79,132 results match your criteria infection suggesting

Axenic amastigotes of Leishmania species as a suitable model for in vitro studies.

Acta Trop 2021 May 9:105956. Epub 2021 May 9.

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Laboratório de Biologia Molecular e Doenças Endêmicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:

Leishmania spp. are etiological agents of infection diseases, which in some cases can be fatal. The main forms of their biological cycle, promastigotes and amastigotes, can be maintained in vitro. Read More

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Possible Human-to-Dog Transmission of SARS-CoV-2, Italy, 2020.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 May 12;27(7). Epub 2021 May 12.

We detected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in an otherwise healthy poodle living with 4 family members who had coronavirus disease. We observed antibodies in serum samples taken from the dog, indicating seroconversion. Full-length genome sequencing showed that the canine and human viruses were identical, suggesting human-to-animal transmission. Read More

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Glyphosate inhibits melanization and increases susceptibility to infection in insects.

PLoS Biol 2021 May 12;19(5):e3001182. Epub 2021 May 12.

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Melanin, a black-brown pigment found throughout all kingdoms of life, has diverse biological functions including UV protection, thermoregulation, oxidant scavenging, arthropod immunity, and microbial virulence. Given melanin's broad roles in the biosphere, particularly in insect immune defenses, it is important to understand how exposure to ubiquitous environmental contaminants affects melanization. Glyphosate-the most widely used herbicide globally-inhibits melanin production, which could have wide-ranging implications in the health of many organisms, including insects. Read More

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Acute gastric mucosal lesions caused by acute infection of non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter: a case report.

Helicobacter 2021 May 11:e12814. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, Showa Inan General Hospital, Komagane, Japan.

Background: Non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter (NHPH) is not widely recognized as a cause of acute gastric mucosal lesions (AGML), as only a few cases of AGML caused by NHPH have been reported. We present here one case and examine the species and eradication of NHPH together with the three previously reported cases.

Case Presentation: A 52-year-old woman presented with a two-day history of severe epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. Read More

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Comparative immune profiling of acute respiratory distress syndrome patients with or without SARS-CoV2 infection.

Cell Rep Med 2021 May 6:100291. Epub 2021 May 6.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rennes, SITI, Pôle Biologie, F-35033, Rennes, France.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the main complication of COVID-19, requiring admission to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Despite extensive immune profiling of COVID-19 patients, to what extent COVID-19-associated ARDS differs from other causes of ARDS remains unknown. To address this question, we build 3 cohorts of patients categorize in COVID-19ARDS, COVID-19ARDS, and COVID-19ARDS, and compare their immune landscape analyze by high-dimensional mass cytometry on peripheral blood. Read More

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Heterogeneous magnitude of immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 in recovered individuals.

Clin Transl Immunology 2021 6;10(5):e1281. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine University of Florence Florence Italy.

Objective: Although the adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 has been characterised in the acute and early convalescent phase of the disease, few studies explore whether natural infection elicits long-lasting immunological memory in recovered individuals. In this work, we aimed to assess the maintenance of immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2.

Methods: We evaluated the long-term virus-specific cellular and humoral immune response in the members of an Italian Serie A football team, who experienced a cluster of COVID-19 in March 2020, which was strictly evaluated in the following months. Read More

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Viral dosing of influenza A infection reveals involvement of RIPK3 and FADD, but not MLKL.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 11;12(5):471. Epub 2021 May 11.

VIB-UGent Center for Inflammation Research, Ghent, Belgium.

RIPK3 was reported to play an important role in the protection against influenza A virus (IAV) in vivo. Here we show that the requirement of RIPK3 for protection against IAV infection in vivo is only apparent within a limited dose range of IAV challenge. We found that this protective outcome is independent from RIPK3 kinase activity and from MLKL. Read More

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Tryptophan Operon Diversity Reveals Evolutionary Trends among Geographically Disparate Chlamydia trachomatis Ocular and Urogenital Strains Affecting Tryptophan Repressor and Synthase Function.

mBio 2021 May 11;12(3). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, Oakland, California, USA

The obligate intracellular pathogen () is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections and blindness globally. To date, urogenital strains are considered tryptophan prototrophs, utilizing indole for tryptophan synthesis within a closed-conformation tetramer comprised of two α (TrpA)- and two β (TrpB)-subunits. In contrast, ocular strains are auxotrophs due to mutations in TrpA, relying on host tryptophan pools for survival. Read More

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UNC-2 CaV2 channel localization at presynaptic active zones depends on UNC-10/RIM and SYD-2/Liprin-α in .

J Neurosci 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Center for Cancer Cell Biology, Immunology, and Infection, Department of Cell Biology & Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, School of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, Illinois 60064, USA

Presynaptic active zone proteins couple calcium influx with synaptic vesicle exocytosis. However, the control of presynaptic calcium channel localization by active zone proteins is not completely understood. In a forward genetic screen, we find that UNC-10/RIM (Rab3-interacting molecule) and SYD-2/Liprin-α regulate presynaptic localization of UNC-2, the CaV2 channel ortholog. Read More

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Morphological and molecular characterization of Spirocerca lupi (Nematoda: Spirocercidae) from domestic dogs in Vietnam with reference to Spirocerca vulpis.

Parasitol Int 2021 May 8:102381. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Ha Noi, Viet Nam; Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Ha Noi, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

Spirocerca lupi is a common parasitic nematode associated with esophageal cancer of canids. Recent surveys have revealed an increasing number of canids infected with Spirocerca spp. in Africa, Europe and the Americas, and described a new species, Spirocerca vulpis, from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Read More

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Neutralizing Anti-Interleukin-1 Receptor-Antagonist Autoantibodies Induce Inflammatory and Fibrotic Mediators in IgG4-Related Disease.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

the Department of Medicine, Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Stanford University; Institute for Immunity, Transplant and Infection, Stanford University, Stanford, CA; VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto. Electronic address:

Background: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibro-inflammatory condition involving loss of B cell tolerance and production of autoantibodies. However, the relevant targets and role of these aberrant humoral immune responses are not defined.

Objective: To identify novel autoantibodies and autoantigen targets that promote pathogenic responses in IgG4-RD. Read More

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Infection of humanized mice with a novel phlebovirus presented pathogenic features of sever fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 11;17(5):e1009587. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Life Sciences, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, P.R. China.

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a tick-borne emerging phlebovirus with high mortality rates of 6.0 to 30%. SFTSV infection is characterized by high fever, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, hemorrhage and multiple organ failures. Read More

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Characteristics and limitations of national antimicrobial surveillance according to sales and claims data.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(5):e0251299. Epub 2021 May 11.

AMR Clinical Reference Center, Disease Control and Prevention Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: Antimicrobial use (AMU) is estimated at the national level by using sales data (S-AMU) or insurance claims data (C-AMU). However, these data might be biased by generic drugs that are not sold through wholesalers (direct sales) and therefore not recorded in sales databases, or by claims that are not submitted electronically and therefore not stored in claims databases. We evaluated these effects by comparing S-AMU and C-AMU to ascertain the characteristics and limitations of each kind of data. Read More

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Prevalence and Outcomes of Unexpected Positive Intraoperative Cultures in Presumed Aseptic Revision Hip Arthroplasty.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University and London Health Science Centre, London, Ontario, Canada.

Background: The prevalence and outcomes of unexpected positive cultures (UPCs) of specimens taken during presumed aseptic revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of UPC and infection-free implant survival in this patient population. Secondary aims included identifying factors associated with subsequent infection-related failure in patients with UPC. Read More

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Gold(I) Phosphine Derivatives with Improved Selectivity as Topically Active Drug Leads to Overcome 5-Nitroheterocyclic Drug Resistance in .

J Med Chem 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, United States.

causes the most common, nonviral sexually transmitted infection. Only metronidazole (Mz) and tinidazole are approved for treating trichomoniasis, yet resistance is a clinical problem. The gold(I) complex, auranofin, is active against and other protozoa but has significant human toxicity. Read More

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PAL-mediated SA biosynthesis pathway contributes to nematode resistance in wheat.

Plant J 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, China.

The pathogen cereal cyst nematode (CCN) is deleterious to Triticeae crops and is a threat to the global crop yield. Accession No.1 of Aegilops variabilis, a relative of bread wheat, is highly resistant to CCN. Read More

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Antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infection: exploring drivers of cognitive effort and factors associated with inappropriate prescribing.

Fam Pract 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Aberdeen Health Psychology Group, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

Background: Antibiotics are over-prescribed for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). It is unclear how factors known to influence prescribing decisions operate 'in the moment': dual process theories, which propose two systems of thought ('automatic' and 'analytical'), may inform this.

Objective(s): Investigate cognitive processes underlying antibiotic prescribing for URTI and the factors associated with inappropriate prescribing. Read More

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Mouse Adapted SARS-CoV-2 protects animals from lethal SARS-CoV challenge.

bioRxiv 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in a worldwide pandemic causing significant damage to public health and the economy. Efforts to understand the mechanisms of COVID-19 disease have been hampered by the lack of robust mouse models. To overcome this barrier, we utilized a reverse genetic system to generate a mouse-adapted strain of SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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Convergent antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in convalescent and vaccinated individuals.

bioRxiv 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Unrelated individuals can produce genetically similar clones of antibodies, known as public clonotypes, which have been seen in responses to different infectious diseases as well as healthy individuals. Here we identify 37 public clonotypes in memory B cells from convalescent survivors of SARS-CoV-2 infection or in plasmablasts from an individual after vaccination with mRNA-encoded spike protein. We identified 29 public clonotypes, including clones recognizing the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the spike protein S1 subunit (including a neutralizing, ACE2-blocking clone that protects ), and others recognizing non-RBD epitopes that bound the heptad repeat 1 region of the S2 domain. Read More

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A short synthetic peptide, based on LyeTx I from Lycosa erythrognatha venom, shows potential to treat pneumonia caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii without detectable resistance.

J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Laboratório de Radioisótopos, Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), together with relative stagnation in the development of effective antibiotics, has led to enormous health and economic problems. In this study, we aimed to describe the antibacterial spectrum of LyeTx I mnΔK, a short synthetic peptide based on LyeTx I from Lycosa erythrognatha venom, against CRAB. LyeTx I mnΔK showed considerable antibacterial activity against extensively resistant A. Read More

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Environmental determinants of COVID-19 transmission across a wide climatic gradient in Chile.

Sci Rep 2021 05 10;11(1):9849. Epub 2021 May 10.

Unidad de Cambio Climático y Medio Ambiente, Instituto Iberoamericano de Desarrollo Sostenible, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Temuco, Chile.

Several studies have examined the transmission dynamics of the novel COVID-19 disease in different parts of the world. Some have reported relationships with various environmental variables, suggesting that spread of the disease is enhanced in colder and drier climates. However, evidence is still scarce and mostly limited to a few countries, particularly from Asia. Read More

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ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine candidate significantly reduces SARS-CoV-2 shedding in ferrets.

NPJ Vaccines 2021 May 10;6(1):67. Epub 2021 May 10.

CSIRO Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness, Geelong, VIC, Australia.

Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are likely to be critical in the management of the ongoing pandemic. A number of candidates are in Phase III human clinical trials, including ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222), a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine candidate. In preclinical trials, the efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 against SARS-CoV-2 challenge was evaluated in a ferret model of infection. Read More

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The evolution and changing ecology of the African hominid oral microbiome.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(20)

Department of Humanities, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy.

The oral microbiome plays key roles in human biology, health, and disease, but little is known about the global diversity, variation, or evolution of this microbial community. To better understand the evolution and changing ecology of the human oral microbiome, we analyzed 124 dental biofilm metagenomes from humans, including Neanderthals and Late Pleistocene to present-day modern humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas, as well as New World howler monkeys for comparison. We find that a core microbiome of primarily biofilm structural taxa has been maintained throughout African hominid evolution, and these microbial groups are also shared with howler monkeys, suggesting that they have been important oral members since before the catarrhine-platyrrhine split ca. Read More

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Detection of CTX-M-27 β-lactamase genes on two distinct plasmid types in ST38 from three US states.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

University of Rochester Medical Center, Clinical Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Rochester, NY

Infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing are a significant cause of morbidity and healthcare costs. Globally, the prevailing clonal type is ST131 in association with the blaCTX-M-15 β-lactamase gene. However, other ESBLs such as blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-27 can also be prevalent in some regions. Read More

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Novel chromosomal insertions of ISEcp1-bla and diverse antimicrobial resistance genes in Zambian clinical isolates of Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2021 May 10;10(1):79. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Infection and Immunity, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Background: The epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) has undergone dramatic changes, with CTX-M-type enzymes prevailing over other types. bla genes, encoding CTX-M-type ESBLs, are usually found on plasmids, but chromosomal location is becoming common. Given that bla-harboring strains often exhibit multidrug resistance (MDR), it is important to investigate the association between chromosomally integrated bla and the presence of additional antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes, and to identify other relevant genetic elements. Read More

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Dual-axis Volta phase plate cryo-electron tomography of Ebola virus-like particles reveals actin-VP40 interactions.

J Struct Biol 2021 May 7:107742. Epub 2021 May 7.

Schaller Research Groups, Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany; Research Group "Membrane Biology of Viral Infection", Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is a pivotal imaging technique for studying the structure of pleomorphic enveloped viruses and their interactions with the host at native conditions. Owing to the limited tilting range of samples with a slab geometry, electron tomograms suffer from so-called missing wedge information in Fourier space. In dual-axis cryo-ET, two tomograms reconstructed from orthogonally oriented tilt series are combined into a tomogram with improved resolution as the missing wedge information is reduced to a pyramid. Read More

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A study of innate immune kinetics reveals a role for a chloride transporter in a virulent Francisella tularensis type B strain.

Microbiologyopen 2021 Feb;10(2):e1170

The Alkek Center for Metagenomics and Microbiome Research, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Tularemia is a zoonotic disease of global proportions. Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis (type A) and holarctica (type B) cause disease in healthy humans, with type A infections resulting in higher mortality. Repeated passage of a type B strain in the mid-20th century generated the Live Vaccine Strain (LVS). Read More

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February 2021

Interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and human long non-coding RNAs.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Cellular and Molecular Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a critical regulatory role in the host response to the viral infection. However, little is understood about the transcriptome architecture, especially lncRNAs pattern during the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the present study, using publicly available RNA sequencing data of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) samples from COVID-19 patients and healthy individuals, three interesting findings highlighted: (a) More than half of the interactions between lncRNAs-PCGs of BALF samples established by three trans-acting lncRNAs (HOTAIRM1, PVT1 and AL392172. Read More

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Which factors influence Demodex proliferation? A retrospective pilot study highlighting a possible role of subtle immune variations and sebaceous gland status.

J Dermatol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Biologie humaine et moléculaire (IRIBHM), Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium.

Demodex folliculorum and brevis are commensal mites that live in low densities in human pilosebaceous follicles as part of the normal adult microbiota, but that give rise to demodicosis and, possibly, rosacea, when they proliferate excessively. This proliferation is favored by various factors, including age, marked immunosuppression, sebaceous gland hyperplasia, and hypervascularization-related factors. To study possible factors influencing mite proliferation, we explored the effects of different variables on Demodex densities (Dd) in a retrospective study of two groups of subjects selected on the basis of their clinical diagnosis: Demodex+, consisting of subjects with demodicosis or with centro-facial papulopustules suggesting rosacea (n = 844, mean Dd 263. Read More

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Maternal respiratory SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy is associated with a robust inflammatory response at the maternal-fetal interface.

Med (N Y) 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Pregnant women are at increased risk for severe outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the pathophysiology underlying this increased morbidity and its potential effect on the developing fetus is not well understood.

Methods: We assessed placental histology, ACE2 expression, and viral and immune dynamics at the term placenta in pregnant women with and without respiratory severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.

Findings: The majority (13 of 15) of placentas analyzed had no detectable viral RNA. Read More

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