891,385 results match your criteria infectious diseases


Point-of-care lung ultrasonography for early identification of mild COVID-19: a prospective cohort of outpatients in a Swiss screening center.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 24;12(6):e060181. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Infectious Diseases Service, University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Objectives: Early identification of SARS-CoV-2 infection is important to guide quarantine and reduce transmission. This study evaluates the diagnostic performance of lung ultrasound (LUS), an affordable, consumable-free point-of-care tool, for COVID-19 screening.

Design, Setting And Participants: This prospective observational cohort included adults presenting with cough and/or dyspnoea at a SARS-CoV-2 screening centre of Lausanne University Hospital between 31 March and 8 May 2020. Read More

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eaberry in the treatment of acute uncoplcated cystitis (BRUMI): protocol of a multicentre, randomised double-blind clinical trial.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 24;12(6):e057982. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary

Background: Bearberry () leaf is available as a treatment of uncomplicated cystitis in several European countries. The antimicrobial activity of its extracts and some of its individual constituents has been observed ; however, the efficacy of bearberry compared with standard antimicrobial therapy has not been assessed yet.

Objective: The objective of the study is to assess the safety and non-inferiority of bearberry as an alternative therapy in the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in comparison with standard antibiotic therapy (fosfomycin). Read More

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Shorter versus longer durations of antibiotic treatment for patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 24;12(6):e062428. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), frequently encountered in both outpatient and inpatient settings, is the leading cause of infectious disease-related mortality. While equipoise regarding the optimal duration of antimicrobial therapy to treat CAP remains, recent studies suggest shorter durations of therapy may achieve optimal outcomes. We have therefore planned a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the impact of shorter versus longer durations of antibiotic therapy for patients with CAP. Read More

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Chemical approaches towards installation of rare functional groups in bacterial surface glycans.

Chin J Nat Med 2022 Jun;20(6):401-420

Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China. Electronic address:

Bacterial surface glycans perform a diverse and important set of biological roles, and have been widely used in the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases. The majority of bacterial surface glycans are decorated with diverse rare functional groups, including amido, acetamidino, carboxamido and pyruvate groups. These functional groups are thought to be important constituents for the biological activities of glycans. Read More

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Level and Duration of IgG and Neutralizing Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in Children with Symptomatic or Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Immunohorizons 2022 Jun 24;6(6):408-415. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Ryan White Center for Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Global Health, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN; and

There are conflicting data about level and duration of Abs to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in children after symptomatic or asymptomatic infection. In this human population, we enrolled adults and children in a prospective 6-mo study in the following categories: 1) symptomatic, SARS-CoV-2 PCR (SP; children, = 8; adults, = 16), 2) symptomatic, PCR, or untested (children, = 27), 3) asymptomatic exposed (children, = 13), and 4) asymptomatic, no known exposure (children, = 19). Neutralizing Abs (nAbs) and IgG Abs to SARS-CoV-2 Ags and spike protein variants were measured by multiplex serological assay. Read More

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WHO's support for COVID-19 research and knowledge management in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

BMJ Glob Health 2022 Jun;7(Suppl 3)

Department of Science, Information and Dissemination, WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, Egypt.

Health research, innovation and knowledge management remain major priorities of the WHO's response to the COVID-19 pandemic. WHO's Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO) supports priority research initiatives that address gaps in current knowledge regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. Through a specific call for proposals, 122 research proposals were received and reviewed in 2020, of which 17 were recommended for funding from eight countries. Read More

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Epigenetic Reprogramming Leads to Downregulation of CD4 and Functional Changes in African Green Monkey Memory CD4 T Cells.

J Immunol 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Barrier Immunity Section, Lab of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD;

African green monkeys (AGMs), are a natural host for a lentivirus related to HIV, SIV. SIV-infected AGMs rarely progress to AIDS despite robust viral replication. Though multiple mechanisms are involved, a primary component is the animals' ability to downregulate CD4 expression on mature CD4 Th cells, rendering these cells resistant to infection by SIV. Read More

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MAVS Expression in Alveolar Macrophages Is Essential for Host Resistance against .

J Immunol 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH;

Our recent data demonstrate a critical role of the RIG-I-like receptor family in regulating antifungal immunity against in a murine model. However, the importance of this pathway in humans and the cell types that use this innate immune receptor family to detect remain unresolved. In this study, using patients who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, we demonstrate that a polymorphism in human present in the donor genome was associated with the incidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Read More

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Improved Durability to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Immunity following Coimmunization with Molecular Adjuvant Adenosine Deaminase-1.

J Immunol 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Medicine, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA;

Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines have demonstrated strong immunogenicity and protection against severe disease, concerns about the duration and breadth of these responses remain. In this study, we show that codelivery of plasmid-encoded adenosine deaminase-1 (pADA) with SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein DNA enhances immune memory and durability in vivo. Coimmunized mice displayed increased spike-specific IgG of higher affinity and neutralizing capacity as compared with plasmid-encoded spike-only-immunized animals. Read More

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Phylogenomic characterization and signs of microevolution in the 2022 multi-country outbreak of monkeypox virus.

Nat Med 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Genomics and Bioinformatics Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health Doutor Ricardo Jorge (INSA), Lisbon, Portugal.

The largest monkeypox virus (MPXV) outbreak described so far in non-endemic countries was identified in May 2022. Here, shotgun metagenomics allowed the rapid reconstruction and phylogenomic characterization of the first MPXV outbreak genome sequences, showing that this MPXV belongs to clade 3 and that the outbreak most likely has a single origin. Although 2022 MPXV (lineage B. Read More

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TREM-2 plays a protective role in cholestasis by acting as a negative regulator of inflammation.

J Hepatol 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Liver and Gastrointestinal Diseases, Biodonostia Research Institute, Donostia University Hospital, University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU), Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain; CIBERehd, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Nursing, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, Leioa, Spain. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Cholestatic liver injury triggers a wound healing response orchestrated by Kupffer cells (KCs), hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and other immune cells that leads to peribiliary fibrosis and disease progression. Inflammation is central, particularly that mediated by bacterial components translocating from the gut to the liver, binding to toll-like receptors (TLRs). The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM-2) inhibits TLR-mediated signaling and exerts a protective role in hepatocellular injury and carcinogenesis. Read More

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Guidelines for pregnant individuals with monkeypox virus exposure.

Lancet 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Materno-fetal and Obstetrics Research Unit, Department Woman-Mother-Child, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

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The international and intercontinental spread and expansion of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella Typhi: a genomic epidemiology study.

Lancet Microbe 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The emergence of increasingly antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) threatens to undermine effective treatment and control. Understanding where antimicrobial resistance in S Typhi is emerging and spreading is crucial towards formulating effective control strategies.

Methods: In this genomic epidemiology study, we sequenced the genomes of 3489 S Typhi strains isolated from prospective enteric fever surveillance studies in Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and India (between 2014 and 2019), and combined these with a global collection of 4169 S Typhi genome sequences isolated between 1905 and 2018 to investigate the temporal and geographical patterns of emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant S Typhi. Read More

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Estimating typhoid incidence from community-based serosurveys: a multicohort study.

Lancet Microbe 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Center for Celiac Research and Treatment, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, MA, USA; Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, MA, USA; Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The incidence of enteric fever, an invasive bacterial infection caused by typhoidal Salmonellae (Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi), is largely unknown in regions without blood culture surveillance. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether new diagnostic serological markers for typhoidal Salmonella can reliably estimate population-level incidence.

Methods: We collected longitudinal blood samples from patients with blood culture-confirmed enteric fever enrolled from surveillance studies in Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, and Ghana between 2016 and 2021 and conducted cross-sectional serosurveys in the catchment areas of each surveillance site. Read More

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Access to flucytosine for the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in Africa.

Lancet Infect Dis 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Molecular Mycology Unit, Institut Pasteur of Paris, Paris, France; Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Paris Cité, Paris, France; Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Necker Hospital, Paris, France.

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Outcomes of flucytosine-containing combination treatment for cryptococcal meningitis in a South African national access programme: a cross-sectional observational study.

Lancet Infect Dis 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Centre for Healthcare-Associated Infections, Antimicrobial Resistance and Mycoses, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, a Division of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa; School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Institute of Infection and Immunity, St George's University of London, London, UK; MRC Centre for Medical Mycology, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK; Division of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Although flucytosine is a key component of WHO-recommended induction treatment for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis, this antifungal agent is not widely available in low-income and middle-income countries due to limited production and cost. In 2018, a national flucytosine access programme was initiated in South Africa. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of flucytosine-containing induction regimens in routine care to motivate for the urgent registration of flucytosine and its inclusion in treatment guidelines. Read More

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Ultra-processed Foods Consumption Increases the Risk of Hypertension in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Am J Hypertens 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan, China.

Objective: Effect of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) consumption on health has attracted widespread attention in recent years. However, the relationship between UPFs consumption and hypertension is unclear. This meta-analysis was conducted to analyze the above association. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell memory with common TCRαβ motifs is established in unvaccinated children who seroconvert after infection.

Immunity 2022 Jun 8. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Infection and Immunity, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia; Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia; Department of General Medicine, Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.

As the establishment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific T cell memory in children remains largely unexplored, we recruited convalescent COVID-19 children and adults to define their circulating memory SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells prior to vaccination. We analyzed epitope-specific T cells directly ex vivo using seven HLA class I and class II tetramers presenting SARS-CoV-2 epitopes, together with Spike-specific B cells. Unvaccinated children who seroconverted had comparable Spike-specific but lower ORF1a- and N-specific memory T cell responses compared with adults. Read More

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Blood levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS): A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2022 Jun 18;65:103984. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Children's Medical Center Hospital, Dr. Qarib St., Keshavarz Blvd, Tehran 14194, Iran; Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran; Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune demyelinating disease marked by the involvement of multiple pathophysiological pathways, including BDNF. BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) is one of the main neurotrophic factors in the adult brain. The amount of BDNF in the blood can be utilized as a surrogate for the central expression of this marker. Read More

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Small area population denominators for improved disease surveillance and response.

Authors:
A J Tatem

Epidemics 2022 Jun 17;40:100597. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

WorldPop, School of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Southampton, UK.

The Covid-19 pandemic has highlighted the value of strong surveillance systems in supporting our abilities to respond rapidly and effectively in mitigating the impacts of infectious diseases. A cornerstone of such systems is basic subnational scale data on populations and their demographics, which enable the scale of outbreaks to be assessed, risk to specific groups to be determined and appropriate interventions to be designed. Ongoing weaknesses and gaps in such data have however been highlighted by the pandemic. Read More

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Tungsten disulfide nanoflowers with multi-nanoenzyme activities for the treatment of acute liver injury.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2022 Jun 11;625:544-554. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

School of Materials and Chemistry, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, No. 516 Jungong Road, Shanghai 200093, China. Electronic address:

In this study, polyvinyl pyrrolidone modified tungsten disulfide (WS-PVP) nanoflower was synthesized using a simple and effective one-pot method. Owing to the surface polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) modification, WS-PVP nanoflowers showed excellent colloidal stability in different circumstances, which can be well dispersed in water, saline, and cell culture medium. Meanwhile, the WS-PVP nanoflowers have a good biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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The influence of age and sex in sarcoidosis.

Curr Opin Pulm Med 2022 Jul;28(4):307-313

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Purpose Of Review: This review aims to describe how the clinical manifestations of sarcoidosis may be shaped by the effects of sex hormones and by age dependent changes in immune functions and physiology This review is intended to highlight the need to consider the effects of sex and sex in future studies of sarcoidosis.

Recent Findings: The clinical manifestations of sarcoidosis differ based on sex and gender There is emerging evidence that female and male hormones and X-linked genes are important determinants of immune responses to environmental antigens, which has important implications for granuloma formation in the context of sarcoidosis Furthermore, sex hormone levels predictably change throughout adolescence and adulthood, and this occurs in parallel with the onset immune senescence and changes in physiology with advanced age.

Summary: Recent studies indicate that sex and age are important variables shaping the immune response of humans to environmental antigens We posit herein that sex and age are important determinants of sarcoidosis clinical phenotypes Many gaps in our understanding of the roles played by sex and gender in sarcoidosis, and these need to be considered in future studies. Read More

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Bloodstream infection in hospital therapeutic patients.

Klin Lab Diagn 2022 Jun;67(6):355-361

G.N. Gabrichevskii Moscow research institute for epidemiology and microbiology for Rospotrebnadzor.

Bloodstream infection (BI) is the cause of high mortality. Hospital bloodstream infection (HBI) complicates hemodialysis, pneumonia, oncohematological diseases. Positive hemoculture obtaining depends on the volume of blood inoculation, the number of blood samples, the incubation time. Read More

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The Clinical and Genomic Epidemiology of Rhinovirus in Homeless Shelters-King County, Washington.

J Infect Dis 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (98195), Washington, USA.

Background: Rhinovirus (RV) is a common cause of respiratory illness in all people, including those experiencing homelessness. RV epidemiology in homeless shelters is unknown.

Methods: We analyzed data from a cross-sectional homeless shelter study in King County, Washington, October 2019-May 2021. Read More

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Genomics and pathotypes of the many faces of Escherichia coli.

FEMS Microbiol Rev 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Janssen Vaccines and Prevention B.V., Leiden, The Netherlands.

Escherichia coli is the most researched microbial organism in the world. Its varied impact on human health, consisting of commensalism, gastrointestinal disease, or extraintestinal pathologies, has generated a separation of the species into at least eleven pathotypes (also known as pathovars). These are broadly split into two groups, intestinal pathogenic E. Read More

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Evidence for influenza and RSV interaction from 10 years of enhanced surveillance in Nha Trang, Vietnam, a modelling study.

PLoS Comput Biol 2022 Jun 24;18(6):e1010234. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Centre for Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Disease, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) interact within their host posing the concern for impacts on heterologous viruses following vaccination. We aimed to estimate the population level impact of their interaction. We developed a dynamic age-stratified two-pathogen mathematical model that includes pathogen interaction through competition for infection and enhanced severity of dual infections. Read More

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Method for simultaneous tracking of thousands of unlabeled cells within a transparent 3D matrix.

PLoS One 2022 24;17(6):e0270456. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Institute for Medical and Marine Biotechnology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

Three-dimensional tracking of cells is one of the most powerful methods to investigate multicellular phenomena, such as ontogenesis, tumor formation or wound healing. However, 3D tracking in a biological environment usually requires fluorescent labeling of the cells and elaborate equipment, such as automated light sheet or confocal microscopy. Here we present a simple method for 3D tracking large numbers of unlabeled cells in a collagen matrix. Read More

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Ischemic stroke in patients that recover from COVID-19: Comparisons to historical stroke prior to COVID-19 or stroke in patients with active COVID-19 infection.

PLoS One 2022 24;17(6):e0270413. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Background And Purpose: Understanding the relationship of COVID-19 to stroke is important. We compare characteristics of pre-pandemic historical stroke (Pre-C), cases in acute COVID infection (Active-C) and in patients who have recovered from COVID-19 infection (Post-C).

Methods: We interrogated the Qatar stroke database for all stroke admissions between Jan 2019 and Feb 2020 (Pre-C) to Active-C (Feb2020-Feb2021) and Post-C to determine how COVID-19 affected ischemic stroke sub-types, clinical course, and outcomes prior to, during and post-pandemic peak. Read More

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Gasdermin D-mediated release of IL-33 from senescent hepatic stellate cells promotes obesity-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

Sci Immunol 2022 Jun 24;7(72):eabl7209. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Pathophysiology, Osaka Metropolitan University, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan (formerly, Osaka City University).

Long-term senescent cells exhibit a secretome termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Although the mechanisms of SASP factor induction have been intensively studied, the release mechanism and how SASP factors influence tumorigenesis in the biological context remain unclear. In this study, using a mouse model of obesity-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we identified the release mechanism of SASP factors, which include interleukin-1β (IL-1β)- and IL-1β-dependent IL-33, from senescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) via gasdermin D (GSDMD) amino-terminal-mediated pore. Read More

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Understanding the role of incentives for achieving and sustaining viral suppression: A qualitative sub-study of a financial incentives trial in Uganda.

PLoS One 2022 24;17(6):e0270180. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Background: Viral suppression among people living with HIV (PLHIV) is essential for protecting health and preventing HIV transmission, yet globally, rates of viral suppression are sub-optimal. Interventions to improve HIV prevention and care cascade outcomes remain vital. Financial incentives hold promise for improving these outcomes, yet to date, clinical trial results have been mixed. Read More

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