82,022 results match your criteria influenza virus


Improved pathogenicity of H9N2 subtype of avian influenza virus induced by mutations occurred after serial adaptations in mice.

Microb Pathog 2021 Sep 22;160:105204. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

College of Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Microecology and Healthy Breeding, Jilin Provincial Engineering Research Center of Animal Probiotics, Key Laboratory of Animal Production and Product Quality Safety of the Ministry of Education, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

H9N2 subtype, a low pathogenic avian influenza virus, is emerging as a major causative agent circulating poultry workplaces across China and other Asian countries. Increasing case number of interspecies transmissions to mammals reported recently provoked a great concern about its risks inducing global pandemics. In an attempt to understand the underlying mechanism of how the H9N2 virus disrupts the interspecies segregation to transmit to mammals. Read More

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September 2021

Proteolytic activation of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

Authors:
Makoto Takeda

Microbiol Immunol 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Department of Virology 3, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.

Spike (S) protein cleavage is a crucial step in coronavirus infection. In this review, we discuss this process, with particular focus on the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Compared with influenza virus and paramyxovirus membrane fusion proteins, the cleavage activation mechanism of coronavirus S protein is much more complex. Read More

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September 2021

Covalent functionalization of polypropylene filters with diazirine-photosensitizer conjugates producing visible light driven virus inactivating materials.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 24;11(1):19029. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zürich, 8008, Zürich, Switzerland.

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has highlighted the weaknesses of relying on single-use mask and respirator personal protective equipment (PPE) and the global supply chain that supports this market. There have been no major innovations in filter technology for PPE in the past two decades. Non-woven textiles used for filtering PPE are single-use products in the healthcare environment; use and protection is focused on preventing infection from airborne or aerosolized pathogens such as Influenza A virus or SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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September 2021

Recombinant HA1-ΔfliC enhances adherence to respiratory epithelial cells and promotes the superiorly protective immune responses against H9N2 influenza virus in chickens.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Sep 15;262:109238. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology and Zoonosis, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine and State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100094, China. Electronic address:

H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) is an ongoing threat causing substantial loss to the poultry industry and thus necessitating the development of safe and effective vaccines against AIV. Given that inactivated vaccines are less effective in activating the mucosal immune system, we aimed to generate a vaccine that can actively engage the mucosal immunity which is the front line of the immune system. We generated a group of flagellin-based hemagglutinin globular head (HA1) fusion proteins and characterized their immunogenicity and efficacy. Read More

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September 2021

Reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification assay for rapid detection of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 H275Y mutation that confers oseltamivir resistance.

Mol Cell Probes 2021 Sep 21;60:101771. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Microbiology Laboratory, Hangzhou Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhejiang, 310021, China. Electronic address:

The emergence of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus with the NA-H275Y mutation, which confers oseltamivir resistance, must be monitored, especially in patients undergoing neuraminidase inhibitor treatment. In this study, we developed a reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification assay that has high sensitivity (detection limit: 1.0 × 10 copies/μL) and specificity for detecting the oseltamivir-resistant H275Y mutation; the assay is performed within 30 min at a constant temperature of 39° Celsius using an isothermal device. Read More

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September 2021

Molecular Characterization and Antigenic analysis of reassortant H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses in Eastern China in 2016.

Virus Res 2021 Sep 21:198577. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, and National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003, China. Electronic address:

H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) can cause respiratory symptoms and decrease the egg production. Additionally, H9N2 AIVs can provide internal genes for reassortment with other subtypes. During the monitoring of live poultry markets in 2016, a total of 32 (32/179, 17. Read More

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September 2021

Clinical features of Chinese children with COVID-19 and other viral respiratory infections.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders,The Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Objective: Few studies have explored the clinical features in children infected with SARS-CoV-2 and other common respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus (IV), and adenovirus (ADV). Herein, we reported the clinical characteristics and cytokine profiling in children with COVID-19 or other acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI).

Methods: We enrolled 20 hospitalized children confirmed as COVID-19 positive, 58 patients with ARTI, and 20 age and sex-matched healthy children. Read More

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September 2021

Spotlight influenza: Extending influenza surveillance to detect non-influenza respiratory viruses of public health relevance: analysis of surveillance data, Belgium, 2015 to 2019.

Euro Surveill 2021 09;26(38)

National Influenza Centre, Sciensano, Brussels, Belgium.

BackgroundSeasonal influenza-like illness (ILI) affects millions of people yearly. Severe acute respiratory infections (SARI), mainly influenza, are a leading cause of hospitalisation and mortality. Increasing evidence indicates that non-influenza respiratory viruses (NIRV) also contribute to the burden of SARI. Read More

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September 2021

Detection of Victoria lineage influenza B viruses with K162 and N163 deletions in the hemagglutinin gene, South Africa, 2018.

Health Sci Rep 2021 Sep 17;4(3):e367. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Centre for Respiratory Diseases and Meningitis National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service Johannesburg South Africa.

Background: A group of Victoria lineage influenza B viruses with a two amino acid deletion in the hemagglutinin (HA) at residues K162 and N163, was detected during the 2016 to 2017 Northern Hemisphere influenza season and continues to spread geographically. We describe the first identification of viruses with these deletions from South Africa in 2018.

Methods: Nasopharyngeal samples were obtained from the syndromic surveillance programs. Read More

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September 2021

Restriction factor compendium for influenza A virus reveals a mechanism for evasion of autophagy.

Nat Microbiol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Immunity and Pathogenesis Program, Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.

The fate of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in the host cell depends on the balance between cellular defence mechanisms and viral evasion strategies. To illuminate the landscape of IAV cellular restriction, we generated and integrated global genetic loss-of-function screens with transcriptomics and proteomics data. Our multi-omics analysis revealed a subset of both IFN-dependent and independent cellular defence mechanisms that inhibit IAV replication. Read More

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September 2021

Ethanol Susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 and Other Enveloped Viruses.

Biocontrol Sci 2021 ;26(3):177-180

Department of Virology, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University.

Ethanol is an effective disinfectant against the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. However, its effective concentration has not been shown, and we therefore analyzed the effects of different concentrations of ethanol on SARS-CoV-2. When SARS-CoV-2 was treated with varying ethanol concentrations and examined for changes in infectivity, the ethanol concentration at which 99% of the infectious titers were reduced was 24. Read More

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January 2021

Exploring electronic health records to estimate the extent of catch-up immunisation and factors associated with under-immunisation among refugees and asylum seekers in south east Queensland.

Vaccine 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Lecturer, Health Services Management, School of Medicine, Griffith University, South Bank, QLD 4101, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Australia is one of the leading countries resettling people from refugee-like backgrounds. Catch-up immunisation is a key priority in this cohort. However, few studies have included asylum seekers and the adult age group in their study sample. Read More

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September 2021

Cross-protective efficacy of inactivated whole influenza vaccines against Korean Y280 and Y439 lineage H9N2 viruses in mice.

Vaccine 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Since June 2020, the Y280 lineage H9N2 virus, which is distinct from the previously endemic Y439 lineage, has been circulating in poultry in Korea. In this study, we developed two whole inactivated vaccines, rgHS314 and vac564, against the Y280 and Y439 lineages, respectively, and evaluated their immunogenicity and protective efficacy against homologous or heterologous viral challenge in mice. Serum neutralizing antibody titers in the rgHS314-vaccinated group were higher (68 ± 8. Read More

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September 2021

A prospective study of prevalence of respiratory viruses causing acute respiratory infection in pediatric in-patients during pre- COVID times.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Purpose: To find out the prevalence of respiratory viruses causing Acute Respiratory Infection in pediatric in-patients during Pre-COVID times.

Methods: Nasal swabs were collected from children in the age group of 1 month-16 years who were admitted at our hospital with Acute Respiratory Infection. Samples were subjected to nucleic acid extraction and Real time polymerase chain reaction to detect 16 RNA viruses and 2 DNA viruses. Read More

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September 2021

Development of an antigen Enzyme-Linked AptaSorbent Assay (ELASA) for the detection of swine influenza virus in field samples.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Oct 9;1181:338933. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Eurofins-Inmunología y Genética Aplicada S.A. (Eurofins-INGENASA), Madrid, Spain.

Influenza viruses are highly variable pathogens that infect a wide range of mammalian and avian species. According to the internal conserved proteins (nucleoprotein: NP, and matrix proteins: M), these viruses are classified into type A, B, C, and D. Influenza A virus in swine is of significant importance to the industry since it is responsible for endemic infections that lead to high economic loses derived from poor weight gain, reproductive disorders, and the role it plays in Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex (PRDC). Read More

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October 2021

Evaluation of the impact of childhood 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction on adult pneumonia in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: study protocol for an observational study.

BMC Public Health 2021 Sep 23;21(1):1731. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Infection and Immunity, New Vaccines Research Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, 50 Flemington Road, Parkville, VIC, 3052, Australia.

Background: Community-acquired pneumonia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in adults. Approximately one-third of pneumonia cases can be attributed to the pneumococcus. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) protect against colonisation with vaccine-type serotypes. Read More

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September 2021

Dual respiratory virus detection in adult patients with acute respiratory illness.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Sep 23;21(1):997. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Nonrandom multiple respiratory virus (RV) detection provides evidence for viral interference among respiratory viruses. However, little is known as to whether it occurs randomly.

Methods: The prevalence of dual RV detection (DRVD) in patients with acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) at 4 academic medical centers was investigated; data about the prevalence of 8 RVs were collected from the Korean national RV surveillance dataset. Read More

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September 2021

Discovery of novel oxazole-based macrocycles as anti-coronaviral agents targeting SARS-CoV-2 main protease.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Sep 17;116:105363. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut 71526, Egypt. Electronic address:

We have discovered a family of synthetic oxazole-based macrocycles to be active against SARS-CoV-2. The synthesis, pharmacological properties, and docking studies of the compounds are reported in this study. The structure of the new macrocycles was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Read More

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September 2021

Toward a universal influenza virus vaccine: Some cytokines may fulfill the request.

Cytokine 2021 Sep 20;148:155703. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran; Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

The influenza virus annually causes widespread damages to the health and economy of the global community. Vaccination is currently the most crucial strategy in reducing the number of patients. Genetic variations, the high diversity of pandemic viruses, and zoonoses make it challenging to select suitable strains for annual vaccine production. Read More

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September 2021

Cellular hnRNPAB interacts with avian influenza viral protein PB2 and inhibits virus replication potentially by restricting PB2 mRNA nuclear export and PB2 protein level.

Virus Res 2021 Sep 20:198573. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, Jiangsu Detection Center of Terrestrial Wildlife Disease, Institute of Immunology and College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, PR China. Electronic address:

The PB2 protein of avian influenza virus (AIV) is essential for transcription and replication of virus genome. In this study, we reported that chicken heterogenous nuclear riboncleoprotein AB (hnRNPAB) cooperated with avian influenza viral protein PB2 and inhibited the polymerase activity and virus replication. We found that hnRNPAB was associated with PB2 mRNA and overexpression of hnRNPAB reduced PB2 mRNA nuclear export and PB2 protein level, but had no influence on PB2 mRNA level. Read More

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September 2021

SARS-CoV-2 coinfection with additional respiratory virus does not predict severe disease: a retrospective cohort study.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Sep;76(Supplement_3):iii12-iii19

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA.

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) claimed over 4 million lives by July 2021 and continues to pose a serious public health threat.

Objectives: Our retrospective study utilized respiratory pathogen panel (RPP) results in patients with SARS-CoV-2 to determine if coinfection (i.e. Read More

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September 2021

Systematic review on the association between respiratory virus real-time PCR cycle threshold values and clinical presentation or outcomes.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Sep;76(Supplement_3):iii33-iii49

Université de Paris, IAME, INSERM, Paris, France.

Objectives: It is unclear whether real-time (rt)-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values can be utilized to guide clinical and infection-control decisions. This systematic review assesses the association between respiratory pathogen rt-PCR Ct values and clinical presentation or outcomes.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases on 14-17 January 2020 for studies reporting the presence or absence of an association between Ct values and clinical presentation or outcomes, excluding animal studies, reviews, meta-analyses, and non-English language studies. Read More

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September 2021

Added value of rapid respiratory syndromic testing at point of care versus central laboratory testing: a controlled clinical trial.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Sep;76(Supplement_3):iii20-iii27

Université de Paris, INSERM, IAME, F-75006 Paris, France.

Background: Virus-associated respiratory infections are in the spotlight with the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the expanding use of multiplex PCR (mPCR). The impact of molecular testing as a point-of-care test (POCT) in the emergency department (ED) is still unclear.

Objectives: To compare the impact of a syndromic test performed in the ED as a POCT and in the central laboratory on length of stay (LOS), antibiotic use and single-room assignment. Read More

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September 2021

Characterization of changes in the hemagglutinin that accompanied the emergence of H3N2/1968 pandemic influenza viruses.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Sep 23;17(9):e1009566. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Institute of Virology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany.

The hemagglutinin (HA) of A/H3N2 pandemic influenza viruses (IAVs) of 1968 differed from its inferred avian precursor by eight amino acid substitutions. To determine their phenotypic effects, we studied recombinant variants of A/Hong Kong/1/1968 virus containing either human-type or avian-type amino acids in the corresponding positions of HA. The precursor HA displayed receptor binding profile and high conformational stability typical for duck IAVs. Read More

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September 2021

Development of a 3-transcript host expression assay to differentiate between viral and bacterial infections in pigs.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(9):e0256106. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.

Indiscriminate use of antibiotics to treat infections that are of viral origin contributes to unnecessary use which potentially may induce resistance in commensal bacteria. To counteract this a number of host gene transcriptional studies have been conducted to identify genes that are differently expressed during bacterial and viral infections in humans, and thus could be used as a tool to base decisions on the use of antibiotics. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the potential of a selection of genes that have been considered biomarkers in humans, to differentially diagnose bacterial from viral infections in the pig. Read More

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September 2021

Pro-inflammatory CXCL-10, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6: biomarkers of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Arch Virol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, 411001, Maharashtra, India.

Currently, the world is witnessing the pandemic of COVID-19, a disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Reported differences in clinical manifestations and outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 infection could be attributed to factors such as virus replication, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and altered cytokine production. Virus-induced aberrant and excessive cytokine production has been linked to the morbidity and mortality of several viral infections. Read More

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September 2021

Bioinformatics analyses of gene expression profile identify key genes and functional pathways involved in cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

Clin Rheumatol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, The Affiliated Hospital of Hubei Minzu University, Enshi, Hubei Province, China.

Background: Lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that causes damage to multiple organs ranging from skin lesions to systemic manifestations. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) is a common type of lupus erythematosus (LE), but its molecular mechanisms are currently unknown. The study aimed to explore changes in the gene expression profiles and identify key genes involved in CLE, hoping to uncover its molecular mechanism and identify new targets for CLE. Read More

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September 2021

A crawling case of benign acute childhood myositis.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2021 17;9:2050313X211047321. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA.

Benign acute childhood myositis is a relatively uncommon complication of viral illness, particularly influenza A and B infections. In this abstract, we present a case report of benign acute childhood myositis secondary to influenza. On presentation, he was ill-appearing, febrile and had significant calf pain that limited mobility. Read More

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September 2021

Chaiqin Qingning Capsule Inhibits Influenza Virus Infection and Inflammation and .

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 11;2021:6640731. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Background: Chaiqin Qingning Capsule (CQ-C) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula commonly used to treat respiratory infectious diseases in China. The aim of this study was to detect the effect and mechanism of CQ-C treated with influenza virus and .

Methods: The cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of CQ-C was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Read More

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September 2021

Semi-continuous propagation of influenza A virus and its defective interfering particles: analyzing the dynamic competition to select candidates for antiviral therapy.

J Virol 2021 Sep 22:JVI0117421. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Bioprocess Engineering, Magdeburg, Germany.

Defective interfering particles (DIPs) of influenza A virus (IAV) are naturally occurring mutants that comprise an internal deletion in one of their eight viral RNA (vRNA) segments, rendering them propagation-incompetent. Upon co-infection with infectious standard virus (STV), DIPs interfere with STV replication through competitive inhibition. Thus, DIPs are proposed as potent antivirals for treatment of the influenza disease. Read More

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September 2021