828,271 results match your criteria infectious diseases


Inverse probability weighting is an effective method to address selection bias during the analysis of high dimensional data.

Genet Epidemiol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Omics studies frequently use samples collected during cohort studies. Conditioning on sample availability can cause selection bias if sample availability is nonrandom. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) is purported to reduce this bias. Read More

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Teratomatous Elements in Orchiectomy Specimens Are Associated with a Reduced Relapse-Free Survival in Metastasized Testicular Germ Cell Tumors.

Urol Int 2021 Jun 15:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Urology, Uro-Oncology, Robot Assisted and Reconstructive Urologic Surgery, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Introduction: The impact of teratomatous elements in orchiectomy specimens of metastasized testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) regarding oncological outcome is still unclear.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis including 146 patients with metastasized TGCT analysing patient characteristics.

Results: Twenty-six (18%) of all patients showed teratomatous elements in the orchiectomy specimens. Read More

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Reactivation of latent infections in solid organ transplant recipients from sub-Saharan Africa: What should be remembered?

Transplant Rev (Orlando) 2021 Jun 2;35(4):100632. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Unit of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital "12 de Octubre", Research Institute Hospital "12 de Octubre" (imas12), Madrid, Spain; Department of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.

International migration from Sub-Saharan African countries to the European Union and the United States has significantly increased over the past decades. Although the vast majority of these immigrants are young and healthy people, a minority can be affected by chronic conditions eventually leading to solid organ transplantation (SOT). Importantly, these candidates can bear geographically restricted fungal and parasitic latent infections that can reactivate after the procedure. Read More

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Analytical performance of the Xpert MTB/XDR® assay for tuberculosis and expanded resistance detection.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Apr 20;101(1):115397. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

FIND, Geneva, Switzerland; Division of Tropical Medicine, Center of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

In a manufacturer-independent laboratory validation study, the Xpert MTB/XDR® assay demonstrated equivalent limit of detection to Xpert MTB/RIF®, detected 100% of tested resistance mutations and showed some utility for resistance detection in strain mixtures. The Xpert MTB/XDR assay is a reliable, sensitive assay for tuberculosis and expanded resistance detection. Read More

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Identification of natural compounds extracted from crude drugs as novel inhibitors of hepatitis C virus.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jun 11;567:1-8. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 162-8640, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Natural product-derived crude drugs are expected to yield an abundance of new drugs to treat infectious diseases. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an oncogenic virus that significantly impacts public health. In this study, we sought to identify anti-HCV compounds in extracts of natural products. Read More

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Promoting cross-regional collaboration in antimicrobial stewardship: Findings of an infectious diseases working group survey in Arab countries of the Middle East.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Apr 24;14(7):978-984. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon. Electronic address:

Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a significant global issue that presents an increasing threat to patients' wellbeing. Although a global concern, the emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms is of particular significance in the Middle East. In recent years, this region has seen an alarming increase in antimicrobial resistance presenting a major challenge to physicians managing various infectious diseases. Read More

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COVID-19 versus SARS: A comparative review.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Apr 24;14(7):967-977. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Pathology, Sidra Medicine, Doha, Qatar; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine - Qatar, Doha, Qatar. Electronic address:

The two genetically similar severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, have each been responsible for global epidemics of vastly different scales. Although both viruses arose from similar origins, they quickly diverged due to differences in their transmission dynamics and spectrum of clinical presentations. The potential involvement of multiple organs systems, including the respiratory, cardiac, gastrointestinal and neurological, during infection necessitates a comprehensive understanding of the clinical pathogenesis of each virus. Read More

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Clinical management of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) in Europe and India: An exploratory study.

J Neurol Sci 2021 May 21;427:117507. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital of Cologne, Germany. Electronic address:

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an autoimmune disorder causing inflammatory demyelination of peripheral nerves and consecutive disability. Diagnostic criteria and treatments are well established, but it is unknown how clinical practice may differ in different geographical regions. In this multicentre study, clinical management of CIDP was compared in 44 patients from Germany, India and Norway regarding diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Read More

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Determination of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol in human urine after intake of extra virgin olive oil produced with an ultrasounds-based technology.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Jun 10;203:114204. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Chemistry, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", 70126, Bari, Italy.

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a known source of antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, useful in the prevention of non-infectious diseases (atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, and other diseases). In the present study, EVOO obtained using an innovative ultrasounds-based technology was found richer in total polyphenols, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, than EVOO obtained using a conventional mechanical technology. The urinary excretion in humans of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, after the administration of ultrasounds and mechanical EVOOs, respectively, was assessed and compared. Read More

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Children are safe in schools: a review of the Irish experience of reopening schools during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Public Health 2021 Jun 12;195:158-160. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Office of the Clinical Director for Health Protection, HSE, Ireland; Department of Public Health, HSE Midlands, Tullamore, Ireland.

Objectives: Schools in the Republic of Ireland reopened to students and staff in late August 2020. We sought to determine the test positivity rate of close contacts of cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in schools during the first half-term of the 2020/2021 academic year.

Methods: National-level data from the schools' testing pathway were interrogated to determine the positivity rate of close contacts of cases of COVID-19 in Irish primary, postprimary and special schools during the first half-term of 2020/2021 academic year. Read More

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Combining gene expression signature with clinical features for survival stratification of gastric cancer.

Genomics 2021 Jun 12;113(4):2683-2694. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Cell Biology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310058, P.R. China; Institute of Gastroenterology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310016, P.R. China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003, P.R. China; Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ONM5S 1A8, Canada. Electronic address:

The AJCC staging system is considered as the golden standard in clinical practice. However, it remains some pitfalls in assessing the prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) patients with similar clinicopathological characteristics. We aim to develop a new clinic and genetic risk score (CGRS) to improve the prognosis prediction of GC patients. Read More

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The role of sexual dimorphism in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, disease severity, and mortality: facts, controversies and future perspectives.

Microbes Infect 2021 Jun 12:104850. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism and Diabetes Center, First Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece. Electronic address:

Former studies have revealed intersex variability in immune response to infectious diseases, including Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological surveillance of the ongoing pandemic has demonstrated a male vulnerability to morbidity and mortality, despite similar infection rates between the two sexes. Divergence in the frequency of comorbidities between males and females, differences in hormonal profile, chromosomal composition and gender behavior have all been proposed as potential causative factors. Read More

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Microbiology of hip and knee periprosthetic joint infections: A database study.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic. Electronic address:

Objectives: Knowledge of the microbiologic etiology of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is essential to its management. Contemporary literature from the United States on this topic is lacking. This study aimed to identify the most common microorganisms associated with types of arthroplasty, the timing of infection, and clues to polymicrobial infection. Read More

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Seneca Valley virus induces immunodepressionin suckling piglets by selective apoptosis of B lymphocytes.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jun 12:105022. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Comparative Pathology Shared Resources Laboratory, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is the causative agent of an emerging infectious vesicular disease in swine that is clinically indistinguishable from other vesicular diseases of swine. This study utilized healthy suckling piglets (control) and SVV-naturally infected suckling piglets to determine the effects of SVV on lymphoid tissues and determined the SVV RNA load by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses were performed to quantify the expression of T and B cell lymphocytes, natural killer cells, cleaved caspase 3, and ki-67. Read More

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Maternal gestational mercury exposure in relation to cord blood T cell alterations and placental gene expression signatures.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 12:111385. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine and the Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth; Hanover, NH, USA.

The immunotoxic impacts of mercury during early life is poorly understood. We investigated the associations between gestational mercury exposure and frequency of cord blood T cells as well as placental gene expression. Frequency of natural Treg cells was positively associated with prenatal and postpartum mercury toenail concentrations. Read More

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PHF19 activates Hedgehog signaling and promotes tumorigenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Exp Cell Res 2021 Jun 12:112690. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025, China. Electronic address:

Aberrant activation of Hedgehog-Gli1 signaling and accumulation of Gli1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are frequently observed. However, the mechanisms leading to the overactivation of this signaling pathway are not fully understood. In this study, we show that the short isoform of PHD finger protein 19 (PHF19) interacts with β-TrCP, the E3 ligase of Gli1, and that knocking down PHF19 promotes the ubiquitination of Gli1. Read More

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A PGE-MEF2A axis enables context-dependent control of inflammatory gene expression.

Immunity 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy; San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy (SR-Tiget), Milan, Italy; Genomics of the Innate Immune System Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Tight control of inflammatory gene expression by antagonistic environmental cues is key to ensure immune protection while preventing tissue damage. Prostaglandin E (PGE) modulates macrophage activation during homeostasis and disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely characterized. Here we dissected the genomic properties of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced genes whose expression is antagonized by PGE. Read More

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Antibody Responses After mRNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccination in Residential Older Adults: Implications for Reopening.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Clinical Laboratory, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Objective: COVID-19 disproportionately impacts residents in long-term care facilities. Our objective was to quantify the presence and magnitude of antibody response in vaccinated, older adult residents at assisted living, personal care, and independent living communities.

Design: A cross-sectional quality improvement study was conducted March 15 - April 1, 2021 in the greater Pittsburgh region. Read More

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Efficient and effective single-step screening of individual samples for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using multi-dimensional pooling and Bayesian inference.

J R Soc Interface 2021 Jun 16;18(179):20210155. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Rapid and widespread implementation of infectious disease surveillance is a critical component in the response to novel health threats. Molecular assays are the preferred method to detect a broad range of viral pathogens with high sensitivity and specificity. The implementation of molecular assay testing in a rapidly evolving public health emergency, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, can be hindered by resource availability or technical constraints. Read More

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Delayed local reactions after the first administration of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine.

Allergy 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

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Research Relevant Conditions and Pathology in Nonhuman Primates.

ILAR J 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Covance Preclinical Services GmbH, Münster 48163, Germany.

Biomedical research involving animal models continues to provide important insights into disease pathogenesis and treatment of diseases that impact human health. In particular, nonhuman primates (NHPs) have been used extensively in translational research due to their phylogenetic proximity to humans and similarities to disease pathogenesis and treatment responses as assessed in clinical trials. Microscopic changes in tissues remain a significant endpoint in studies involving these models. Read More

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The selection of indicators from initial blood routine test results to improve the accuracy of early prediction of COVID-19 severity.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253329. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

The Geriatric Respiratory Department, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

The global pandemic of COVID-19 poses a huge threat to the health and lives of people all over the world, and brings unprecedented pressure to the medical system. We need to establish a practical method to improve the efficiency of treatment and optimize the allocation of medical resources. Due to the influx of a large number of patients into the hospital and the running of medical resources, blood routine test became the only possible check while COVID-19 patients first go to a fever clinic in a community hospital. Read More

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Factors driving choices between types and brands of influenza vaccines in general practice in Austria, Italy, Spain and the UK.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0252836. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Centre for Health Economics Research & Modelling Infectious Diseases, Vaccine & Infectious Disease Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) assessment is increasingly stratified by vaccine type or brand, such as done by the European network of DRIVE. In 2019/2020, eleven influenza vaccines were licensed in Europe. If more than one vaccine type is recommended or if more than one vaccine brand is available for a specific risk group, it is not clear which factors affect the choice of a specific vaccine (type or brand) by a health practitioner for individual patients. Read More

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Clarithromycin As an Alternative and Prophylactic Agent in a Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Patient.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Jun 15;22:e931731. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

BACKGROUND Nocardia infections have rarely been reported in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients, who usually receive the prophylactic use of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (ST) against Pneumocystis jiroveci. However, the ST prophylaxis, sensitive to Nocardia species, sometimes induces renal toxicities. Therefore, alternative prophylactic or therapeutic drugs are required for nocardiosis in HSCT patients. Read More

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Correction for: hsa_circ_0004018 suppresses the progression of liver fibrosis through regulating the hsa-miR-660-3p/TEP1 axis.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Lab of Liver Disease, Renmin Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei, China.

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Mapping the Clinical Experience of a New York City Residency Program During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Hosp Med 2021 Jun;16(6):353-356

Department of Medicine, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, New York.

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically disrupted the educational experience of medical trainees. However, a detailed characterization of exactly how trainees' clinical experiences have been affected is lacking. Here, we profile residents' inpatient clinical experiences across the four training hospitals of NYU's Internal Medicine Residency Program during the pandemic's first wave. Read More

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A Resident-Led Intervention to Increase Initiation of Buprenorphine Maintenance for Hospitalized Patients With Opioid Use Disorder.

J Hosp Med 2021 Jun;16(6):339-344

Department of Pediatrics, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: Hospitalized patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) are rarely started on buprenorphine or methadone maintenance despite evidence that these medications reduce all-cause mortality, overdoses, and hospital readmissions.

Objective: To assess whether clinician education and a team of residents and hospitalist attendings waivered to prescribe buprenorphine increased the rate of starting patients with OUD on buprenorphine maintenance.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Quality improvement study conducted at a large, urban, academic hospital in Maryland involving hospitalized patients with OUD on internal medicine resident services. Read More

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Implementation of a program to improve influenza vaccination rates among medical students: a comparative study involving two university affiliated hospitals.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Jun 15:1-8. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Unit of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital "12 de Octubre", Instituto de Investigación Hospital "12 de Octubre" (Imas12), School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.

: Influenza vaccination rates among medical students (MSs) are below the standards recommended in hospitals where influenza vaccination is not mandatory. We carried out a comparative study in two Spanish university hospitals to reassert this fact and evaluated the impact on vaccination rates of a specific program aimed at promoting influenza vaccination among MSs.: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed describing influenza vaccination rates and motivations for vaccination during the 2017/18 campaign among MSs in two hospitals affiliated to the same university. Read More

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Strategies to increase uptake of maternal pertussis vaccination.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious Disease, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.

Introduction: Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory disease that results in disproportionate morbidity and mortality in infants who have yet to receive the primary diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis series. In the mid-2000s to the early 2010s numerous countries started to pursue either prenatal vaccination of pregnant women and/or postpartum vaccination of caregivers to protect infants. Despite proven benefit, maternal uptake of pertussis vaccine continues to be low and the global burden of pertussis remains unchanged. Read More

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Azole resistance in species: Promising therapeutic options.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI.

Introduction: Azoles are the first line antifungal agents used for the treatment of infection. There is increasing concern for azole resistance all over the world mainly from agricultural fungicide use. Choosing safe and effective antifungal regimens has become a challenge. Read More

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