6,296 results match your criteria inflammation autophagy

[Metformin and ageing: can treatment delay age-related diseases?]

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2021 Aug 26;165. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Radboudumc, afd. Biochemie, Radboud InstituteforMolecular Life Sciences (RIMLS), Nijmegen.

Metformin is the most widely used medication for diabetes. In recent years, metformin has attracted attention because it might slow down aging. By direct interference with aging-related processes such as reduced autophagy, the accumulation of DNA damage and inflammation, metformin could reduce the risk of age-related diseases including cardiovascular diseases, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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SGLT2 Inhibitors and Their Mode of Action in Heart Failure-Has the Mystery Been Unravelled?

Curr Heart Fail Rep 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Internal Medicine II, University Medical Centre Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are new drugs for patients with heart failure (HF) irrespective of diabetes. However, the mechanisms of SGLT2i in HF remain elusive. This article discusses the current clinical evidence for using SGLT2i in different types of heart failure and provides an overview about the possible underlying mechanisms. Read More

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September 2021

Emerging Role of LncRNAs in Ischemic Stroke-Novel Insights into the Regulation of Inflammation.

J Inflamm Res 2021 7;14:4467-4483. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

As a crucial kind of pervasive gene, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are abundant and key players in brain function as well as numerous neurological disorders, especially ischemic stroke. The mechanisms underlying ischemic stroke include angiogenesis, autophagy, apoptosis, cell death, and neuroinflammation. Inflammation plays a vital role in the pathological process of ischemic stroke, and systemic inflammation affects the patient's prognosis. Read More

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September 2021

Intestinal antiviral signaling is controlled by autophagy gene independent of the microbiota.

Autophagy 2021 Sep 14:1-16. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Edison Family Center for Genome Sciences & Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Mutations in the macroautophagy/autophagy gene are responsible for Vici syndrome, a human genetic disease characterized by combined immunodeficiency. Previously, we found that mice exhibit hyperinflammation in the lungs mediated by IL1B/IL-1β and TNF/TNFα, resulting in resistance to influenza. Here, we find that disruption of results in protection against multiple enteric viruses including norovirus and rotavirus. Read More

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September 2021

Stress activated signalling impaired protein quality control pathways in human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Institut für Forschung und Lehre (IFL), Department of Molecular and Experimental Cardiology, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany; Department of Cardiology, St. Josef-Hospital and Bergmannsheil, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany. Electronic address:

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a complex myocardial disorder with no well-established disease-modifying therapy so far. Our study aimed to investigate how autophagy, oxidative stress, inflammation, stress signalling pathways, and apoptosis are hallmark of HCM and their contribution to the cardiac dysfunction. Demembranated cardiomyocytes from patients with HCM display increased titin-based stiffness (F), which was corrected upon antioxidant treatment. Read More

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September 2021

A Central Role for Atg5 in Microbiota-Dependent Foxp3 RORγt Treg Cell Preservation to Maintain Intestinal Immune Homeostasis.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:705436. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Molecular Immunology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved catabolic pathway that ensures the degradation of intracellular components. The autophagic pathway is regulated by autophagy-related (Atg) proteins that govern formation of double-membraned vesicles called autophagosomes. Autophagy deficiency in regulatory T (Treg) cells leads to increased apoptosis of these cells and to the development of autoimmune disorders, predominantly characterized by intestinal inflammation. Read More

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Autophagy Induces Expression of IL-6 in Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts Under Mechanical Load and Overload and Effects Osteoclastogenesis .

Front Physiol 2021 27;12:716441. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Orthodontics, Center of Dento-Maxillo-Facial Medicine, University of Bonn Medical Center, Bonn, Germany.

Autophagy is an important cellular adaptation mechanism to mechanical stress. In animal experiments, inhibition of autophagy during orthodontic tooth movement triggered increased expression of inflammation-related genes and decreased bone density. The aim of this study was to investigate how autophagy affects cytokine levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in human periodontal ligament (hPDL) fibroblasts under mechanical pressure and the resulting influence on osteoblast communication. Read More

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Mechanism of interaction between autophagy and apoptosis in cancer.

Apoptosis 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology and Sciences (BITS), Pilani Campus, Pilani, Rajasthan, 333031, India.

The mechanisms of two programmed cell death pathways, autophagy, and apoptosis, are extensively focused areas of research in the context of cancer. Both the catabolic pathways play a significant role in maintaining cellular as well as organismal homeostasis. Autophagy facilitates this by degradation and elimination of misfolded proteins and damaged organelles, while apoptosis induces canonical cell death in response to various stimuli. Read More

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September 2021

Long-term carbon black inhalation induced the inflammation and autophagy of cerebellum in rats.

Neurotoxicology 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Pathophysiology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 050017, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Carbon black (CB) has been demonstrated to have adverse effects on the lung tissue. Few studies explored the effects of CB on the cerebellum, widely recognized to contribute to gait and balance coordination and timing in the motor domain. Some studies have reported that inflammatory response and damaged autophagy are important mechanisms of CB toxicity and can be repaired after the recovery. Read More

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September 2021

Autophagy in metabolic disease and ageing.

Nat Rev Endocrinol 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa, Japan.

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved, lysosome-dependent catabolic process whereby cytoplasmic components, including damaged organelles, protein aggregates and lipid droplets, are degraded and their components recycled. Autophagy has an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis in response to intracellular stress; however, the efficiency of autophagy declines with age and overnutrition can interfere with the autophagic process. Therefore, conditions such as sarcopenic obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that are characterized by metabolic derangement and intracellular stresses (including oxidative stress, inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress) also involve the accumulation of damaged cellular components. Read More

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September 2021

Regulation and role of glycophagy in skeletal muscle energy metabolism.

Autophagy 2021 Sep 10:1-12. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Glycophagy is the autophagic degradation of glycogen via the lysosomal enzyme GAA/alpha-acid glucosidase. Glycophagy is considered a housekeeping process to degrade poorly branched glycogen particles, but the regulation and role of glycophagy in skeletal muscle metabolism remains enigmatic. Herein, prior muscle contraction promoted glycogen supercompensation 24 and 48 h post contraction, an effect associated with reduced glycophagy. Read More

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September 2021

Immunomodulatory Effects of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Kidney Disease.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 24;8:708453. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Kidney disease is a general term for heterogeneous damage that affects the function and the structure of the kidneys. The rising incidence of kidney diseases represents a considerable burden on the healthcare system, so the development of new drugs and the identification of novel therapeutic targets are urgently needed. The pathophysiology of kidney diseases is complex and involves multiple processes, including inflammation, autophagy, cell-cycle progression, and oxidative stress. Read More

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What's the deal with efferocytosis and asthma?

Trends Immunol 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Immunity, Inflammation, and Disease Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.

Mucosal sites, such as the lung, serve as crucial, yet vulnerable barriers to environmental insults such as pathogens, allergens, and toxins. Often, these exposures induce massive infiltration and death of short-lived immune cells in the lung, and efficient clearance of these cells is important for preventing hyperinflammation and resolving immunopathology. Herein, we review recent advances in our understanding of efferocytosis, a process whereby phagocytes clear dead cells in a noninflammatory manner. Read More

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September 2021

The Roles of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) in Infectious Diseases.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 6;22(17). Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Animal Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.

c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are among the most crucial mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and regulate various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, and inflammation. Microbes heavily rely on cellular signaling pathways for their effective replication; hence, JNKs may play important roles in infectious diseases. In this review, we describe the basic signaling properties of MAPKs and JNKs in apoptosis, autophagy, and inflammasome activation. Read More

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September 2021

Joint Degeneration in a Mouse Model of Pseudoachondroplasia: ER Stress, Inflammation, and Block of Autophagy.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 26;22(17). Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Pediatrics, McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth), Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH), a short limb skeletal dysplasia associated with premature joint degeneration, is caused by misfolding mutations in cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). Here, we define mutant-COMP-induced stress mechanisms that occur in articular chondrocytes of MT-COMP mice, a murine model of PSACH. The accumulation of mutant-COMP in the ER occurred early in MT-COMP articular chondrocytes and stimulated inflammation (TNFα) at 4 weeks, and articular chondrocyte death increased at 8 weeks while ER stress through CHOP was elevated by 12 weeks. Read More

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Ceramide-1-phosphate and its transfer proteins in eukaryotes.

Chem Phys Lipids 2021 Sep 6;240:105135. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Affiliated Stomatology Hospital of Guilin Medical University, Guilin, 541004, PR China; College of Biotechnology, Guilin Medical University, Guilin, 541100, PR China. Electronic address:

Ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) is a bioactive phosphorylated sphingolipid (SL), produced through the direct phosphorylation of ceramide by ceramide kinase. It plays important roles in regulating cell survival, migration, apoptosis and autophagy and is involved in inflammasome assembly/activation, which can stimulate group IVA cytosolic phospholipase Aα and subsequently increase the levels of arachidonic acid and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Human C1P transfer protein (CPTP) can selectively transport C1P from the Golgi apparatus to specific cellular sites through a non-vesicular mechanism. Read More

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September 2021

Ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate is an autophagy-dependent vasodilator.

JCI Insight 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, United States of America.

Autophagy has long been associated with longevity and it is well established that autophagy reverts and prevents vascular deterioration associated with aging and cardiovascular diseases. Currently, our understanding of how autophagy benefits the vasculature is centered on the premise that reduced autophagy leads to the accumulation of cellular debris resulting in inflammation and oxidative stress, which are then reversed by reconstitution or upregulation of autophagic activity. Evolutionarily, autophagy also functions to mobilize endogenous nutrients in response to starvation. Read More

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September 2021

Blockade of Autophagy Prevents the Development and Progression of Peritoneal Fibrosis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 23;12:724141. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Nephrology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Peritoneal fibrosis (PF) is a major cause of ultrafiltration failure in long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Nevertheless, limited measures have been shown to be effective for the prevention and treatment of PF. Some views reveal that activation of autophagy ameliorates PF but others demonstrate that autophagy promotes PF. Read More

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An Update on Targeted Treatment of IgA Nephropathy: An Autoimmune Perspective.

Xin Huang Gaosi Xu

Front Pharmacol 2021 23;12:715253. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Immunoglobulin (Ig) A nephropathy (IgAN) is the commonest form of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide and is, considered a significant cause of end-stage renal disease in young adults. The precise pathogenesis of IgAN is unclear. The clinical and pathological features vary significantly between individuals and races, which makes treating IgAN difficult. Read More

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Dual inhibition of reactive oxygen species and spleen tyrosine kinase as a therapeutic strategy in liver fibrosis.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Sep 4;175:193-205. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Laboratory of Interventional Radiology, Department of Minimally Invasive Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510260, China. Electronic address:

Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play key roles in liver fibrosis (LF) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We previously reported that spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is critical for HSCs activation, however, the mechanisms are insufficiently understood. In the present study, we found that SYK facilitated autophagy to promote HSCs activation by enhancing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Read More

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September 2021

The Role and Regulatory Mechanism of Transcription Factor EB in Health and Diseases.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 13;9:667750. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Medical Innovation Research Division, Translational Medicine Research Center and Fourth Medical Center of the Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Transcription factor EB (TFEB) is a member of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor/transcription factor E (MiTF/TFE) family and critically involved in the maintenance of structural integrity and functional balance of multiple cells. In this review, we described the effects of post-transcriptional modifications, including phosphorylation, acetylation, SUMOylation, and ubiquitination, on the subcellular localization and activation of TFEB. The activated TFEB enters into the nucleus and induces the expressions of targeted genes. Read More

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An alcoholic extract of Thuja orientalis L. leaves inhibits autophagy by specifically targeting pro-autophagy PIK3C3/VPS34 complex.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 6;11(1):17712. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Oral Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea.

Autophagy is a lysosome-dependent degradation program to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to a variety of stressful conditions, such as long-lived or non-functional subcellular organelles, protein aggregates, nutrient limitation, and virus/bacteria infection. Accordingly, dysregulation of autophagy is closely associated with many human pathophysiological conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, aging, and cancer, and autophagy is highlighted as an important therapeutic target for these human diseases. In autophagy process, PIK3C3/VPS34 complex plays important roles in autophagosome biogenesis. Read More

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September 2021

Berberine-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers mitigate warm hepatic ischemia/reperfusion-induced lesion through modulation of HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB signaling and autophagy.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Sep 3:112122. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, October 6 University, Giza 12585, Egypt.

Objective: Berberine (BBR) is a known alkaloid that has verified its protective effects against ischemia/reperfusion (I/RN) lesion in multiple organs but its poor oral bioavailability limited its use. Despite the previous works, its possible impact on the warm hepatic I/RN-induced lesion is not clear. Accordingly, a nanostructured lipid carrier of BBR (NLC BBR) was developed for enhancing its efficiency and to inspect its protective mechanistic against warm hepatic I/RN. Read More

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September 2021

The Ubiquitin Sensor and Adaptor Protein p62 Mediates Signal Transduction of a Viral Oncogenic Pathway.

mBio 2021 Sep 7:e0109721. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State Universitygrid.255381.8, Johnson City, Tennessee, USA.

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) protein LMP1 serves as a paradigm that engages complicated ubiquitination-mediated mechanisms to activate multiple transcription factors. p62 is a ubiquitin sensor and a signal-transducing adaptor that has multiple functions in diverse contexts. However, the interaction between p62 and oncogenic viruses is poorly understood. Read More

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September 2021

Long-term ketamine administration induces bladder damage and upregulates autophagy-associated proteins in bladder smooth muscle tissue.

Environ Toxicol 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

School of Forensic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Long-term ketamine abuse can cause significant lower urinary tract symptoms in humans, termed ketamine-associated cystitis (KC). Here, we established a model of long-term (6 months) ketamine administration in wild-type (C57BL/6) mice. We elucidated the pathological effects of ketamine in the bladder and investigated changes in autophagy-associated protein expression (i. Read More

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September 2021

Rapamycin modulates pulmonary pathology in a Murine model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

Dis Model Mech 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Center for Emerging Pathogens, Department of Medicine, Rutgers-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

In this study we employed C3HeB/FeJ mice as an experimental model to investigate the potential role of rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, as an adjunctive therapy candidate during the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection with moxifloxacin. We report that administration of rapamycin with or without moxifloxacin reduced infection-induced lung inflammation, and the number and size of caseating necrotic granulomas. Results from this study strengthen the potential use of rapamycin and its analogs as adjunct TB therapy and importantly underscore the utility of the C3HeB/FeJ mouse model as a pre-clinical tool to evaluate HDT candidates in TB treatment. Read More

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September 2021

Etiological Value of Sterile Inflammation in Preeclampsia: Is It a Non-Infectious Pregnancy Complication?

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 16;11:694298. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Women and Infants Hospital-Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, United States.

Understanding of sterile inflammation and its associated biological triggers and diseases is still at the elementary stage. This becomes more warranted in cases where infections are not associated with the pathology. Detrimental effects of bacterial and viral infections on the immune responses at the maternal-fetal interface as well as pregnancy outcomes have been well documented. Read More

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Gene expression with corresponding pathways analysis in Gaucher disease.

Exp Mol Pathol 2021 Sep 2:104679. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Metabolic Diseases and Diabetology, University Hospital, Krakow, Poland; Department of Metabolic Diseases, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland. Electronic address:

Gaucher disease (GD) caused by mutation in the GBA gene has a wide spectrum of phenotypes. Besides the storage disorder, secondary alteration of various pathways occurs with modification of the expression of many genes. In our work we analysed the expression profile of genes in adult patients with type 1 GD. Read More

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September 2021

Metformin promotes microglial cells to facilitate myelin debris clearance and accelerate nerve repairment after spinal cord injury.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Molecular Pharmacology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Science Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035, China.

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one kind of severe trauma for central nervous system. Myelin debris clearance and axon regeneration are essential for nerve regeneration after SCI. Metformin, a glucose-lowering drug, has been demonstrated to promote the locomotor functional recovery after SCI. Read More

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September 2021

Irisin ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cardiac perivascular fibrosis through inhibiting endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition by regulating ROS accumulation and autophagy disorder in endothelial cells.

Redox Biol 2021 Aug 31;46:102120. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

The dose-dependent toxicity to cardiomyocytes has been well recognized as a central characteristic of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC), however, the pathogenesis of DIC in the cardiac microenvironment remains elusive. Irisin is a new hormone-like myokine released into the circulation in response to exercise with distinct functions in regulating apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Recent advances revealed the role of irisin as a novel therapeutic method and an important mediator of the beneficial effects of exercise in cardioprotection. Read More

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