153,508 results match your criteria infection tested


Disruption of biofilms and killing of Burkholderia cenocepacia from cystic fibrosis lung using an antioxidant-antibiotic combination therapy.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2021 Jun 8:106372. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, School of Medical Science, The University of Sydney. Electronic address:

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator. The resulting chloride and bicarbonate imbalance produces a thick static lung mucus. This mucus is not easily expelled from the lungs, and so can be colonised by bacteria, leading to biofilm formation. Read More

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Novel universal primer-pentaplex PCR assay based on chimeric primers for simultaneous detection of five common pig viruses associated with diarrhea.

Mol Cell Probes 2021 Jun 8:101747. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

College of Life Sciences and Medicine, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Viral pathogens associated with diarrhea in pigs include porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine rotavirus A (RVA) and C (RVC) among others. In this study, a novel universal primer-based pentaplex PCR (UP-M-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of these five viruses. The assay uses a short-cycle multiplex amplification by chimeric primers (CP), which are virus specific, with a tail added at the 5' end of the universal primer (UP), followed by universal amplification using UPs and a regular cycle amplification. Read More

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Etiology and prevalence of ESBLs in adult community-onset urinary tract infections in East China: a prospective multicenter study.

J Infect 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China; Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology and Bioinformatics of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China; Regional Medical Center for National Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Community onset urinary tract infections (COUTIs) drew attention recently owing to their increased prevalence and associations with resistant pathogens. The study is aimed at investigating the etiology of COUTIs as well as prevalence and the related risk factors of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) in COUTIs in China.

Methods: The prospective study was performed in nineteen hospitals during November 1, 2017 and August 31, 2019. Read More

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Experimental transmission of Leishmania (Mundinia) parasites by biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jun 11;17(6):e1009654. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Leishmania parasites, causative agents of leishmaniasis, are currently divided into four subgenera: Leishmania, Viannia, Sauroleishmania and Mundinia. The recently established subgenus Mundinia has a wide geographical distribution and contains five species, three of which have the potential to infect and cause disease in humans. While the other Leishmania subgenera are transmitted exclusively by phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae), natural vectors of Mundinia remain uncertain. Read More

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COVID-19-Related Lung Parenchymal Uptake on 18F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

From the Cobalt Medical Charity, Cheltenham, United Kingdom Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Gloucestershire Cranfield Forensic Institute, Cranfield University, Wiltshire, United Kingdom.

Abstract: A 70-year-old man with newly diagnosed prostate cancer underwent 18F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT for staging. PSMA-avid primary prostatic malignancy was identified. Incidental intense patchy peripheral lung uptake was also noted. Read More

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Antibiotic-Impregnated Liquid-Infused Coatings Suppress the Formation of Methicillin-Resistant Biofilms.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Surgery, Juravinski Hospital, 711 Concession Street, Hamilton, ON L8V 1C3, Canada.

Medical device-associated infections are an ongoing problem. Once an implant is infected, bacteria create a complex community on the surface known as a biofilm, protecting the bacterial cells against antibiotics and the immune system. To prevent biofilm formation, several coatings have been engineered to hinder bacterial adhesion or viability. Read More

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Probable aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a poorly ventilated courtroom.

Indoor Air 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Occupational Health and Environment, Center for Primary Care and Public Health (Unisanté, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

There is increasing evidence of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via aerosol; the number of cases of transmission via this route reported in the literature remains however limited. This study examines a case of clustering that occurred in a courtroom, in which 5 of the 10 participants were tested positive within days of the hearing. Ventilation loss rates and dispersion of fine aerosols were measured through CO injections and lactose aerosol generation. Read More

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International Analysis of Electronic Health Records of Children and Youth Hospitalized With COVID-19 Infection in 6 Countries.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jun 1;4(6):e2112596. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Health Informatics, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.

Importance: Additional sources of pediatric epidemiological and clinical data are needed to efficiently study COVID-19 in children and youth and inform infection prevention and clinical treatment of pediatric patients.

Objective: To describe international hospitalization trends and key epidemiological and clinical features of children and youth with COVID-19.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective cohort study included pediatric patients hospitalized between February 2 and October 10, 2020. Read More

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Effect of aprepitant on kynurenine to tryptophan ratio in cART treated and cART naïve adults living with HIV.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e25313

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute.

Abstract: Changes in tryptophan metabolism affect human physiology including the immune system, mood, and sleep and are associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis. This study investigates whether the treatment of HIV-infected individuals with the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, aprepitant, alters tryptophan metabolism.This study utilized archival samples from 3 phase 1B clinical trials "Anti-HIV Neuroimmunomodulatory Therapy with Neurokinin-1 Antagonist Aprepitant"-2 double-blinded, placebo-controlled, and 1 open-label study. Read More

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Effectiveness of Selected Air Cleaning Devices During Dental Procedures.

Mil Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Directorate of Force Health Protection, Canadian Forces Health Services Group Headquarters, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K2, Canada.

Introduction: The recent COVID-19 pandemic has underscored the necessity of protecting health care providers (HCPs) against the transmission of infectious agents during dental procedures. To this end, the effectiveness of several air cleaning devices (ACDs) in reducing HCPs exposure to aerosols generated during dental procedures was estimated, separately or in combination with each other. These ACDs were a chairside unit capturing aerosols at the source of generation, and four ambient ACDs: a portable ambient ACD; a negative pressure module; a custom made, fan-operated and wall-mounted air filter (WMAF); and a smaller and passive version of the latter. Read More

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Antibody persistency and trend post-SARS-CoV-2 infection at eight months.

Ann Ig 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Co-Founder, Association "Naso Sano" Onlus, Umbria Regional Registry of volunteer activities, Corciano, Italy.

Introduction: A large amount of recent research has focused on the nature of immunity elicited by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, particularly its robustness and the duration of protection it offers. As a vaccine's efficacy relies on its ability to induce a protective immune response, these questions remain particularly pertinent. An improved understanding of the immunity offered by the antibodies developed against SARS-CoV-2 in recovered patients is critical for the development of diagnostic tests and vaccines. Read More

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Acute submassive pulmonary embolism after SARS-CoV-2 infection: a case report of reinfection or prolonged hypercoagulable state.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2021 Mar 24;5(3):ytab103. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Cardiology, Loyola University Medical Center, 2160 S 1st Ave, Maywood, IL 60153, USA.

Background: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) reinfection has been a topic of discussion with data still emerging. Viral antibodies are known to develop upon initial infection; however, it is unclear the amount of protection this confers against reinfection. Additionally, COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC) is a well-documented phenomenon; however, there are no high-quality studies to support the treatment of outpatients beyond standard indications of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis. Read More

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Peer Mobilization and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Partner Notification Services Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men and Transgender Women in Coastal Kenya Identified a High Number of Undiagnosed HIV Infections.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jun 29;8(6):ofab219. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Kenya Medical Research Institute-Wellcome Trust Research Program, Kilifi, Kenya.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) partner notification services (HPN), peer mobilization with HIV self-testing, and acute and early HIV infection (AEHI) screening among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) and transgender women (TGW) were assessed for acceptability, feasibility, and linkage to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) services.

Methods: Between April and August 2019, peer mobilizers mobilized clients by offering HIV oral self-tests and immediate clinic referral for clients with AEHI symptoms. Mobilized participants received clinic-based rapid antibody testing and point-of-care HIV RNA testing. Read More

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Preclinical evaluation of passive disinfection caps with a long-term catheter for the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infection in pediatric cancer patients.

GMS Hyg Infect Control 2021 31;16:Doc20. Epub 2021 May 31.

Medical Solutions Division Laboratory, Europe, Middle East and Africa, 3M Deutschland GmbH, Neuss, Germany.

The use of passive disinfection devices (disinfection caps) may be a beneficial part of a maintenance care bundle, aiming at the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections in pediatric cancer patients. This preclinical investigation tested the visual and mechanical integrity of a Broviac™ catheter hub after simulation testing with 122 3M™ CurosTM Stopper Disinfection Caps for Open Female Luers repeatedly attached and removed over 6 months. We found that these catheter hubs were compatible, fully operational, and airtight with use of 3M Curos stopper caps after 6 months of use with 122 caps per catheter hub. Read More

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A Case of COVID-19 Re-Infection in a Liver Transplant Patient.

Cureus 2021 May 9;13(5):e14916. Epub 2021 May 9.

Emergency Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, USA.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing worldwide pandemic infection. The exact incidence of disease re-infection or recurrence remains unknown. One particular at-risk population includes individuals with solid organ transplantation on immunosuppression. Read More

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Characterization of COPD Admissions During the First COVID-19 Outbreak.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2021 3;16:1549-1554. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Respiratory medicine, Hospital Arnau de Vilanova-CIBERES, Valencia, Spain.

Purpose: Exacerbations of COPD (ECOPD) are a frequent cause of hospitalization that seemed to ameliorate during the COVID outbreak. We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of COPD-related hospital admissions and mortality in relation to the presence of COVID-19.

Patients And Methods: We conducted a case-control study of patients admitted in four teaching hospitals throughout Spain between March 15 and April 30, 2020. Read More

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Non-homologous dsODN increases the mutagenic effects of CRISPR-Cas9 to disrupt oncogene E7 in HPV positive cells.

Cancer Gene Ther 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Genome editing tools targeting high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogene could be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HPV-related cervical cancer. We aimed to improve the editing efficiency and detect off-target effects concurrently for the clinical translation strategy by using CRISPR-Cas9 system co-transfected with 34nt non-homologous double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (dsODN). We firstly tested this strategy on targeting the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) gene, of which the expression is easily observed. Read More

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Insulin resistance is linked to a specific profile of immune activation in human subjects.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12314. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Immunology Department, Nîmes University Hospital, Place du Pr Debré, 30029, Nîmes, France.

We tested the hypothesis that a particular immune activation profile might be correlated with insulin resistance in a general population. By measuring 43 markers of immune, endothelial, and coagulation activation, we have previously shown that five different immune activation profiles may be distinguished in 150 volunteers. One of these profiles, Profile 2, characterized by CD4+ T cell senescence, inflammation, monocyte, B cell, and endothelial activation, presented elevated insulinemia, glycemia, triglyceridemia, and γ-glutamyl transferase, a marker of liver injury, in comparison with other profiles. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 serology in 4000 health care and administrative staff across seven sites in Lombardy, Italy.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12312. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.

Lombardy is the Italian region most affected by COVID-19. We tested the presence of plasma anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in 3985 employees across 7 healthcare facilities in areas of Lombardy with different exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. Subjects filled a questionnaire to self-report on COVID-19 symptoms, comorbidities, smoking, regular or remote working, and the exposure to COVID-infected individuals. Read More

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Hospital clinical practice around urinalysis is an important opportunity for antimicrobial stewardship improvement activities.

Infect Dis Health 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Eastern Health, Box Hill, Victoria 3128, Australia.

Background: To identify nurses' knowledge, perception and practice around urinalysis and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and to determine drivers of inappropriate urinalysis practice in an Australian hospital setting.

Methods: Undertaken in eight geriatric wards over four hospitals, a questionnaire inviting voluntary, anonymous participation tested nursing staff knowledge on urinalysis, recognition of urinary tract infection (UTI) and perception of the utility of urinalysis as a routine test on all ward admissions. A retrospective one-month audit was performed on admissions to a 32-bed geriatric ward. Read More

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A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Demographic and Behavioral Risk Factors of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Seropositivity Among a Sample of U.S. College Students.

J Adolesc Health 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Public Health-Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana.

Purpose: Colleges and universities across the United States are developing and implementing data-driven prevention and containment measures against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Identifying risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity could help to direct these efforts. This study aimed to estimate the associations between demographic factors and social behaviors and SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and self-reported positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test. Read More

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[Clinical observation of extremely elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2021 May;33(5):613-617

Department of Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650032, Yunnan, China. Corresponding author: Xiao-Li Leyun, Email:

Objective: To analyze the clinical features of adult patients with extremely elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, ESR ≥ 100 mm/1 h), so as improve the ability of clinicians to use erythrocyte sedimentation rate to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to examine the clinical data of patients with ESR ≥ 100 mm/1 h admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University from January 1st 2019 to December 31st 2019. The age, gender, clinical diagnosis, first ESR level after admission, blood routine, liver function, renal function, coagulation function and C-reactive protein (CRP) within 24 hours after admission were collected. Read More

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BNT162b2-elicited neutralization of B.1.617 and other SARS-CoV-2 variants.

Nature 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to evolve around the world, generating new variants that are of concern based on their potential for altered transmissibility, pathogenicity, and coverage by vaccines and therapeutics. Here we report that 20 human sera, drawn 2 or 4 weeks after two doses of BNT162b2, neutralize engineered SARS-CoV-2 with a USA-WA1/2020 genetic background (a virus strain isolated in January 2020) and spike glycoproteins from the newly emerged B.1. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 contact tracing among disadvantaged populations during epidemic intervals should be a priority strategy: results from a pilot experiment in Barcelona.

Public Health 2021 May 9;195:132-134. Epub 2021 May 9.

North Metropolitan International Health Program, Primary Care Unit, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Institut Català de la Salut, Passatge dels Encants, s/n, 08914, Badalona, Catalonia, Spain.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to trace contacts of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalised patients and determine the risk factors of infection in urban areas.

Study Design: Longitudinal analysis of contacts identified from index cases.

Methods: A contact tracing study was carried out in the Northern Metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain, during the inter-epidemic lapse of May to July 2020, a period of low SARS-CoV-2 incidence. Read More

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Prevalence of COVID-19 in Iran: results of the first survey of the Iranian COVID-19 Serological Surveillance program.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Osteoporosis Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study aims to estimate the prevalence of COVID-19 in the general population of Iran.

Methods: The target population was all Iranian people aged six years and older in the country. A stratified random sampling design was used to select 28,314 subjects from among the individuals registered in the electronic health record systems used in primary health care in Iran. Read More

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The association between bacteria colonizing the upper respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract infection in young children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Division of Infection and Immunity, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Bacteria colonizing the upper respiratory tract (URT) of young children play a key role in the pathogenesis of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI).

Objectives: To systematically review the literature on the association between bacteria colonizing the URT and LRTI among young children.

Data Sources: MEDLINE, Academic Search Premier, Africa-Wide Information and CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science. Read More

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Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike responses to Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines by previous infection status.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK.

Objectives: We investigate determinants of SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG responses in healthcare workers (HCWs) following one or two doses of Pfizer-BioNTech or Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines.

Methods: HCWs participating in regular SARS-CoV-2 PCR and antibody testing were invited for serological testing prior to first and second vaccination, and 4 weeks post-vaccination if receiving a 12-week dosing interval. Quantitative post-vaccination anti-spike antibody responses were measured using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay (detection threshold: ≥50 AU/ml). Read More

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Association of inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 with neurologic symptoms and management after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Seattle, WA, USA; Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Reactivation of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is associated with neurologic complications, but the impact of donor and/or recipient inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (iciHHV-6) on post-HCT central nervous system (CNS) symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic interventions is not well understood.

Objective: The aims of the study were 1) to compare the cumulative incidence of CNS symptoms in the first 100 days following allogeneic HCT among patients with donor and/or recipient iciHHV-6 (iciHHV-6) to that of patients with neither donor nor recipient iciHHV-6 (iciHHV-6) and 2) to assess the role of HHV-6 detection in driving potentially unnecessary interventions in iciHHV-6 patients.

Study Design: We performed a retrospective matched cohort study of 87 iciHHV-6 and 174 iciHHV-6 allogeneic HCT recipients. Read More

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Use of U.S. Blood Donors for National Serosurveillance of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies: Basis for an Expanded National Donor Serosurveillance Program.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Vitalant Research Institute, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Introduction: The REDS-IV-P Epidemiology, Surveillance and Preparedness of the Novel SARS-CoV-2 Epidemic (RESPONSE) seroprevalence study conducted monthly cross-sectional testing for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies on blood donors in six U.S. metropolitan regions to estimate the extent of SARS-COV-2 infections over time. Read More

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Hepatitis C virus screening of high-risk patients in a community hospital emergency department: Retrospective review of patient characteristics and future implications.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0252976. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Englewood Health, Englewood, New Jersey, United States of America.

Background: Chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is a common infectious disease that affects more than 2.7 million people in the US. Because the emergency department (ED) can present an ideal opportunity to screen patients who may not otherwise get routine screening, we implemented a risk-based screening program for ED patients and established a system to facilitate linkage to care. Read More

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