11,538 results match your criteria inflammation th2

Metabolic Surgery Improves the Unbalanced Proportion of Peripheral Blood Myeloid Dendritic Cells and T Lymphocytes in Obese Patients.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Z Zhou, Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, 410011, China.

Background: Obesity is associated with impaired immune function and chronic low-grade inflammation. Metabolic surgery is one of the most effective therapies for treating obesity and related metabolic disorders. We aimed to explore the pathophysiological roles of peripheral DCs and T lymphocytes in metabolic surgery. Read More

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September 2021

High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Aggravates Food Allergy by Intestinal Barrier Destruction and Inflammation.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2021 Aug 5:1-13. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Key Laboratory of Precision Nutrition and Food Quality, Key Laboratory of Functional Dairy, Ministry of Education, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Introduction: The increase in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and food allergy leads to an assumption that the 2 are related. This study aims to (1) systematic verification of HFD-induced obesity aggravates food allergy and (2) explore the correlation and molecular mechanisms of HFD-induced obesity promotes food allergy.

Methods: Female BALB/c mice are divided into the control group (control), the ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized group (OVA), the HFD-induced obesity group (HFD), and HFD-induced allergic obesity group (HFD + OVA). Read More

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Insights into the Implications of Coexisting Type 2 Inflammatory Diseases.

J Inflamm Res 2021 30;14:4259-4266. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of California Los Angeles David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

The role of type 2 inflammation in the pathogenesis of certain human diseases is an area of active investigation. Certain asthma, atopic dermatitis, eosinophilic esophagitis, and chronic rhinosinusitis phenotypes are characterized by a Th2 predominant inflammatory pathway and are frequently associated with comorbid conditions in patients. The purpose of this article is to review the evidence behind concurrent Th2-mediated diseases and explore how the presence of these comorbid conditions affect patient and disease outcomes. Read More

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Endoplasmic reticulum-unfolded protein response signalling is altered in severe eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma.

Thorax 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Priority Research Centre for Healthy Lungs, Hunter Medical Research Institute and School of Medicine and Public Health, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia

Introduction: The significance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in asthma is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are related to disease severity and inflammatory phenotype.

Methods: Induced sputum (n=47), bronchial lavage (n=23) and endobronchial biopsies (n=40) were collected from participants with asthma with varying disease severity, inflammatory phenotypes and from healthy controls. Read More

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September 2021

Autoimmunity in dry eye disease - An updated review of evidence on effector and memory Th17 cells in disease pathogenicity.

Yihe Chen Reza Dana

Autoimmun Rev 2021 Sep 9:102933. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Schepens Eye Research Institute of Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Electronic address:

The classic Th1/Th2 dogma has been significantly reshaped since the subsequent introduction of several new T helper cell subsets, among which the most intensively investigated during the last decade is the Th17 lineage that demonstrates critical pathogenic roles in autoimmunity and chronic inflammation - including the highly prevalent dry eye disease. In this review, we summarize current concepts of Th17-mediated disruption of ocular surface immune homeostasis that leads to autoimmune inflammatory dry eye disease, by discussing the induction, activation, differentiation, migration, and function of effector Th17 cells in disease development, highlighting the phenotypic and functional plasticity of Th17 lineage throughout the disease initiation, perpetuation and sustention. Furthermore, we emphasize the most recent advance in Th17 memory formation and function in the chronic course of dry eye disease, a major area to be better understood for facilitating the development of effective treatments in a broader field of autoimmune diseases that usually present a chronic course with recurrent episodes of flare in the target tissues or organs. Read More

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September 2021

Detecting imperative genes and infiltrating immune cells in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy by bioinformatics analysis.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Sep 9;95:105079. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. Electronic address:

Chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) is an acquired inflammatory cardiomyopathy triggered by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Although microvascular and neurogenic dysfunction and inflammation with persistent parasite presence in the heart may play a major pathogenetic role, little is known about the overall picture of gene co-expression regulating CCC. In this study, we aimed to explore the key biological pathways, hub genes and the landscope of infiltrating immune cells associated with inflammation in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. Read More

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September 2021

Vaccination of mice with recombinant novel aminopeptidase P and cathepsin X alone or in combination induces protective immunity against Trichinella spiralis infection.

Acta Trop 2021 Sep 8:106125. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Parasitology, Medical College, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China. Electronic address:

Trichinella spiralis is a major foodborne zoonotic parasitic nematode which has a serious threat to meat food safety. Development of anti-Trichinella vaccine is requisite for control and elimination of Trichinella infection in food animals to ensure meat safety. Aminopeptidase P (TsAPP) and cathepsin X (TsCX) are two novel proteins identified in T. Read More

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September 2021

The STE-20 kinase TAOK3 controls the development HDM-induced asthma in mice.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Laboratory of Immunoregulation and Mucosal Immunology, VIB-UGent Center for Inflammation Research, Ghent 9052, Belgium; Department of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Ghent University, Ghent 9000, Belgium. Electronic address:

Background: The most common endotype of asthma is Type 2 high asthma, which is sometimes driven by adaptive allergen-specific Th2 lymphocytes that react to allergens presented by dendritic cells (DCs), or sometimes by an innate immune response dominated by type 2 innate lymphocytes (ILC2s). Understanding the underlying pathophysiology of asthma is essential to improve patient tailored therapy. The STE20 kinase Thousand-And-One Kinase 3 (TAOK3) was recently shown to control key features in the biology of DCs and lymphocytes, but its potential usefulness as a target for asthma therapy has never been addressed. Read More

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September 2021

Candida albicans elicits protective allergic responses via platelet mediated T helper 2 and T helper 17 cell polarization.

Immunity 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Pathology & Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA; The Biology of Inflammation Center, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Michael E. DeBakey VA Center for Translational Research on Inflammatory Diseases, Houston Texas, 77030, USA. Electronic address:

Fungal airway infection (airway mycosis) is an important cause of allergic airway diseases such as asthma, but the mechanisms by which fungi trigger asthmatic reactions are poorly understood. Here, we leverage wild-type and mutant Candida albicans to determine how this common fungus elicits characteristic Th2 and Th17 cell-dependent allergic airway disease in mice. We demonstrate that rather than proteinases that are essential virulence factors for molds, C. Read More

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September 2021

Identification and verification of vascular cell adhesion protein 1 as an immune-related hub gene associated with the tubulointerstitial injury in diabetic kidney disease.

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):6655-6673

Nephrology Department, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen Peking University-The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Medical Center, Shenzhen, China.

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but the pathogenesis is not completely understood. Tubulointerstitial injury plays critical roles in the development and progression of DKD. The present study aimed to investigate the profile of tubulointerstitial immune cell infiltration and reveal the underlying mechanisms between tubular cell injury and interstitial inflammation in DKD using bioinformatics strategies. Read More

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December 2021

Chondrocytes from Osteoarthritis Patients Adopt Distinct Phenotypes in Response to Central T1/T2/T17 Cytokines.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 31;22(17). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

The Immunopharmacology Research Group, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, 33100 Tampere, Finland.

Chronic low-grade inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA), and several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been implicated to mediate and regulate this process. Out of these cytokines, particularly IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-4 and IL-17 are associated with different phenotypes of T helper (T) cells and macrophages, both examples of cells known for great phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. Chondrocytes also display various phenotypic changes during the course of arthritis. Read More

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ABC Transporters in T Cell-Mediated Physiological and Pathological Immune Responses.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 25;22(17). Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Institute of Molecular and Clinical Immunology, Medical Faculty, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany.

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters represent a heterogeneous group of ATP-dependent transport proteins, which facilitate the import and/or export of various substrates, including lipids, sugars, amino acids and peptides, ions, and drugs. ABC transporters are involved in a variety of physiological processes in different human tissues. More recent studies have demonstrated that ABC transporters also regulate the development and function of different T cell populations, such as thymocytes, Natural Killer T cells, CD8 T cells, and CD4 T helper cells, including regulatory T cells. Read More

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Serum cytokines are associated with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and not with methylmercury measured in infant cord blood in the Seychelles child development study.

Environ Res 2021 Sep 4;204(Pt A):112003. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Nutrition Innovation Centre for Food and Health, Ulster University, Coleraine, County Londonderry, BT52 1SA, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Maternal fish consumption increases infant methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations. The n-3 PUFA are regulators of inflammation while MeHg may impact the cord cytokine profile and, subsequently, contribute to immune mediated outcomes. This study aimed to investigate associations between infant MeHg exposure and cord cytokine concentrations while adjusting for cord PUFA. Read More

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September 2021

The Role of Atopy in COPD and Asthma.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 18;8:674742. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Clinic of Respiratory Medicine and Pulmonary Cell Research, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Common to several allergic diseases is the generation of immunoglobulin E (IgE) by plasma cells, when exposed to an innocuous antigen. Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two prevalent chronic airway inflammatory diseases. Asthma is mediated in some patients through eosinophilic inflammatory mechanisms that include allergic sensitization and Th2-mediated immune airway response. Read More

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Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells: Protectors in Type 2 Diabetes.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:727008. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are the innate counterparts of Th2 cells and are critically involved in the maintenance of homeostasis in a variety of tissues. Instead of expressing specific antigen receptors, ILC2s respond to external stimuli such as alarmins released from damage. These cells help control the delicate balance of inflammation in adipose tissue, which is a determinant of metabolic outcome. Read More

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Epicutaneous challenge with protease allergen requires its protease activity to recall T2 and T17/T22 responses in mice pre-sensitized via distant skin.

J Immunotoxicol 2021 12;18(1):118-126

Safety Science Research Laboratories, Kao Corporation, Tochigi, Japan.

Epicutaneous exposure to allergenic proteins is an important sensitization route for skin diseases like protein contact dermatitis, immunologic contact urticaria, and atopic dermatitis. Environmental allergen sources such as house dust mites contain proteases, which are frequent allergens themselves. Here, the dependency of T-helper (T) cell recall responses on allergen protease activity in the elicitation phase in mice pre-sensitized via distant skin was investigated. Read More

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December 2021

Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Exhibit Tissue-Specific Dynamic Behaviour During Type 2 Immune Responses.

Front Immunol 2021 17;12:711907. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Molecular Immunity Unit, Department of Medicine, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are early effectors of mucosal type 2 immunity, producing cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-13 to mediate responses to helminth infection and allergen-induced inflammation. ILC2s are also present in lymph nodes (LNs) and can express molecules required for antigen presentation, but to date there are limited data on their dynamic behaviour. We used a CD2/IL-13 dual fluorescent reporter mouse for imaging of ILC2s and Th2 T cells in real time following a type 2 priming helminth infection or egg injection. Read More

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The Pathogenesis of Eosinophilic Asthma: A Positive Feedback Mechanism That Promotes Th2 Immune Response Filaggrin Deficiency.

Front Immunol 2021 13;12:672312. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine College of Chinese PLA General Hospital, 8th Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Eosinophilic asthma (EA) is a common subtype of asthma and often progresses to severe disease. In order to understand its pathogenesis, targeted next-generation gene sequencing was performed on 77 Chinese EA patients and 431 Chinese healthy controls to obtain differential genomic variations. Among the 41 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) screened for mutation sites in more than 3 patients, filaggrin gene rs192116923 T>G and rs75235053 C>G were newly found to be associated with EA patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) (P <0. Read More

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Role of formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) in modulating immune response and heart inflammation in an experimental model of acute and chronic Chagas disease.

Cell Immunol 2021 Aug 29;369:104427. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; Program in Health Sciences, Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine/Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Medical Investigation, Faculty of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Chagas disease is an important disease of the heart. Lipoxins have important regulatory functions in host immune response (IR). Herein, we examined whether the receptor for lipoxin A4, the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) 2, had an effect on Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Read More

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Notch2 suppresses the development of allergic rhinitis by promoting FOXP3 expression and Treg cell differentiation.

Life Sci 2021 Sep 1;284:119922. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 238 Jie-Fang Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430060, PR China; Institute of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 238 Jie-Fang Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430060, PR China. Electronic address:

Aims: Notch signaling is closely related to a variety of diseases, but the role of Notch2 in allergic rhinitis (AR) remain unclear. This study was performed to investigate the effects of Notch2 on the differentiation of Treg cells and on the inflammatory response of AR.

Materials And Methods: Peripheral blood (including 101 AR patients and 66 Controls) and nasal mucosa (including 19 AR patients and 17 Controls) were collected to detect the expression levels of Notch2, NICD2 and FOXP3. Read More

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September 2021

Serum inflammatory profiles in cystic fibrosis mice with and without Bordetella pseudohinzii infection.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 2;11(1):17535. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Genetics and Genome Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by dysfunctional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, and is marked by an accumulation of mucus in affected airways resulting in persistent infection and chronic inflammation. Quantitative differences in inflammatory markers have been observed in CF patient serum, tracheal cells, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, in the absence of detectable infection, implying that absent CFTR function alone may result in dysregulated immune responses. To examine the relationship between absent CFTR and systemic inflammation, 22 analytes were measured in CF mice (F508del/F508del) sera using the MSD multiplex platform. Read More

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September 2021

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Suppress Severe Asthma by Directly Regulating Th2 Cells and Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

Mol Cells 2021 Aug;44(8):580-590

Laboratory of Mucosal Immunology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea.

Patients with severe asthma have unmet clinical needs for effective and safe therapies. One possibility may be mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy, which can improve asthma in murine models. However, it remains unclear how MSCs exert their beneficial effects in asthma. Read More

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Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Facilitate Th Cell Cytokine Responses throughout Infection.

Immunohorizons 2021 Aug 30;5(8):721-732. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Lydia Becker Institute of Immunology and Inflammation, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom;

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are potent producers of type I IFN (IFN-I) during viral infection and respond to IFN-I in a positive feedback loop that promotes their function. IFN-I shapes dendritic cell responses during helminth infection, impacting their ability to support Th2 responses. However, the role of pDCs in type 2 inflammation is unclear. Read More

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Gekko gecko extract attenuates airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion in a murine model of ovalbumin-induced asthma.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Aug 27;282:114574. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Herbal Medicine Resources Research Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 111, Geonjae-ro, Naju-si, 58245, South Korea. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Gekko gecko is used as a traditional medicine for various diseases including respiratory disorders in northeast Asian countries, mainly Korea, Japan, and China.

Aim Of The Study: Allergic asthma is a chronic respiratory disease caused by an inappropriate immune response. Due to the recent spread of coronavirus disease 2019, interest in the treatment of pulmonary disorders has rapidly increased. Read More

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IL-37 regulates allergic inflammation by counterbalancing pro-inflammatory IL-1 and IL-33.

Allergy 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Division of Asthma Exacerbation &-Regulation, Priority Area Asthma & Allergy, Research Center Borstel-Leibniz Lung Center, Borstel, Germany.

Background: Children with asthma have impaired production of interleukin (IL) 37; in mice, IL-37 reduces hallmarks of experimental allergic asthma (EAA). However, it remains unclear how IL-37 exerts its inhibitory properties in asthma. This study aimed to identify the mechanism(s) by which IL-37 controls allergic inflammation. Read More

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Elements of Th1/Th2 response and disease severity in COVID-19 patients: A short report.

J Med Virol 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Patras, Rio, Greece.

The presence of a complex immune dysregulation syndrome has been established in COVID-19 patients. We aimed to assess Th1/Th2 response in COVID-19 patients and its association with disease severity by performing a prospective cohort study in a tertiary hospital COVID-19 referral center. We report no difference between Th1/Th2 responses between patients with severe and mild disease, except for levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10. Read More

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Plasma Metabolomics Reveals Pathogenesis of Retained Placenta in Dairy Cows.

Front Vet Sci 2021 11;8:697789. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Academician (Expert) Workstation of Sichuan Province, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China.

The complex etiology and pathogenesis of retained placenta (RP) bring huge challenges for researchers and clinical veterinarians in investigating the pathogenesis and treatment schedule. This study aims to investigate the pathogenesis of RP in dairy cows by plasma metabolomics. As subjects, 10 dairy cows with RP and 10 healthy dairy cows were enrolled according to strict enrollment criteria. Read More

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Macrophages: The Good, the Bad, and the Gluttony.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:708186. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

School of Biosciences, College of Health and Life Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Macrophages are dynamic cells that play critical roles in the induction and resolution of sterile inflammation. In this review, we will compile and interpret recent findings on the plasticity of macrophages and how these cells contribute to the development of non-infectious inflammatory diseases, with a particular focus on allergic and autoimmune disorders. The critical roles of macrophages in the resolution of inflammation will then be examined, emphasizing the ability of macrophages to clear apoptotic immune cells. Read More

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Novel Approaches in the Inhibition of IgE-Induced Mast Cell Reactivity in Food Allergy.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:613461. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Lydia Becker Institute for Immunology and Inflammation, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

Allergy is an IgE-dependent type-I hypersensitivity reaction that can lead to life-threatening systemic symptoms such as anaphylaxis. In the pathogenesis of the allergic response, the common upstream event is the binding of allergens to specific IgE, inducing cross-linking of the high-affinity FcεRI on mast cells, triggering cellular degranulation and the release of histamine, proteases, lipids mediators, cytokines and chemokines with inflammatory activity. A number of novel therapeutic options to curb mast cell activation are in the pipeline for the treatment of severe allergies. Read More

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Pimecrolimus interferes the therapeutic efficacy of human mesenchymal stem cells in atopic dermatitis by regulating NFAT-COX2 signaling.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Aug 28;12(1):482. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Adult Stem Cell Research Center, Research Institute for Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Background: Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) therapy has recently been considered a promising treatment for atopic dermatitis (AD) due to their immunomodulation and tissue regeneration ability. In our previous studies, we demonstrated that hMSCs alleviate allergic inflammation in murine AD model by inhibiting the activation of mast cells and B cells. Also our phase I/IIa clinical trial showed clinical efficacy and safety of hMSCs in moderate-to-severe adult AD patients. Read More

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