3,433,122 results match your criteria infection ratesresults


Heme oxygenase limits Mycobacterium marinum infection-induced detrimental ferrostatin-sensitive cell death in zebrafish.

FEBS J 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Tuberculosis Research Program at the Centenary Institute, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, 2050, Australia.

Iron homeostasis is essential for both sides of the host-pathogen interface. Restricting access of iron slows bacterial growth while iron is also a necessary co-factor for host immunity. Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) is a critical regulator of iron homeostasis that catalyses the liberation of iron during degradation of heme. Read More

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September 2021

What Is the Role of Steroids for Septic Shock in 2021?

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Oct 20;42(5):726-734. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Critical Care and Postgraduate Program in Translational Medicine, D'Or Institute for Research and Education (IDOR), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Corticosteroids have been used for decades in the adjunctive treatment of severe infections in intensive care. The most frequent scenario in intensive care is in septic shock, where low doses of glucocorticoids appear to restore vascular responsiveness to norepinephrine. There is a strong body of evidence suggesting that hydrocortisone reduces time on vasopressor, and may modulate the immune response. Read More

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October 2021

Survival Outcome of Sepsis in Recipients of Solid Organ Transplant.

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Oct 20;42(5):717-725. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Transplant Infectious Diseases Program, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska.

Sepsis is a complex disease stemming from a dysregulated immune response toward an infectious agent. In transplantation, sepsis remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Solid organ transplant recipients have impaired adaptive immunity due to immunosuppression required to prevent rejection. Read More

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October 2021

Should Vasopressors Be Started Early in Septic Shock?

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Oct 20;42(5):683-688. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University of Bern, Bern University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland.

Sepsis can influence blood volume, its distribution, vascular tone, and cardiac function. Persistent hypotension or the need for vasopressors after volume resuscitation is part of the definition of septic shock. Since increased positive fluid balance has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in sepsis, timing of vasopressors in the treatment of septic shock seems crucial. Read More

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October 2021

Which Biomarkers Can Be Used as Diagnostic Tools for Infection in Suspected Sepsis?

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Oct 20;42(5):662-671. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Polyvalent Intensive Care Unit, Sao Francisco Xavier Hospital, CHLO, Lisbon, Portugal.

The diagnosis of infection in patients with suspected sepsis is frequently difficult to achieve with a reasonable degree of certainty. Currently, the diagnosis of infection still relies on a combination of systemic manifestations, manifestations of organ dysfunction, and microbiological documentation. In addition, the microbiologic confirmation of infection is obtained only after 2 to 3 days of empiric antibiotic therapy. Read More

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October 2021

What Is the Utility of Measuring Lactate Levels in Patients with Sepsis and Septic Shock?

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Oct 20;42(5):650-661. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

Elevations in blood lactate concentrations have been studied in sepsis and other disease states for decades and are well known to be associated with increased mortality. Many studies have also demonstrated the prognostic accuracy of serial lactate levels, and some have suggested that lactate clearance may be a useful therapeutic target for resuscitation. Lactate measurements have therefore gained an increasingly prominent role in sepsis definitions, screening protocols, management guidelines, and quality measures over the past two decades. Read More

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October 2021

Integrated Multiorgan Bedside Ultrasound for the Diagnosis and Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock.

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Oct 20;42(5):641-649. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Despite decades of research, the mortality rate of sepsis and septic shock remains unacceptably high. Delays in diagnosis, identification of an infectious source, and the challenge of providing patient-tailored resuscitation measures routinely result in suboptimal patient outcomes. Bedside ultrasound improves a clinician's ability to both diagnose and manage the patient with sepsis. Read More

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October 2021

[Which Digital Services do Psychosomatic Rehabilitation Patients Use During the Corona Pandemic and do Interrelations with Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Exist?]

Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Psychology & Methods, Jacobs University Bremen gGmbH, Deutschland.

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic requires numerous measures to protect against infection, such as contact reduction and adherence to hygiene and social distancing rules. The former leads to mental disorders (possibly requiring treatment) due to social isolation, the latter require adaptation in the implementation of medical therapies. With overall limited therapy capacities, the use of digital (health) applications can be of particular importance in the therapy of chronic and psychological diseases in particular. Read More

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September 2021

Practicability of a Virtual Consultation to Evaluate the Shoulder Joint.

Z Orthop Unfall 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Clinic for Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Bonn, Germany.

Objective: In the course of the corona pandemic, resource conservation and the protection of further infections have made it necessary to break new ground in the organisation of orthopaedic and trauma surgery consultations. One solution is consistent digitisation and the offer of video consultation hours. In this study, non-contact examination of patients with shoulder disorders is described and critically examined. Read More

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September 2021

In brief: Oritavancin (Kimyrsa) for skin and skin structure infections.

Authors:

Med Lett Drugs Ther 2021 Aug 23;63(1631):e1-e2. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

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Comparison of Outcomes between Percutaneous and Surgical Placement of Peritoneal Dialysis Catheters in Uremic Patients: A Meta-Analysis.

Blood Purif 2021 Sep 20:1-17. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Division of Nephrology, Kidney Institute of CPLA, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Background: The optimal technique for inserting peritoneal dialysis catheters in uremic patients remains debated. This meta-analysis aimed to summarize the current evidence evaluating the efficacy and safety of percutaneous insertion methods compared to surgical methods.

Method: A literature search was performed in the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic Preparation and Response on Essential Health Services in Primary and Tertiary Healthcare Settings of Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of Dermatology, Amsterdam Institute for Infection and Immunity (AI&I), Location Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Countries like Ethiopia have had to make difficult decisions to balance between the demands of the COVID-19 pandemic and maintaining the essential health service delivery. We assessed the effect of preventive COVID-19 measures on essential healthcare services in selected health facilities of Ethiopia. In a comparative cross-sectional study, we analyzed and compared data from seven health facilities over two periods: the pre-COVID-19 period before the first reported COVID-19 case in the country and during the COVID-19 period. Read More

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September 2021

Identification of a Novel Antigen for Serological Diagnosis of Scrub Typhus.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Research Center for Bioconvergence Analysis, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongju, Republic of Korea.

Scrub typhus is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, which is widely distributed in northern, southern, and eastern Asia. Early diagnosis is essential because the average case fatality rate is usually >10% but can be as high as 45% if antimicrobial treatment is delayed. Although an O. Read More

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September 2021

Seroepidemiology of TORCH Infections among 1.7 Million Women of Childbearing Age in Rural China: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Capital Medical University Affiliated Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Beijing, China.

We conducted a national seroepidemiological study of the TORCH (Toxoplasma gondii [TOX], Rubella [RV], Cytomegalovirus [CMV], and Herpes Simplex Virus) in rural women to provided updated baseline data on TORCH prevalence. A total of 1,541,329 women of childbearing age were gathered from 2010 to 2012 in China. Of these, 858,072 women were tested positive for anti-RV IgG antibodies, 602,251 women were tested positive for anti-CMV antibodies, and 40,055 women were tested positive for anti-TOX antibodies. Read More

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September 2021

Case Report: Invasive Sinusitis due to Sporothrix Brasiliensis in a Renal Transplant Recipient.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Hospital Nove de Julho, São Paulo, Brazil.

Sporotrichosis is usually a subcutaneous infection caused by thermodimorphic fungi of the genus Sporothrix. The disease occurs worldwide, but endemic areas are located in tropical and subtropical regions. The epidemiology of sporotrichosis in Brazil is peculiar because of the cat's entry in the chain of transmission of this mycosis, associated with Sporothrix brasiliensis, the most virulent species in the genus. Read More

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September 2021

Case Report: A Human Case of Onchocerca lupi Mimicking Nodular Scleritis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Bari, Italy.

We report a case of human ocular onchocerciasis by zoonotic Onchocerca lupi presenting as nodular scleritis. Molecular analyses were used to confirm diagnosis at species level. In addition to few existing reports of human infection by O. Read More

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September 2021

A Machine Learning Model for Evaluating Imported Disease Screening Strategies in Immigrant Populations.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias (HUCA), Oviedo, Spain.

Given the high prevalence of imported diseases in immigrant populations, it has postulated the need to establish screening programs that allow their early diagnosis and treatment. We present a mathematical model based on machine learning methodologies to contribute to the design of screening programs in this population. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional screening program of imported diseases in all immigrant patients who attended the Tropical Medicine Unit between January 2009 and December 2016. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of antibiotic treatment on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae detection and infectious potential.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Aug 30;262:109222. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA; Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) causes significant economic losses in the swine industry. Antibiotics with activity against Mycoplasma spp. Read More

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Formation of the octadecylphosphonic acid layer on the surface of Ti6Al4V ELI titanium alloy and analysis using Raman spectroscopy.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Sep 10;265:120368. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Institute of Materials Research and Quantum Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Poland.

Increasing life expectancy, a sedentary lifestyle and bone diseases all contribute to an increasing demand for endoprostheses. Currently, the service life of a knee prosthesis is 10-17 years on average, depending on the patient's weight and activity. In addition, the most common reasons for revision operations after implantation are prosthesis loosening and infections resulting from the lack of implant-bone connection. Read More

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September 2021

Functional role of galectin-9 in directing human innate immune reactions to Gram-negative bacteria and T cell apoptosis.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Sep 17;100:108155. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Medway School of Pharmacy, Universities of Kent and Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Galectin-9 is a member of the galectin family of proteins, which were first identified to specifically bind to carbohydrates containing β-galactosides. Galectin-9 is conserved through evolution and recent evidence demonstrated its involvement in innate immune reactions to bacterial infections as well as the suppression of cytotoxic immune responses of T and natural killer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such differential immunological functions of galectin-9 remain largely unknown. Read More

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September 2021

TRAP transporter TakP: a key player in the resistance against selenite-induced oxidative stress in Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

Microbiol Res 2021 Aug 8;252:126828. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Institute of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Microbiology, University of Greifswald, Germany; Institute of infection medicine, Kiel University, Germany. Electronic address:

Almost one-third of all proteins require metal ions as an essential component in key biological processes and approximately half of all enzymes are associated with one or more metal ions. The naturally occurring selenium is very toxic at higher levels, but few bacteria can reduce it into the less toxic insoluble elemental selenium. Selenium is required for the synthesis of selenocysteine, an essential residue involved in the active sites of various enzymes. Read More

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Infection and autoinflammation in inborn errors of immunity: brothers in arms.

Curr Opin Immunol 2021 Sep 17;72:331-339. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Pediatrics, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Laboratory for Inborn Errors of Immunity, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

The binary view of inborn errors of immunity classified as either autoinflammatory conditions or primary immunodeficiency in the strict sense, that is, increased susceptibility to infection is challenged by the description of recent inborn errors of immunity (IEI) triggers leading to activation and disruption of cell death pathways, play a major part in the pathophysiology of infection and autoinflammation. In addition, molecules with a double role in the extracellular versus intracellular milieu add to the complexity. In all, in-depth study of human inborn errors of immunity will continue to instruct us on fundamental immunology and lead to novel therapeutic targets and approaches that can be used in other monogenic and polygenic/complex immune disorders. Read More

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September 2021

Enzyme inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy to treat COVID-19 infection.

Bioorg Med Chem 2021 Sep 14;48:116389. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

School of Life Sciences, Pharmacy and Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Kingston-upon-Thames KT1 2EE, UK. Electronic address:

With the emergence of the third infectious and virulent coronavirus within the past two decades, it has become increasingly important to understand how the virus causes infection. This will inform therapeutic strategies that target vulnerabilities in the vital processes through which the virus enters cells. This review identifies enzymes responsible for SARS-CoV-2 viral entry into cells (ACE2, Furin, TMPRSS2) and discuss compounds proposed to inhibit viral entry with the end goal of treating COVID-19 infection. Read More

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September 2021

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in a randomized controlled trial of a combination of antiviral and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory treatment in a bovine model of respiratory syncytial virus infection.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2021 Sep 3;241:110323. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, 1 Shields Ave, Davis, CA, United States.

The function of neutrophils in viral infections has long been established and studies have been done to examine the role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Further study and analysis of NETs in viral infections may reveal a new therapeutic target. Administration of ibuprofen and GS-561937, a fusion protein inhibitor (FPI), have been experimentally shown to decrease the severity of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection. Read More

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September 2021

Unexpected death in a young child associated with anomalous aortic origin of the left main coronary artery without physical exertion: A case of an anomalous coronary artery with highly abundant elastic fibers.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 Sep 15;53:101965. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, Tokyo, Japan.

Sudden death due to anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery is far less common among young children in the absence of exercise stress. This report describes the case of a 2-year-old boy with a lower respiratory tract infection who suffered sudden cardiac arrest in his bed at home. The autopsy revealed that the left coronary artery (LCA) originated from the right sinus of Valsalva with an acute angle takeoff and traveled between the aorta and the pulmonary trunk (an interarterial course). Read More

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September 2021

Age-related viral load and severity of systemic pathological lesions in acute naturally occurring African swine fever virus genotype II infections.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Sep 13;79:101709. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

African swine fever (ASF) causes a contagious hemorrhagic disease in all ages of pigs without sex predilections. The objective of this study was to determine the age-related viral loads and severity of systemic pathological lesions among three different swine group ages (weaned pigs, fattening pigs, and sows) during a recent outbreak of acute ASF in Vietnam. Age-related viral loads were determined in 5 major organs (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, and lymph node) by immunohistochemistry as well as in the blood by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Read More

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September 2021

Accumulation of host cell genetic errors following high-risk HPV infection.

Authors:
Tim R Fenton

Curr Opin Virol 2021 Sep 17;51:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

School of Biosciences, Division of Natural Sciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK; School of Cancer Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. Electronic address:

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September 2021

Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies as bioindicators of environmental SARS-CoV-2 occurrence.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 14;805:150327. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

CREA Research Centre fo Agriculture and Environment, Via di Saliceto 80, 40128 Bologna, Italy.

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Airflows sustain the infection spread, and in densely urbanized areas airborne particulate matters (PMs) are deemed to aggravate the viral transmission. Apis mellifera colonies are used as bioindicators as they allow environmental sampling of different nature, PMs included. Read More

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September 2021

Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma associated with Equus caballus papillomavirus type 2 infection in a Japanese mare.

Tumour Virus Res 2021 Sep 17:200226. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Division of Infection Control and Disease Prevention, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan. Electronic address:

Equus caballus papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) infection has been associated with genital squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development in horses. However, very few reports on EcPV2-associated disease in Asia exist. Our study characterizes pathological and virological features of an EcPV2-associated vulvar SCC from a Japanese mare. Read More

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September 2021

Longitudinal clinico-serological analysis of anti-nucleocapsid and anti-receptor binding domain of spike protein antibodies against SARS-CoV-2.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, Maharashtra, Pin 411021, India. Electronic address:

Objectives: Monitoring the antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and its correlation to clinical spectrum of disease is critical in understanding the disease progression and protection against re-infection. We assessed the nucleocapsid (N) and receptor-binding-domain of spike (SRBD) protein specific IgG and neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses in COVID-19 patients up to 8 months and its correlation with diverse disease spectrum.

Methods: During the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, from 284 COVID-19 patients, 608 samples were collected up to 8 months post infection. Read More

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September 2021