996,804 results match your criteria infections adults

Diversity of , Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) Larval Habitats in Urban Areas and Malaria Transmission in Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs, Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution et Contrôle, IRD, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Malaria vectors are supposedly uncommon in urban areas owing to the lack of suitable breeding sites for their development. However, the maintenance in urban areas of traditional rural practices along with humanitarian crisis can create favorable conditions for malaria transmission. This study aimed to provide relevant entomological data on the risk of malaria transmission in the city of Bouaké, after the military-political crisis from 2002 to 2011 in Côte d'Ivoire. Read More

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Carrageenan nasal spray may double the rate of recovery from coronavirus and influenza virus infections: Re-analysis of randomized trial data.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2021 08;9(4):e00810

School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

In this individual patient data meta-analysis we examined datasets of two randomized placebo-controlled trials which investigated the effect of nasal carrageenan separately on children and adults. In both trials, iota-carrageenan was administered nasally three times per day for 7 days for patients with the common cold and follow-up lasted for 21 days. We used Cox regression to estimate the effect of carrageenan on recovery rate. Read More

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Non-specific effects of rabies vaccine on the incidence of self-reported common infectious disease episodes: A randomized controlled trial.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, Basseterre, Saint Kitts and Nevis. Electronic address:

Vaccines may affect recipients' immune systems in ways that change morbidity or mortality rates to unrelated infections in vaccinated populations. It has been proposed that these non-specific effects differ by type of vaccine and by sex, with non-live vaccines enhancing susceptibility of females to unrelated infections, and live vaccines enhancing resistance in both sexes. Rabies vaccine-a non-live vaccine-has been associated with protection against unrelated central nervous system infections. Read More

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Hospital utilization rates for influenza and RSV: a novel approach and critical assessment.

Popul Health Metr 2021 Jun 14;19(1):31. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.

Background: Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) contribute significantly to the burden of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) inpatient care, but heterogeneous coding practices and availability of inpatient data make it difficult to estimate global hospital utilization for either disease based on coded diagnoses alone.

Methods: This study estimates rates of influenza and RSV hospitalization by calculating the proportion of ALRI due to influenza and RSV and applying this proportion to inpatient admissions with ALRI coded as primary diagnosis. Proportions of ALRI attributed to influenza and RSV were extracted from a meta-analysis of 360 total sources describing inpatient hospital admissions which were input to a Bayesian mixed effects model over age with random effects over location. Read More

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Burden of illness in US hospitals due to carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative urinary tract infections in patients with or without bacteraemia.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 14;21(1):572. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Shionogi Inc., 300 Campus Drive, Suite 100, Florham Park, NJ, 07932, USA.

Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria and represent a major healthcare burden. Carbapenem-resistant (CR) strains of Enterobacterales and non-lactose fermenting pathogens further complicate treatment approaches.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the US Premier Healthcare Database (2014-2019) in hospitalised adults with a UTI to estimate the healthcare burden of Gram-negative CR UTIs among patients with or without concurrent bacteraemia. Read More

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Stratifying Sepsis in Uganda Using Rapid Pathogen Diagnostics and Clinical Data: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

1Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York.

The global burden of sepsis is concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa, where extensive pathogen diversity and limited laboratory capacity challenge targeted antimicrobial management of life-threatening infections. In this context, established and emerging rapid pathogen diagnostics may stratify sepsis patients into subgroups with prognostic and therapeutic relevance. In a prospective cohort of adults (age ≥18 years) hospitalized with suspected sepsis in Uganda, we stratified patients using rapid diagnostics for HIV, tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and influenza, and compared clinical characteristics and 30-day outcomes across these pathogen-driven subgroups. Read More

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Incidence and impact of community respiratory viral infections in post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis and haploidentical stem cell transplantation.

Br J Haematol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Medicine, City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA.

Community respiratory viral infections (CRVIs) are associated with pulmonary function impairment, alloimmune lung syndromes and inferior survival in human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients. Although the incidence of viral infections in HLA-haploidentical HCT recipients who receive post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy)-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis is reportedly increased, there are insufficient data describing the incidence of CRVIs and the impact of donor source and PTCy on transplant outcomes. Analysing patients receiving their first HCT between 2012 and 2017 for acute myeloid leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes, we describe comparative outcomes between matched sibling transplants receiving either calcineurin-based GVHD prophylaxis (SibCNI, N = 1605) or PTCy (SibCy, N = 403), and related haploidentical transplants receiving PTCy (HaploCy, N = 757). Read More

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Hand grip strength before and after SARS-CoV-2 infection in community-dwelling older adults.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Renaissance School of Medicine, Stony Brook University, New York, New York, USA.

Objective: To assess the association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and decreased hand grip strength (HGS).

Design: Longitudinal population-based study.

Setting: Community-dwelling older adults (aged ≥60 years) living in a rural Ecuadorian village struck by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Read More

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Virologic features of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children.

medRxiv 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Data on viral factors causing pediatric disease and guidance for pediatric-specific considerations have lagged behind adults throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. As COVID-19 infections and deaths increase in the pediatric population, characterization of SARS-CoV-2 viral dynamics in children would enable data-driven public health guidance.

Methods: Nasal swabs collected from children with COVID-19 were analyzed. Read More

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Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Children.

Front Pediatr 2021 28;9:668484. Epub 2021 May 28.

Section of Pediatrics, Pediatric Pulmonology Unit, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Università di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Since its appearance in Wuhan in mid-December 2019, acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) related 19 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread dramatically worldwide. It soon became apparent that the incidence of pediatric COVID-19 was much lower than the adult form. Morbidity in children is characterized by a variable clinical presentation and course. Read More

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Invasive Mediastinal Mucormycosis with Pulmonary and Cardiac Involvement in an Adult with Chronic Granulomatous Disease: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2021 5;8(5):002435. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Critical Care Medicine at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection that often causes rhinocerebral disease. However, there have been rare cases of mediastinal involvement. These patients remain a therapeutic challenge and mortality in this group is very high. Read More

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Neonatal Murine Model of Coxsackievirus A2 Infection for the Evaluation of Antiviral Therapeutics and Vaccination.

Front Microbiol 2021 28;12:658093. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Coxsackievirus (CV) A2 has emerged as an important etiological agent in the pathogen spectrum of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). The symptoms of CVA2 infections are generally mild, but worsen rapidly in some people, posing a serious threat to children's health. However, compared with enterovirus 71 detected frequently in fatal cases, limited attention has been paid to CVA2 infections because of its benign clinical course. Read More

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Macula hole as a sequelae of presumed ocular toxoplasmosis, an incidental finding in a female Nigerian: Case report and review of literature.

Y O Babalola

Niger J Clin Pract 2021 Jun;24(6):959-963

Department of Ophthalmology, University College Hospital/University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

A 39-year-old Nigerian woman presented to the eye clinic for a new pair of spectacles on account of a two-week history of headaches and bilateral eye ache. She was a known spectacle wearer for the past nine years. The presenting visual acuity was 6/6 and 6/36, respectively, in the right and left eye. Read More

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Brucella Infection Investigation in Cetaceans and Manatees in Northeast Brazil.

J Aquat Anim Health 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade de São Paulo, Pirassununga, São Paulo, 13635-900, Brazil.

Among the bacterial infections that impair the health status of marine mammals, those caused by Brucella spp. are the most reported worldwide. Brucella infections in marine mammals can result in acute or chronic disease and are associated with variable clinical outcomes, depending on the organ involved during the infectious process, infection route, host immunity, and strain pathogenicity. Read More

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Whole exome sequencing reveals a novel LRBA mutation and clonal hematopoiesis in a common variable immunodeficiency patient presented with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

Exp Hematol Oncol 2021 Jun 13;10(1):38. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Myelodysplastic Syndromes Diagnosis and Therapy Center, Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79# Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, 310003, Zhejiang, China.

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) was a kind of primary immunodeficiency disorders with heterogeneous phenotype and genotype. Lipopolysaccharide-responsive and beige-like anchor (LRBA) mutation was identified as disease associated in CVID, advanced genetic method will help to detect atypical cases. We report a case of adult patient manifested as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), bone marrow examination suggested prosperity to MDS, manifested as increased immature myeloid cells and dysplastic hematopoiesis. Read More

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Systemic inflammation, innate immunity and pathogenesis after Zika virus infection in Cynomolgus Macaques are modulated by strain-specificity within the Asian lineage.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Jun 14:1-31. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus with recent global expansion. Historically, ZIKV infections with Asian lineages have been associated with mild disease such as rash and fever. However, recent Asian sub-lineages have caused outbreaks in the South Pacific and Latin America with increased prevalence of neurological disorders in infants and adults. Read More

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Unilateral Optic Neuritis Associated with SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Rare Complication.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Jun 13;22:e931665. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Medicine, St. George's University School of Medicine, St. Georges, Grenada.

BACKGROUND Since the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, extensive research has been conducted on the pulmonary implications of this novel disease. However, there has been limited data on the extrapulmonary manifestations. There have been few documented causes of optic involvement and little is understood about the pathophysiology around its presentation and the possible treatments to prevent long-term complications. Read More

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Deep surgical site infections following double-dose perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in adult obese orthopedic patients.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Unit of Clinical and Applied Research, Balgrist University Hospital, University of Zurich, Switzerland; Infection Control, Balgrist University Hospital, University of Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Obesity is a risk for surgical site infections (SSI). Based on retrospective comparisons and pharmacology, many orthopedic centers adopted a weight- (or body mass index (BMI))-related antibiotic prophylaxis.

Methods: We introduced a double-dose prophylaxis on March 2017 for patients >80 kg and compared the period April 2014-March 2017 ("before") to March 2017-Juni 2019 ("after") regarding its impact on deep SSIs. Read More

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Immunophenotypic characterization of double positive T lymphocytes in Cuban older adults.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Jun 10:111450. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Subdirection for Medical Assistance, Longevity, Anging and Health Research Center (CITED), Vedado, Havana, Cuba. Electronic address:

Introduction: Immunosenescence is the functional deterioration of the immune system during natural aging that mainly affects T lymphocytes, within which is the subpopulation of peripheral double positive T lymphocytes that are immunomodulators of the immune response. They are increased in older adults and play a fundamental role in the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, viral infections and neoplasms.

Objective: To characterize the immunophenotype of peripheral double positive T lymphocytes in Cuban older adults. Read More

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Importation of Entamoeba histolytica and predominance of Klebsiella pneumoniae in liver abscesses: a 7-year retrospective cohort study from the United Arab Emirates.

Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines 2021 Jun 12;7(1):17. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

Background: There is a dearth of information on liver abscesses in the United Arab Emirates. Herein, we describe the clinical features of liver abscesses and determine their incidence rates and clinical outcomes.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of adult patients with a primary diagnosis of liver abscess at a major hospital over a 7-year period. Read More

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Antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria: a 5-year retrospective analysis at a multi-hospital healthcare system in Saudi Arabia.

Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2021 Jun 12;20(1):43. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Studying time-related changes in susceptible pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) is vital in improving local antimicrobial and infection control practices.

Objectives: Describe susceptibility patterns to several antimicrobials in gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens isolated from patients causing HAIs at three private tertiary care hospitals in Saudi Arabia over a 5-year period.

Methods: Data on trends of antimicrobial susceptibility among bacteria causing HAIs events in children and adults at three tertiary private hospitals located in Riyadh and Qassim, Saudi Arabia, were collected retrospectively between 2015 and 2019 using the surveillance data datasets. Read More

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Impact of inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment on clinical outcomes of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli: a retrospective cohort study.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Medicine, Clinical Laboratory of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objective: We aimed to determine the clinical impact of inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment (IEAT) compared with appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment (AEAT) in hospitalised patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli).

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included adult patients with a primary diagnosis of UTI who were treated with empirical antibiotics at a tertiary hospital in southern China over a 2-year period. Read More

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Are antimicrobial stewardship interventions effective and safe in long-term care facilities? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Infectious Diseases Research Group, Institute of Biomedicine of Seville (IBiS), University of Seville/CSIC/University Hospital Virgen del Rocio, 41013 Seville, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are health care settings with high antimicrobial consumption and hence need to develop effective antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs).

Objective: To assess the effects of ASPs on care-related, clinical, and ecological outcomes in LTCFs.

Methods: Data sources were PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and SCOPUS. Read More

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Seroprevalence and SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactivity of endemic coronavirus OC43 and 229E antibodies in Finnish children and adults.

Clin Immunol 2021 Jun 9;229:108782. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Vaccine Development and Immunology/Vaccine Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Arvo Ylpön katu 34, FI-33520 Tampere, Finland. Electronic address:

Endemic human coronaviruses (hCoVs) are common causative agents of respiratory tract infections, affecting especially children. However, in the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, children are the least affected age-group. The objective of this study was to investigate the magnitude of endemic hCoVs antibodies in Finnish children and adults, and pre-pandemic antibody cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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Tracking elimination of HIV transmission in men who have sex with men in England: a modelling study.

Lancet HIV 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Medical Research Council Biostatistics Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Electronic address:

Background: To manage the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in England, treatment as prevention strategies based on test and treat were strengthened between 2011 and 2015, and supplemented from 2015 by scale-up of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We examined the effect of these interventions on HIV incidence and investigated whether internationally agreed targets for HIV control and elimination of HIV transmission by 2030 might be within reach among MSM in England.

Methods: We used a novel, age-stratified, CD4-staged Bayesian back-calculation model to estimate HIV incidence and undiagnosed infections among adult MSM (age ≥15 years) during the 10-year period between 2009 and 2018. Read More

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Utility of preoperative CT-based body metrics in relation to postoperative complications in pediatric liver transplant recipients.

Liver Transpl 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Computed tomography (CT) derived body metrics such as skeletal muscle index (SMI), psoas muscle index (PMI), and subcutaneous fat index (ScFI) are measurable components of sarcopenia, frailty, and nutrition. While these body metrics are advocated in adults for predicting postoperative outcomes after liver transplantation (LT), little is known about the value in pediatric populations. This study assessed the relation between preoperative CT-based body metrics and postoperative short-term outcomes in pediatric LT recipients. Read More

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No need for secondary Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis in adult people living with HIV from Europe on ART with suppressed viraemia and a CD4 cell count greater than 100 cells/µL.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 Jun;24(6):e25726

Department of Infectious Diseases, Bern University Hospital, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Introduction: Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic in resource-rich countries, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PjP) is one of the most frequent opportunistic AIDS-defining infections. The Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE) has shown that primary Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia (PjP) prophylaxis can be safely withdrawn in patients with CD4 counts of 100 to 200 cells/µL if plasma HIV-RNA is suppressed on combination antiretroviral therapy. Whether this holds true for secondary prophylaxis is not known, and this has proved difficult to determine due to the much lower population at risk. Read More

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Prescribing Antibiotics in Adults with Respiratory Tract Infections in Lebanon.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jun 12:e14514. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Family Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC, Beirut, Lebanon.

Background: Antibiotic resistance is a global concern that has significant health and economic burden. The inappropriate use of antibiotics is a major cause of antibiotic resistance; this includes both unnecessary and incorrect prescriptions. Most antibiotics are prescribed in primary care, mainly for respiratory tract infections. Read More

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Adapted tolerance to virus infections in four geographically distinct Varroa destructor-resistant honeybee populations.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12359. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Ecology, Swedish Species Information Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is unarguably the leading cause of honeybee (Apis mellifera) mortality worldwide through its role as a vector for lethal viruses, in particular, strains of the Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) complexes. Several honeybee populations across Europe have well-documented adaptations of mite-resistant traits but little is known about host adaptations towards the virus infections vectored by the mite. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the possible contribution of adapted virus tolerance and/or resistance to the enhanced survival of four well-documented mite-resistant honeybee populations from Norway, Sweden, The Netherlands and France, in relation to unselected mite-susceptible honeybees. Read More

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A 59-Year-Old Woman with Extensive Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Thromboembolism 7 Days Following a First Dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Jun 12;22:e932946. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman.

BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing cause of the current global healthcare crisis. Several vaccines were approved for use by emergency vaccination campaigns worldwide. At present, there are very few reports of COVID-19 vaccine-induced immune-thrombotic thrombocytopenia, a variant of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), in comparison to the massive number of vaccinated people worldwide. Read More

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