes NO signalling and controls total cellular S-nitrosylated proteins. Most of the published data on GSNOR functional analysis is based on the model plant Arabidopsis with no previous report for its effect on in vitro regeneration of tissue cultured plants. Read More

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Impact of four local anaesthetics on growth and viability of in vitro cultured Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia bavariensis and Borrelia afzelii.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 May 3;12(5):101735. Epub 2021 May 3.

Chair for Bacteriology and Mycology, Institute for Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Department of Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Many local anaesthetics, including lidocaine, procaine and ropivacaine inhibit bacterial growth. This study investigates potential effects of these local anaesthetics on growth of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Bbss), Borrelia bavariensis (Bbav) and Borrelia afzelii (Ba). For this purpose, Borrelia spp. Read More

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LncRNA MAFG-AS1 affects the tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells via the miR-574-5p/SOD2 axis.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 11;560:119-125. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of No.1 General Surgery, People's Hospital of Zhenhai, 315211, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. Electronic address:

Amounting evidence suggested that long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs) played vital roles in the progression of various cancers. The aim of this study is to examine the biological roles and underlying mechanisms of lncRNA MAFG-AS1 in the tumorigenesis of breast cancer (BC) cells. Here we showed that downregulation of MAFG-AS1 inhibited the viability, migration, and invasion of BC cells. Read More

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Antimicrobial peptides purified from hydrolysates of kanihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) seed protein fractions.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 24;360:129951. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology - Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry - National University of San Marcos, Lima 1, Peru.

The kanihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) Andean grain from the Peruvian Altiplano presents proteins of 15% to 19%. The objective was to obtain purified bioactive antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), hydrolyzed with Alcalase and Pepsin-pancreatin sequential system of protein fractions of kanihua varieties Ramis (KR) and Cupi-Sayhua (KS), and hydrolysates with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) and percentage inhibition (IP) of the growth of E. coli, S. Read More

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Validation of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) as a candidate therapeutic target in the spontaneous canine model of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0250839. Epub 2021 May 14.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a heterogeneous group of blood cancers arising in lymphoid tissues that commonly effects both humans and dogs. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), an enzyme that catalyzes the symmetric di-methylation of arginine residues, is frequently overexpressed and dysregulated in both human solid and hematologic malignancies. In human lymphoma, PRMT5 is a known driver of malignant transformation and oncogenesis, however, the expression and role of PRMT5 in canine lymphoma has not been explored. Read More

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Sugar inhibits brassinosteroid signaling by enhancing BIN2 phosphorylation of BZR1.

PLoS Genet 2021 May 14;17(5):e1009540. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Plant Biology, Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, California, United States of America.

Sugar, light, and hormones are major signals regulating plant growth and development, however, the interactions among these signals are not fully understood at the molecular level. Recent studies showed that sugar promotes hypocotyl elongation by activating the brassinosteroid (BR) signaling pathway after shifting Arabidopsis seedlings from light to extended darkness. Here, we show that sugar inhibits BR signaling in Arabidopsis seedlings grown under light. Read More

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Modeling interspecific competition of the microbial community during anaerobic digestion based on cellular automata and ADM1.

Water Sci Technol 2021 May;83(9):2087-2099

School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168, China E-mail:

Interspecific competition for substrate and space gives rise to considerable variation in biomass distribution within the microbial community. To study microbial community in depth, we used several research methods as sampling and analytical measurements, and developed a cellular automata (CA) model that would facilitate a description of the microbial growth process based on Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) of the International Water Association (IWA). Read More

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Protein kinase inhibitors for the treatment of prostate cancer.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2021 May 14:1-11. Epub 2021 May 14.

Genitourinary Cancers, Inova Medical Group, Inova Schar Cancer Institute, Fairfax, VA, USA.

Introduction: Protein kinases have emerged as targetable pathways used in metastatic prostate cancer given their role in prostatic tumor growth, proliferation and metastases. Protein kinase inhibitors are small molecules that target varying pathways including the breakpoint cluster region (BCR)-Abelson tyrosine kinase (ABL), colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor (VEGFR) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways and have been studied in prostate cancer trials with variable results. In particular, cabozantinib when used in combination trials and ipatasertib, when used with abiraterone in patients who harbor phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) loss, have been promising. Read More

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Conversion of RNA Aptamer into Modified DNA Aptamers Provides for Prolonged Stability and Enhanced Antitumor Activity.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, United States.

Aptamers, synthetic single-strand oligonucleotides that are similar in function to antibodies, are promising as therapeutics because of their minimal side effects. However, the stability and bioavailability of the aptamers pose a challenge. We developed aptamers converted from RNA aptamer to modified DNA aptamers that target phospho-AXL with improved stability and bioavailability. Read More

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Knockdown of insulin-like growth factor 2 gene disrupts mitochondrial functions in the liver.

J Mol Cell Biol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Endocrinology, the Affiliated Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Even though insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) has been reported to be overexpressed in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), its role in the progression of NAFLD and the potential mechanism remain largely unclear. Using in vitro models, we found that IGF2 was the key overexpressed gene in steatosis, suggesting a possible association between IGF2 and NAFLD. Interestingly, loss-of-function experiments revealed that inhibition of IGF2 protein impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. Read More

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Experimental study on preparation and anti-tumor efficiency of nanoparticles targeting M2 macrophages.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):943-956

Department of Biliary Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

This study aimed to develop an effective therapy against M2 macrophages and to investigate the effects of imidazole and mannose modified carboxymethyl chitosan-nanoparticles (MIC-NPs) on tumor growth and antitumor immune responses. MIC-NPs were constructed and analyzed through H NMR, nano-laser particle size analyzer, and transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles were mainly distributed in 75-85 nm, and zeta potential was 1. Read More

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December 2021

Tenascin-C immobilizes infiltrating T lymphocytes through CXCL12 promoting breast cancer progression.

EMBO Mol Med 2021 May 14:e13270. Epub 2021 May 14.

The Tumor Microenvironment Laboratory, INSERM UMR_S 1109, Faculté de Médecine, Hopital Civil, Institut d'Hématologie et d'Immunologie, Strasbourg, France.

Immune checkpoint therapy, where CD8 tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes (TIL) are reactivated, is a promising anti-cancer treatment approach, yet with low response rates. The extracellular matrix, in particular tenascin-C, may generate barriers for TIL. To investigate this possibility, we used a MMTV-NeuNT and syngeneic mammary gland grafting model derived thereof with engineered tenascin-C levels and observed accumulation of CD8 TIL in tenascin-C-rich stroma. Read More

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Sulfasalazine, a potent suppressor of gastric cancer proliferation and metastasis by inhibition of xCT: Conventional drug in new use.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

The aim of this study was to explore the role of sulfasalazine on proliferation and metastasis in gastric cancer by inhibition of xCT. The relationships between clinical characteristics and xCT expression were analysed. An immunohistochemical staining assay and Western blot were performed among gastric cancers and normal gastric tissues. Read More

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Sensing of mycobacterial arabinogalactan by galectin-9 exacerbates mycobacterial infection.

EMBO Rep 2021 May 13:e51678. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Mycobacterial arabinogalactan (AG) is an essential cell wall component of mycobacteria and a frequent structural and bio-synthetical target for anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug development. Here, we report that mycobacterial AG is recognized by galectin-9 and exacerbates mycobacterial infection. Administration of AG-specific aptamers inhibits cellular infiltration caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) or Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and moderately increases survival of Mtb-infected mice or Mycobacterium marinum-infected zebrafish. Read More

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Adipocyte-Derived Anticancer Lipid Droplets.

Adv Mater 2021 May 13:e2100629. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Engineering of efficient and safe materials remains a challenge for cancer therapy. Here, the lipid droplet, an organelle in adipocytes, is demonstrated to be a controllable and biocompatible vehicle to deliver anticancer drugs. It is validated that isolated lipid droplets maintain their key physiological functions to interact with other organelles and augment the therapeutic effect of cancer photodynamic therapy by encapsulation with a lipid-conjugated photosensitizer (Pyrolipid) through a variety of pathways, including generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); lipid peroxidation; and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Read More

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